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yāayyuhā
يَٰٓأَيُّهَا
O you
alladhīna
ٱلَّذِينَ
who
āmanū
ءَامَنُوٓا۟
believe!
idhā
إِذَا
When
qum'tum
قُمْتُمْ
you stand up
ilā
إِلَى
for
l-ṣalati
ٱلصَّلَوٰةِ
the prayer,
fa-igh'silū
فَٱغْسِلُوا۟
then wash
wujūhakum
وُجُوهَكُمْ
your faces
wa-aydiyakum
وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ
and your hands
ilā
إِلَى
for
l-marāfiqi
ٱلْمَرَافِقِ
the elbows
wa-im'saḥū
وَٱمْسَحُوا۟
and wipe
biruūsikum
بِرُءُوسِكُمْ
your heads
wa-arjulakum
وَأَرْجُلَكُمْ
and your feet
ilā
إِلَى
for
l-kaʿbayni
ٱلْكَعْبَيْنِۚ
the ankles.
wa-in
وَإِن
But if
kuntum
كُنتُمْ
you are
junuban
جُنُبًا
(in) a state of ceremonial impurity
fa-iṭṭahharū
فَٱطَّهَّرُوا۟ۚ
then purify yourselves.
wa-in
وَإِن
But if
kuntum
كُنتُم
you are
marḍā
مَّرْضَىٰٓ
ill
aw
أَوْ
or
ʿalā
عَلَىٰ
on
safarin
سَفَرٍ
a journey
aw
أَوْ
or
jāa
جَآءَ
has come
aḥadun
أَحَدٌ
anyone
minkum
مِّنكُم
of you
mina
مِّنَ
from
l-ghāiṭi
ٱلْغَآئِطِ
the toilet
aw
أَوْ
or
lāmastumu
لَٰمَسْتُمُ
has (had) contact
l-nisāa
ٱلنِّسَآءَ
(with) the women
falam
فَلَمْ
and not
tajidū
تَجِدُوا۟
you find
māan
مَآءً
water,
fatayammamū
فَتَيَمَّمُوا۟
then do tayyammum
ṣaʿīdan
صَعِيدًا
(with) earth
ṭayyiban
طَيِّبًا
clean,
fa-im'saḥū
فَٱمْسَحُوا۟
then wipe
biwujūhikum
بِوُجُوهِكُمْ
your faces
wa-aydīkum
وَأَيْدِيكُم
and your hands
min'hu
مِّنْهُۚ
with it.
مَا
Does not
yurīdu
يُرِيدُ
intend
l-lahu
ٱللَّهُ
Allah
liyajʿala
لِيَجْعَلَ
to make
ʿalaykum
عَلَيْكُم
for you
min
مِّنْ
any
ḥarajin
حَرَجٍ
difficulty
walākin
وَلَٰكِن
but
yurīdu
يُرِيدُ
intend
liyuṭahhirakum
لِيُطَهِّرَكُمْ
to purify you
waliyutimma
وَلِيُتِمَّ
and to complete
niʿ'matahu
نِعْمَتَهُۥ
His Favor
ʿalaykum
عَلَيْكُمْ
for you
laʿallakum
لَعَلَّكُمْ
so that you may
tashkurūna
تَشْكُرُونَ
(be) grateful.

Yaaa aiyuhal lazeena aamanoo izaa qumtum ilas Salaati faghsiloo wujoohakum wa Aidiyakum ilal maraafiqi wamsahoo biru'oosikum wa arjulakum ilal ka'bayn; wa in kuntum junuban fattahharoo; wain kuntum mardaaa aw'alaa safarin aw jaaa'a ahadum minkum minal ghaaa'iti aw laamastumunnisaaa'a falam tajidoo maaa'an fatayammamoo sa'eedan taiyiban famsahoo biwujoohikum wa aideekum minh; ma yureedul laahu liyaj'ala 'alaikum min harajinw wa laakidy yureedu liyutahhirakum wa liyutimma m'matahoo 'alaikum la'allakum tashkuroon

Sahih International:

O you who have believed, when you rise to [perform] prayer, wash your faces and your forearms to the elbows and wipe over your heads and wash your feet to the ankles. And if you are in a state of janabah, then purify yourselves. But if you are ill or on a journey or one of you comes from the place of relieving himself or you have contacted women and do not find water, then seek clean earth and wipe over your faces and hands with it. Allah does not intend to make difficulty for you, but He intends to purify you and complete His favor upon you that you may be grateful.

1 A. J. Arberry

O believers, when you stand up to pray wash your faces, and your hands up to the elbows, and wipe your heads, and your feet up to the ankles. If you are defiled, purify yourselves; but if you are sick or on a journey, or if any of you comes from the privy, or you have touched women, and you can find no water, then have recourse to wholesome dust and wipe your faces and your hands with it. God does not desire to make any impediment for you; but He desires to purify you, and that He may complete His blessing upon you; haply you will be thankful.

