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ARBNDEENIDTRUR
وَإِذْ
And when
أَخَذْنَا
We took
مِيثَٰقَكُمْ
your covenant,
لَا
"Not
تَسْفِكُونَ
will you shed
دِمَآءَكُمْ
your blood
وَلَا
and not
تُخْرِجُونَ
(will) evict
أَنفُسَكُم
yourselves
مِّن
from
دِيَٰرِكُمْ
your homes,"
ثُمَّ
then
أَقْرَرْتُمْ
you ratified
وَأَنتُمْ
while you
تَشْهَدُونَ
(were) witnessing.

Wa iz akhaznaa meesaa qakum laa tasfikoona dimaaa'akum wa laa tukrijoona anfusakum min diyaarikum summa aqrartum wa antum tashhadoon

Sahih International:

And [recall] when We took your covenant, [saying], "Do not shed each other's blood or evict one another from your homes." Then you acknowledged [this] while you were witnessing.

Ahmed Ali

And remember, when We made a covenant with you whereby you agreed you will neither shed blood among you nor turn your people out of their homes, you promised, and are witness to it too.

Ahmed Raza Khan

And when We took a covenant from you that, “Do not shed the blood of your own people nor turn out your own people from your colonies”; you then acknowledged it and you are witnesses.

Ali Ünal

And (remember also) when We took a promise from you: you shall not shed blood among yourselves, and shall not expel one another from your habitations. You confirmed it, and you yourselves were (and still must be) witnesses to it.

Amatul Rahman Omar

And (recall) when We took a covenant from you, `You shall not shed each other´s blood and you shall not expel your people from your homes.´ Then you confirmed it (promising to abide by it) and you witnessed (the covenant).

A. J. Arberry

And when We took compact with you: 'You shall not shed your own blood, neither expel your own from your habitations'; then you confirmed it and yourselves bore witness.

Abdul Majid Daryabadi

And recall what time We took a bond with you: saying: ye shall not shed your blood, nor drive one anot her from your homes; then ye ratified it and ye Were witnesses

Faridul Haque

And when We took a covenant from you that, "Do not shed the blood of your own people nor turn out your own people from your colonies"; you then acknowledged it and you are witnesses.

Hamid S. Aziz

And remember when We took a covenant from you, "shed not your kinsman´s blood, nor turn your kinsmen out of their homes:" then did you confirm it and were witnesses thereto.

Hilali & Khan

And (remember) when We took your covenant (saying): Shed not the blood of your people, nor turn out your own people from their dwellings. Then, (this) you ratified and (to this) you bear witness.

Talal Itani

And We made a covenant with you: “You shall not shed the blood of your own, nor shall you evict your own from your homes.” You agreed, and were all witnesses.

English Literal

And when We took your promise/covenant. "Do not shed your blood and do not bring yourselves out from your homes/countries , then you acknowledged/accepted and you (are) witnessing/testifying.

Abul Ala Maududi

Remember also that We made another solemn covenant with you: you shall not shed blood among yourselves nor expel one another from your homes. And you confirmed it and you are a witness to it.

Maulana Mohammad Ali

And when We made a covenant with you: You shall not shed your blood, nor turn your people out of your cities; then you promised and you bear witness.

Safi-ur-Rahman al-Mubarakpuri

And (remember) when We took your covenant (saying): Shed not the blood of your (people), nor turn out your own people from their dwellings. Then, (this) you ratified and (to this) you bore witness.

Mohammed Marmaduke William Pickthall

And when We made with you a covenant (saying): Shed not the blood of your people nor turn (a party of) your people out of your dwellings. Then ye ratified (Our covenant) and ye were witnesses (thereto).

Ali Quli Qarai

And when We took a pledge from you, [saying]: ‘You shall not shed your [own people’s] blood, and you shall not expel your folks from your homes,’ you pledged, and you testify [to this pledge of your ancestors].

Qaribullah & Darwish

And when We made a covenant with you, that you shall not shed your blood or turn yourselves out of your dwellings, to this you consented and bore witness.