2 Abdul Haleem

You who believe, when you are about to pray, wash your faces and your hands up to the elbows, wipe your heads, wash your feet up to the ankles and, if required, wash your whole body. If any of you is sick or on a journey, or has just relieved himself, or had intimate contact with a woman, and can find no water, then take some clean sand and wipe your face and hands with it. God does not wish to place any burden on you: He only wishes to cleanse you and perfect His blessing on you, so that you may be thankful.

3 Abdul Majid Daryabadi

O ye who believe! when ye stand up for the prayer wash your faces and your hands unto the elbows, and wipe your heads, and wash your feet unto the ankles. And if ye be polluted, then purify yourselves And if ye be ailing or on a journey or one of you cometh from the privy or ye have touched women, and ye find not water, then betake yourselves to clean earth and wipe your faces and hands therewith. Allah intendeth not to lay upon you a hardship, but intendeth to purify you and to complete His favour upon you, that haply ye may return thanks.

4 Abdullah Yusuf Ali

O ye who believe! when ye prepare for prayer, wash your faces, and your hands (and arms) to the elbows; Rub your heads (with water); and (wash) your feet to the ankles. If ye are in a state of ceremonial impurity, bathe your whole body. But if ye are ill, or on a journey, or one of you cometh from offices of nature, or ye have been in contact with women, and ye find no water, then take for yourselves clean sand or earth, and rub therewith your faces and hands, Allah doth not wish to place you in a difficulty, but to make you clean, and to complete his favour to you, that ye may be grateful.

5 Abul Ala Maududi

Believers! When you stand up for Prayer wash your faces and your hands up to the elbows, and wipe your heads, and wash your feet up to the ankles. And if you are in the state of ritual impurity, purify yourselves (by taking a bath). But if you are either ill, travelling, have satisfied a want of nature or have had contact with women and find no water then have recourse to clean earth and wipe your faces and your hands therewith. Allah does not want to lay any hardship upon you; rather He wants to purify you and complete His favours upon you so that you may give thanks.

6 Ahmed Ali

O believers, when you stand up for the service of prayer wash your faces and hands up to elbows, and also wipe your heads, and wash your feet up to the ankles. If you are in a state of seminal pollution, then bathe and purify yourself well. But in case you are ill or are travelling, or you have satisfied the call of nature, or have slept with a woman, and you cannot find water, then take wholesome dust and pass it over your face and your hands, for God does not wish to impose any hardship on you. He wishes to purify you, and grace you with His favours in full so that you may be grateful.

7 Ahmed Raza Khan

O People who Believe! When you wish to stand up for prayer, wash your faces, and your hands up to the elbows, and pass wet palms over your heads and wash your feet up to the ankles; and if you need a bath, clean yourselves thoroughly; and if you are sick or on a journey, or one of you returns from answering the call of nature, or you have cohabited with women, and you do not find water, then cleanse (yourself) with clean soil – therefore stroke your soiled palms over your faces and your hands with it; Allah does not will to place you in hardship, but He wills to fully purify you and complete His favour upon you, so that you may be grateful.

8 Ali Quli Qarai

O you who have faith! When you stand up for prayer, wash your faces and your hands up to the elbows, and wipe a part of your heads and your feet, up to the ankles. If you are junub, purify yourselves. But if you are sick, or on a journey, or any of you has come from the toilet, or you have touched women, and you cannot find water, then make tayammum with clean ground and wipe a part of your faces and your hands with it. Allah does not desire to put you to hardship, but He desires to purify you, and to complete His blessing upon you so that you may give thanks.

9 Ali Ünal

O you who believe! When you rise up for the Prayer, (if you have no ablution) wash your faces and your hands up to (and including) the elbows, and lightly rub your heads (with water) and (wash) your feet up to (and including) the ankles. And if you are in the state of major ritual impurity (requiring total ablution), purify yourselves (by taking a bath). But if you are ill, or on a journey, or if any of you has just satisfied a want of nature, or you have had contact with women, and can find no water, then betake yourselves to pure earth, passing with it lightly over your face and your hands (and forearms up to and including the elbows). God does not will to impose any hardship upon you, but wills to purify you (of any kind of material and spiritual filth), and to complete His favor upon you, so that you may give thanks (from the heart and in speech, and in action by fulfilling His commandments).

10 Amatul Rahman Omar

O you who believe! when you get up for Prayer (perform the ablution, so as to) wash your faces and your hands upto the elbows, and pass your (wet) hands over your heads (for mashah), and (wash) your feet upto the ankles. And if you are under an obligation to perform a bath, then wash yourselves thoroughly clean by a bath. But if you have been taken ill or on a journey (while under obligation to take a bath) or one of you comes from the privy, or you have had (sexual) contact with women and you do not find water, then have recourse to clean pure dust and wipe your faces and your hands with it (as Tayammum). Allâh does not intend to impose any impediments on you, but He intends to purify you (internally and externally) and complete His blessings upon you so that you may give (Him) thanks.

11 English Literal

You, you those who believed, if you started/got up to the prayers, so wash with water your faces, and your hands to the elbows, and rub/wipe with your heads and your feet to the two joints/ankle bones, and if you wereimpure/unclean , so be purified/cleaned , and if you were sick/diseased or on (a) journey/trip/voyage or one of you came from the safe hidden depression in the ground (toilet), or you touched and felt repeatedly the women, so you did not find water, so wipe your hands and face with dust good/pure dust, so rub/wipe with your faces and your hands from it, God does not want to make/put on you strain/hardship, and but He wants to purify you mentally and physically and to complete (E) His blessing on you, maybe/perhaps you thank/be grateful.

12 Faridul Haque

O People who Believe! When you wish to stand up for prayer, wash your faces, and your hands up to the elbows, and pass wet palms over your heads and wash your feet up to the ankles; and if you need a bath, clean yourselves thoroughly; and if you are sick or on a journey, or one of you returns from answering the call of nature, or you have cohabited with women, and you do not find water, then cleanse (yourself) with clean soil - therefore stroke your soiled palms over your faces and your hands with it; Allah does not will to place you in hardship, but He wills to fully purify you and complete His favour upon you, so that you may be grateful.

13 Hamid S. Aziz

Remember the favour of Allah to you and His covenant which He made with you, when you said, "We hear and we obey;" and fear (respect and keep your duty to) Allah. Verily, Allah knows well the secrets in your breasts.

14 Hilali & Khan

O you who believe! When you intend to offer As-Salat (the prayer), wash your faces and your hands (forearms) up to the elbows, rub (by passing wet hands over) your heads, and (wash) your feet up to ankles. If you are in a state of Janaba (i.e. had a sexual discharge), purify yourself (bathe your whole body). But if you are ill or on a journey or any of you comes from answering the call of nature, or you have been in contact with women (i.e. sexual intercourse) and you find no water, then perform Tayammum with clean earth and rub therewith your faces and hands. Allah does not want to place you in difficulty, but He wants to purify you, and to complete His Favour on you that you may be thankful.

15 Maulana Mohammad Ali

This day (all) good things are made lawful for you. And the food of those who have been given the Book is lawful for you and your food is lawful for them. And so are the chaste from among the believing women and the chaste from among those who have been given the Book before you, when you give them their dowries, taking (them) in marriage, not fornicating nor taking them for paramours in secret. And whoever denies faith, his work indeed is vain; and in the Hereafter he is of the losers.

16 Mohammad Habib Shakir

O you who believe! when you rise up to prayer, wash your faces and your hands as far as the elbows, and wipe your heads and your feet to the ankles; and if you are under an obligation to perform a total ablution, then wash (yourselves) and if you are sick or on a journey, or one of you come from the privy, or you have touched the women, and you cannot find water, betake yourselves to pure earth and wipe your faces and your hands therewith, Allah does not desire to put on you any difficulty, but He wishes to purify you and that He may complete His favor on you, so that you may be grateful.

17 Mohammed Marmaduke William Pickthall

O ye who believe! When ye rise up for prayer, wash you faces, and your hands up to the elbows, and lightly rub your heads and (wash) your feet up to the ankles. And if ye are unclean, purify yourselves. And if ye are sick or on a journey, or one of you cometh from the closet, or ye have had contact with women, and ye find not water, then go to clean, high ground and rub your faces and your hands with some of it. Allah would not place a burden on you, but He would purify you and would perfect His grace upon you, that ye may give thanks.

18 Muhammad Sarwar

Believers, when you are about to pray, wash your face and your hands along with the elbows and wipe your head and your feet to the ankles. If you experience a seminal discharge, manage to take (the required) bath. If you are sick, or on a journey, or have just defecated, or have had intercourse with women and cannot find any water, perform a tayammum by: touching clean natural earth with both palms and wiping (the upper part) of your face and (the back of) your hands. God does not want you to suffer hardship. He wants you to be purified. He wants to complete His favors to you so that perhaps you would give Him thanks.

19 Qaribullah & Darwish

Believers, when you rise to pray wash your faces and your hands as far as the elbow, and wipe your heads and (wash) your feet to the ankle. If you are in a state of impurity, cleanse yourselves. But if you are sick or traveling, or, if when you have just relieved yourselves or had intercourse with women and you cannot find water, touch the clean surface of the earth and rub your hands and faces with it. Allah does not wish to burden you, He seeks only to purify you and to complete His Favor to you in order that you may thank.

20 Safi-ur-Rahman al-Mubarakpuri

O you who believe! When you stand (intend) to offer the Salah (the prayer), then wash your faces and your hands (forearms) up to the elbows, rub (by passing wet hands over) your heads, and (wash) your feet up to the ankles. If you are in a state of Janaba, purify yourselves (bathe your whole body). But if you are ill or on a journey or any of you comes from the Gha'it (toilet) or you have touched women and you find no water, then perform Tayammum with clean earth and rub therewith your faces and hands. Allah does not want to place you in difficulty, but He wants to purify you, and to complete His Favor to you that you may be thankful.