Muhammad Sarwar

We made a covenant with you that you should not shed each other's blood or expel each other from your homeland. You accepted and bore witness to this covenant,

Mohammad Habib Shakir

And when We made a covenant with you: You shall not shed your blood and you shall not turn your people out of your cities; then you gave a promise while you witnessed.

Wahiduddin Khan

When We made a covenant with you, We said, "You shall not shed each other's blood, nor turn your people out of their homes." You consented to this and bore witness.

Abdullah Yusuf Ali

And remember We took your covenant (to this effect); Shed no blood amongst you, nor turn out your own people from your homes; and this ye solemnly ratified, and to this ye can bear witness.

Tafsir jalalayn

And when We made a covenant with you, and We said; `You shall not shed your own blood, spilling it by slaying one another; neither expel your own from your habitations'; let no one of you expel the other from his house; then you confirmed it, that is, you accepted this covenant, and you bore witness, upon your own souls.

Tafseer Ibn Kathir

The Terms of the Covenant and their Breach of It

Allah says;

وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَكُمْ لَا تَسْفِكُونَ دِمَاءكُمْ وَلَا تُخْرِجُونَ أَنفُسَكُم مِّن دِيَارِكُمْ

And (remember) when We took your covenant (saying);Shed not the blood of your (people), nor turn out your own people from their dwellings.

Allah criticized the Jews who lived in Al-Madinah during the time of the Messenger of Allah. They used to suffer, because of the armed conflicts between the tribes of Al-Madinah, Aws and Khazraj.

Before Islam, the Aws and Khazraj worshipped idols, and many battles took place between them.

There were three Jewish tribes in Al-Madinah at that time, Banu Qaynuqa and Banu An-Nadir, the allies of the Khazraj, and Banu Qurayzah, who used to be the allies of the Aws. When war erupted between Aws and Khazraj, their Jewish allies would assist them.

The Jew would kill his Arab enemy, and sometimes they also killed Jews who were the allies of the other Arab tribe, although the Jews were prohibited from killing each other according to clear religious texts in their Books. They would also drive each other from their homes and loot whatever furniture and money they could. When the war ended, the victorious Jews would release the prisoners from the defeated party, according to the rulings of the Tawrah.

This is why Allah said,
أَفَتُوْمِنُونَ بِبَعْضِ الْكِتَابِ وَتَكْفُرُونَ بِبَعْضٍ
(Then do you believe in a part of the Scripture and reject the rest), (2;85).

Allah said,

وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَكُمْ لَا تَسْفِكُونَ دِمَاءكُمْ وَلَا تُخْرِجُونَ أَنفُسَكُم مِّن دِيَارِكُمْ

And (remember) when We took your covenant (saying);Shed not the blood of your (people), nor turn out your own people from their dwellings.

meaning, "Do not kill each other, nor expel one another from their homes, nor participate in fighting against them."

Allah mentioned the word `your own' here, just as He said in another Ayah.

فَتُوبُواْ إِلَى بَارِيِكُمْ فَاقْتُلُواْ أَنفُسَكُمْ ذَلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ عِندَ بَارِيِكُمْ

So turn in repentance to your Creator and kill yourselves, that will be better for you with your Creator), (2;54),

because the followers of one religion are just like one soul.

Also, the Messenger of Allah said,

مَثَلُ الْمُوْمِنِينَ فِي تَوَادِّهِمْ وَتَرَاحُمِهِمْ وَتَوَاصُلِهِمْ بِمَنْزِلَةِ الْجَسَدِ الْوَاحِدِ إِذَا اشْتَكى مِنْهُ عُضْوٌ تَدَاعَى لَهُ سَايِرُ الْجَسَدِ بِالْحُمَّى وَالسَّهَر

The example of the believers in their kindness, mercy and sympathy to each other is the example of one body, when an organ of it falls ill, the rest of the body rushes to its aid in fever and sleeplessness.

Allah's statement,

ثُمَّ أَقْرَرْتُمْ وَأَنتُمْ تَشْهَدُونَ



Then, (this) you ratified and (to this) you bore witness.

means, "You testified that you know of the covenant and that you were witnesses to it."

Then Allah says