21 Wahiduddin Khan

Believers, when you rise to pray, wash your faces and your hands up to the elbows and wipe your heads and [wash] your feet up to the ankles. If you are in a state of impurity, take a full bath. But if you are sick or on a journey or when you have just relieved yourselves, or you have consorted with your spouses, you can find no water, take some clean sand and rub your faces and hands with it. God does not wish to place any burden on you; He only wishes to purify you and perfect His favour to you, in order that you may be grateful.

22 Talal Itani

O you who believe! When you rise to pray, wash your faces and your hands and arms to the elbows, and wipe your heads, and your feet to the ankles. If you had intercourse, then purify yourselves. If you are ill, or travelling, or one of you returns from the toilet, or you had contact with women, and could not find water, then use some clean sand and wipe your faces and hands with it. God does not intend to burden you, but He intends to purify you, and to complete His blessing upon you, that you may be thankful.

23 Tafsir jalalayn

O you who believe, when you stand up, that is, when you intend to go, to pray, and you are in [a state of] ritual impurity, wash your faces, and your hands up to the elbows, that is, including them [the elbows], as is clarified in the Sunna; and wipe your heads (the b' in bi-ru'sikum is for `adherence'), that is to say, wipe over [the head] adhering [the hand] closely, without [excessive] water pouring over; the noun [ra's, `head'] is generic, and so the minimum required to fulfil [the stipulation] is acceptable, which is the wiping of some of the hair, as al-Shfi` asserts); and your feet (read wa-arjulakum in the accusative as a supplement to aydyakum; or wa-arjulikum in the genitive because of its adjacency to [the genitive] bi-ru'sikum), up to the ankles, that is, including them [the ankles], as is clarified in the Sunna, and they are the two protruding bones at the juncture of the legs and the feet. The interposing of the wiping of the head between [the mention of] the hands and the feet, which are washed, is intended to show the requirement of [a specific] order during the purification of these limbs, as al-Shfi` asserts. In addition, the requirement of making intention (niyya) in this [ablution], as in the other rituals of worship, is taken from the Sunna. If you are defiled, purify, wash, yourselves; but if you are sick, with an illness made worse by water, or on a journey, travelling, or if any of you comes from the privy, that is, [if] he has defecated, or you have touched women (as mentioned already in the verse in [srat] al-Nis' [Q. 4;43]), and you cannot find water, having made the effort to look for it, then head for, seek, wholesome dust, that is, clean earth, and wipe your faces and your hands, including the elbows, with it, using two strikes (the b' of bi-wujhikum, `your faces', denotes `adherence'; it is explained in the Sunna that the requirement here is for the wiping to encompass the whole of these two parts. God does not desire to make any hardship for you, any constraint, in the obligations He has imposed on you with regard to ablution, washing and purification with dust; but He desires to purify you, of filth and sins, and that He may perfect His grace upon you, through Islam, by explaining the laws of the religion; so that you might give thanks, for His graces.

24 Tafseer Ibn Kathir

The Order to Perform Wudu

Allah said,

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ امَنُواْ

O you who believe!

إِذَا قُمْتُمْ إِلَى الصَّلةِ

When you stand for (intend to offer) the Salah,

Allah commanded performing Wudu for the prayer. This is a command of obligation in the case of impurity, and in the case of purity, it is merely a recommendation.

It was said that in the beginning of Islam, Muslims had to perform Wudu for every prayer, but later on, this ruling was abrogated.

Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal recorded that Sulayman bin Buraydah said that his father said,

"The Prophet used to perform Wudu before every prayer. On the Day of Victory, he performed Wudu and wiped on his Khuffs and prayed the five prayers with one Wudu.

Umar said to him, `O Messenger of Allah! You did something new that you never did before.'

The Prophet said,

إني عمدا فعلته يا عمر

`I did that intentionally O Umar!"'

Muslim and the collectors of the Sunan also recorded this Hadith.

At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih."

Ibn Jarir recorded that Al-Fadl bin Al-Mubashshir said,

"I saw Jabir bin Abdullah perform several prayers with only one Wudu. When he would answer the call of nature, he performed Wudu and wiped the top of his Khuffs with his wet hand. I said, `O Abu Abdullah! Do you do this according to your own opinion?'

He said, `Rather, I saw the Prophet do the same thing. So, I do what I saw the Messenger of Allah doing."'

Ibn Majah also recorded this Hadith.

Ahmad recorded that;

Ubaydullah bin Abdullah bin Umar was asked; "Did you see Abdullah bin Umar perform Wudu for every prayer, whether he was in a state of purity or not,"

So he replied, "Asma bint Zayd bin Al-Khattab told him that Abdullah bin Hanzalah bin Abi `Amir Al-Ghasil told her that the Messenger of Allah was earlier commanded to perform Wudu for every prayer, whether he needed it or not. When that became hard on him, he was commanded to use Siwak for every prayer, and to perform Wudu when Hadath (impurity) occurs. Abdullah (Ibn Umar) thought that he was able to do that (perform Wudu for every prayer) and he kept doing that until he died."

Abu Dawud also collected this narration.

This practice by Ibn Umar demonstrates that it is encouraged, not obligatory, to perform Wudu for every prayer, and this is also the opinion of the majority of scholars.

Abu Dawud recorded that;

Abdullah bin Abbas said that when the Messenger of Allah once left the area where he answered the call of nature, he was brought something to eat. They said, "Should we bring you your water for Wudu?"

He said,

إنَّمَا أُمِرْتُ بِالْوُضُوءِ إِذَا قُمْتُ إِلَى الصَّلَة

I was commanded to perform Wudu when I stand up for prayer.

At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa'i also recorded this Hadith and At-Tirmidhi said, "This Hadith is Hasan."

Muslim recorded that Ibn Abbas said,

"We were with the Prophet when he went to answer the call of nature and when he came back, he was brought some food. He was asked, `O Messenger of Allah! Do you want to perform Wudu?"

He said,

لِمَ


أَأُصَلِي فَأَتَوَضَّأ

`Why? Am I about to pray so that I have to make Wudu."'
The Intention and Mentioning Allah's Name for Wudu

Allah said;

فاغْسِلُواْ وُجُوهَكُمْ

then wash your faces...,

The obligation for the intention before Wudu is proven by this Ayah;
إِذَا قُمْتُمْ إِلَى الصَّلةِ فاغْسِلُواْ وُجُوهَكُمْ
(When you stand (intend) to offer the Salah then wash your faces...). This is because it is just like the Arabs saying; "When you see the leader, then stand."

Meaning stand for him.

And the Two Sahihs recorded the Hadith,

الاَْعْمَالُ بِالنِّــيَّاتِ وَإِنَّمَا لِكُلِّ امْرِىءٍ مَانَوَى

Actions are judged by their intentions, and each person will earn what he intended.

It is also recommended before washing the face that one mentions Allah's Name for the Wudu.

A Hadith that was narrated by several Companions states that the Prophet said,

لَاا وُضْوءَ لِمَنْ لَمْ يَذْكُرِ اسْمَ اللهِ عَلَيْه

There is no Wudu for he who does not mention Allah's Name over it.

It is also recommended that one washes his hands before he puts his hands in the vessel of water, especially after one wakes up from sleep, for the Two Sahihs recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

إِذَا اسْتَيْقَظَ أَحَدُكُمْ مِنْ نَوْمِهِ فَلَ يُدْخِلْ يَدَهُ فِي الاِْنَاءِ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَغْسِلَهَا ثَلَثًا فَإِنَّ أَحَدَكُمْ لَا يَدْرِي أَيْنَ بَاتَتْ يَدُه

If one of you wakes up from his sleep, let him not put his hand in the pot until he washes it thrice, for one of you does not know where his hand spent the night.

The face according to the scholars of Fiqh starts where the hair line on the head starts, regardless of one's lack or abundance of hair, until the end of the cheeks and chin, and from ear to ear.
Passing the Fingers through the Beard While Performing Wudu

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Wa'il said,

"I saw Uthman when he was performing Wudu... When he washed his face, he passed his fingers through his beard three times. He said, `I saw the Messenger of Allah do what you saw me doing."'

At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah also recorded this Hadith.

At-Tirmidhi said "Hasan Sahih." while Al-Bukhari graded it Hasan.
How to Perform Wudu

Imam Ahmad recorded that;

Ibn Abbas once performed Wudu and took a handful of water and rinsed his mouth and nose with it. He took another handful of water and joined both hands and washed his face. He took another handful of water and washed his right hand, and another handful and washed his left hand with it. He next wiped his head. Next, he took a handful of water and sprinkled it on his right foot and washed it and took another handful of water and washed his left foot. When he finished, he said,

"This is how I saw the Messenger of Allah (performing Wudu)."

Al-Bukhari also recorded it.

Allah said,

وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ إِلَى الْمَرَافِقِ

and your hands (forearms) up to (Ila) the elbows...,

meaning, including the elbows.

Allah said in another Ayah (using Ila)

وَلَا تَأْكُلُواْ أَمْوَالَهُمْ إِلَى أَمْوَالِكُمْ إِنَّهُ كَانَ حُوبًا كَبِيرًا


And devour not their substance to (Ila) your substance (by adding or including it in your property). Surely, this is a great sin. (4;2)

It is recommended that those who perform Wudu should wash a part of the upper arm with the elbow.

Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

إِنَّ أُمَّتِي يُدْعَوْنَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ غُرًّا مُحَجَّلِينَ مِنْ اثَارِ الْوُضُوءِ فَمَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ مِنْكُمْ أَنْ يُطِيلَ غُرَّتَهُ فَلْيَفْعَل

On the Day of Resurrection, my Ummah will be called "those with the radiant appendages" because of the traces of Wudu. Therefore, whoever can increase the area of his radiance should do so.

Muslim recorded that Abu Hurayrah said,

"I heard my intimate friend (the Messenger) saying,

تَبْلُغُ الْحِلْيَةُ مِنَ الْمُوْمِنِ حَيْثُ يَبْلُغُ الْوَضُوء

The radiance of the believer reaches the areas that the water of (his) Wudu reaches."

Allah said next,

وَامْسَحُواْ بِرُوُوسِكُمْ

Rub your heads.

It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that;

Malik bin `Amr bin Yahya Al-Mazini said that his father said that a man said to Abdullah bin Zayd bin Asim, the grandfather of `Amr bin Yahya and one of the Companions of the Messenger,

"Can you show me how the Messenger of Allah used to perform Wudu?"'

Abdullah bin Zayd said, "Yes."

He then asked for a pot of water. He poured from it on his hands and washed them twice, then he rinsed his mouth and washed his nose (with water) thrice (by putting water in it and blowing it out). He washed his face thrice and after that he washed his forearms up to the elbows twice. He then passed his wet hands over his head from its front to its back and vice versa, beginning from the front and taking them to the back of his head up to the nape of the neck and then brought them to the front again from where he had started. He next washed his feet.

A similar description of the Wudu of the Messenger of Allah was performed by Ali in the Hadith by Abdu Khayr.

Abu Dawud recorded that;

Mu`awiyah and Al-Miqdad bin Ma`dikarib narrated similar descriptions of the Wudu of the Messenger of Allah.

These Hadiths indicate that it is necessary to wipe the entire head.

Abdur-Razzaq recorded that Humran bin Aban said,

"I saw Uthman bin Affan performing Wudu, and he poured water over his hands and washed them thrice, and then rinsed his mouth and washed his nose (by putting water in it, and then blowing it out). Then he washed his face thrice, and then his right forearm up to the elbows thrice, and washed the left forearm thrice. Then he passed his wet hands over his head, then he washed his right foot thrice, and next his left foot thrice. After that Uthman said, `I saw the Prophet performing Wudu like this, and said,

مَنْ تَوَضَّأَ نَحْوَ وُضُويِي هَذَا ثُمَّ صَلَّى رَكْعَتَيْنِ لَا يُحَدِّثُ فِيهِمَا نَفْسَهُ غُفِرَ لَهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِنْ ذَنْبِه

If anyone performs Wudu like that of mine and offers a two-Rak`ah prayer during which he does not think of anything else, then his past sins will be forgiven."'

Al-Bukhari and Muslim also recorded this Hadith in the Two Sahihs.

In his Sunan, Abu Dawud also recorded it from Uthman, under the description of Wudu, and in it, that he wiped his head one time.
The Necessity of Washing the Feet

Allah said,

وَأَرْجُلَكُمْ إِلَى الْكَعْبَينِ

and your feet up to ankles.

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn Abbas stated that;

the Ayah refers to washing (the feet).

Abdullah bin Mas`ud, Urwah, Ata, Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Mujahid, Ibrahim, Ad-Dahhak, As-Suddi, Muqatil bin Hayyan, Az-Zuhri and Ibrahim At-Taymi said similarly.

This clearly indicates the necessity of washing the feet, just as the Salaf have said, and not only wiping over the top of the bare foot.
The Hadiths that Indicate the Necessity of Washing the Feet

We mentioned the Hadiths by the two Leaders of the Faithful, Uthman and Ali, and also by Ibn Abbas, Mu`awiyah, Abdullah bin Zayd bin Asim and Al-Miqdad bin Ma`dikarib, that the Messenger of Allah washed his feet for Wudu, either once, twice or thrice.

It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that Abdullah bin `Amr said,

"The Messenger of Allah was once late during a trip we were taking, and he caught up with us when the time remaining for the Asr prayer was short. We were still performing Wudu (in a rush) and we were wiping our feet. He shouted at the top of his voice,

أَسْبِغُوا الْوُضُوءَ وَيْلٌ لِلَْعْقَابِ مِنَ النَّار

Perform Wudu thoroughly. Save your heels from the Fire."

The same narration was also collected in the Two Sahihs from Abu Hurayrah.

Muslim recorded that Aishah said that the Prophet said,

أَسْبِغُوا الْوُضُوءَ وَيْلٌ لِلَْعْقَابِ مِنَ النَّار

Perform Wudu thoroughly. Save your heels from the Fire.

Abdullah bin Al-Harith bin Jaz said that he heard the Messenger of Allah saying,

وَيْلٌ لِلَْعْقَابِ وَبُطُونِ الاَْقْدَامِ مِنَ النَّار

Save your heels and the bottom of the feet from the Fire.

It was recorded by Al-Bayhaqi and Al-Hakim, and this chain is Sahih.

Muslim recorded that Umar bin Al-Khattab said that;

a man once performed Wudu and left a dry spot the size of a fingernail on his foot. The Prophet saw that and he said to him,

ارْجِعْ فَأَحْسِنْ وُضُوءَك

Go back and perform proper Wudu.

Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr Al-Bayhaqi also recorded that;

Anas bin Malik said that a man came to the Prophet, after he performed Wudu' and left a dry spot the size of a fingernail on his foot. The Messenger of Allah said to him,

ارْجِعْ فَأَحْسِنْ وُضُوءَك

Go back and perform proper Wudu.

Imam Ahmad recorded that some of the wives of the Prophet said that;

the Prophet saw a man praying, but noticed a dry spot on his foot, the size of a Dirham. The Messenger of Allah ordered that man to perform Wudu again.

This Hadith was also collected by Abu Dawud from Baqiyyah, who added in his narration,

"And (the Prophet ordered him) to repeat the prayer."

This Hadith has a strong, reasonably good chain of narrators.

Allah knows best.
The Necessity of Washing Between the Fingers

In the Hadith that Humran narrated,

Uthman washed between his fingers when he was describing the Wudu of the Prophet.

The collectors of the Sunan recorded that Laqit bin Sabrah said,

"I said, `O Messenger of Allah! Tell me about Wudu.'

The Messenger replied,

أَسْبِغِ الْوُضُوءَ وَخَلِّلْ بَيْنَ الاَْصَابِعِ وَبَالِغْ فِي الاِسْتِنْشَاقِ إِلاَّ أَنْ تَكُونَ صَايِمًا

Perform Wudu thoroughly, wash between the fingers and exaggerate in rinsing your nose, unless you are fasting."
Wiping Over the Khuffs is an Established Sunnah

Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal recorded that Aws bin Abi Aws said,

"I saw the Messenger of Allah perform Wudu and wipe over his Khuffs. He then stood up for prayer."

Abu Dawud recorded this Hadith by Aws bin Abi Aws, who said in this narration,

"I saw the Messenger of Allah, after he answered the call of nature, perform Wudu and wipe over his Khuffs and feet."

Imam Ahmad recorded that Jarir bin Abdullah Al-Bajali said,

"I embraced Islam after Surah Al-Ma'idah was revealed and I saw the Messenger of Allah wipe over his Khuffs after I became Muslim."

It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that Hammam said,

"Jarir answered the call of nature and then performed Wudu and wiped over his Khuffs.

He was asked, `Do you do this?'

He said, `Yes. I saw the Messenger of Allah, after he answered the call of nature, perform Wudu and wipe on his Khuffs."'

Al-Amash commented that Ibrahim said,

"They liked this Hadith because Jarir embraced Islam after Surah Al-Ma'idah was revealed."

This is the wording collected by Muslim.

The subject of the Messenger of Allah wiping over his Khuffs, instead of washing the feet, if he had worn his Khuffs while having Wudu, reaches the Mutawatir grade of narration, and they describe this practice by his words and actions.

Allah said,

وَإِن كُنتُمْ جُنُبًا فَاطَّهَّرُواْ

If you are in a state of Janaba, purify yourselves (bathe your whole body).
Performing Tayammum with Clean earth When There is no Water and When One is Ill

Allah said,

وَإِن كُنتُم مَّرْضَى أَوْ عَلَى سَفَرٍ أَوْ جَاء أَحَدٌ مَّنكُم مِّنَ الْغَايِطِ أَوْ لَامَسْتُمُ النِّسَاء فَلَمْ تَجِدُواْ مَاء فَتَيَمَّمُواْ صَعِيدًا طَيِّبًا فَامْسَحُواْ بِوُجُوهِكُمْ وَأَيْدِيكُم مِّنْهُ

But if you are ill or on a journey or any of you come from the Gha'it (toilet), or you have touched women and you find no water, then perform Tayammum with clean earth and rub therewith your faces and hands.

We discussed all of this in Surah An-Nisa', and thus we do not need to repeat it here.

We also mentioned the reason behind revealing this Ayah. Yet, Al-Bukhari mentioned an honorable Hadith here specifically about the Tafsir of this noble Ayah.

He recorded that Aishah said,

"Upon returning to Al-Madinah, a necklace of mine was broken (and lost) in Al-Bayda' area. Allah's Messenger stayed there and went to sleep with his head on my lap.

Abu Bakr (Aishah's father) came and hit me on my flank with his hand saying, `You have detained the people because of a necklace!' So I wished I were dead because (I could not move) the Messenger was sleeping on my lap and because of the pain Abu Bakr caused me.

Allah's Messenger got up when dawn broke and there was no water. So Allah revealed,
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ امَنُواْ إِذَا قُمْتُمْ إِلَى الصَّلةِ فاغْسِلُواْ وُجُوهَكُمْ
(O you who believe! When you stand (intend) to offer As-Salah (the prayer), then wash your faces) until the end of the Ayah.

Usayd bin Al-Hudayr said, `O the family of Abu Bakr! Allah has blessed the people because of you. Therefore, you are only a blessing for the people."

Allah said,

مَا يُرِيدُ اللّهُ لِيَجْعَلَ عَلَيْكُم مِّنْ حَرَجٍ

Allah does not want to place you in difficulty,

This is why He made things easy and lenient for you. This is why He allowed you to use Tayammum when you are ill and when you do not find water, to make things comfortable for you and as mercy for you. Allah made Tayammum in place of Wudu, and Allah made it the same as ablution with water for the one who it is legitimate for, except for certain things, as we mentioned before. For example; Tayammum only involves one strike with the hand on the sand and wiping the face and hands.

Allah said,

وَلَـكِن يُرِيدُ لِيُطَهَّرَكُمْ وَلِيُتِمَّ نِعْمَتَهُ عَلَيْكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ



but He wants to purify you, and to complete His favor on you that you may be thankful.

for His bounties on you, such as His easy, kind, merciful, comfortable and lenient legislation.
Supplicating to Allah after Wudu

The Sunnah encourages supplicating to Allah after Wudu and states that those who do so are among those who seek to purify themselves, as the Ayah above states.

Imam Ahmad, Muslim and the collectors of Sunan narrated that Uqbah bin `Amir said,

"We were on watch, guarding camels, and when my turn to guard came, I took the camels back at night. I found that the Messenger of Allah was giving a speech to the people. I heard these words from that speech;

مَا مِنْ مُسْلِمٍ يَتَوَضَّأُ فَيُحْسِنُ وُضُوءهُ ثُمَّ يَقُومُ فَيُصَلِّي رَكْعَتَيْنِ مُقْبلًا عَلَيْهِمَا بِقَلْبِهِ وَوَجْهِهِ إِلاَّ وَجَبَتْ لَهُ الْجَنَّة

Any Muslim who performs Wudu properly, then stands up and prays a two Rak`ah prayer with full attention in his heart and face, will earn Paradise.

I said, `What a good statement this is!'

A person who was close by said, `The statement he said before it is even better.'

When I looked, I found that it was Umar, who said, `I saw that you just came.

The Prophet said,

مَا مِنْكُمْ مِنْ أَحَدٍ يَتَوَضَّأُ فَيُبْلِغُ أَوْفَيُسْبِغُ الْوُضُوءَ يَقُولُ أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَاا إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللهُ وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ إِلاَّ فُتِحَتْ لَهُ أَبْوَابُ الْجَنَّةِ الثَّمَانِيَةِ يَدْخُلُ مِنْ أَيِّهَا شَاء

When any of you performs Wudu properly and says, `I bear witness that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger', the eight doors of Paradise will be opened for him so that he can enter from any door he wishes."

This is the wording collected by Muslim.
The Virtue of Wudu

Malik recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

إِذَا تَوَضَّأَ الْعَبْدُ الْمُسْلِمُ أَوِ الْمُوْمِنُ فَغَسَلَ وَجْهَهُ خَرَجَ مِنْ وَجْهِهِ كُلُّ خَطِييَةٍ نَظَرَ إِلَيْهَا بِعَيْنَيْهِ مَعَ الْمَاءِ أَوْ مَعَ اخِرِ قَطْرِ الْمَاءِ فَإِذَا غَسَلَ يَدَيهِ خَرَجَ مِنْ يَدَيْهِ كُلُّ خَطِييَةٍ بَطَشَتْهَا يَدَاهُ مَعَ الْمَاءِ أَوْ مَعَ اخِرِ قَطْرِ الْمَاءِ فَإِذَا غَسَلَ رِجْلَيْهِ خَرَجَتْ كُلُّ خَطِييةٍ مَشَتْهَا رِجْلَهُ مَعَ الْمَاءِ أَوْ مَعَ اخِرِ قَطْرِ الْمَاءِ حَتَّى يَخْرُجَ نَقِيًّا مِنَ الذُّنُوب

When the Muslim or the believing servant performs Wudu and washes his face, every sin that he looked at with his eyes will depart from his face with the water, or with the last drop of water. When he washes his hands, every sin that his hands committed will depart from his hands with the water, or with the last drop of water. When he washes his feet, every sin to which his feet took him will depart with the water, or with the last drop of water. Until, he ends up sinless.

Muslim also recorded it.

Muslim recorded that Abu Malik Al-Ashari said that the Messenger of Allah said,

الطُّهُور شَطْرُ الاِْيمَانِ وَالْحَمْدُ للهِ تَمْلَُ الْمِيزَانَ وَسُبْحَانَ اللهِ وَاللهُ أَكْبَرُ تَمْلَُ مَا بَيْنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالاَْرْضِ

وَالصَّوْمُ جُنَّةٌ وَالصَّبْرُ ضِيَاءٌ وَالصدَقَةُ بُرْهَانٌ وَالقُرْانُ حُجَّةٌ لَكَ أَوْ عَلَيْكَ كُلُّ النَّاسِ يَغْدُو فَبَايِعٌ نَفْسَهُ فَمُعْتِقُهَا أَوْ مُوبِقُهَا

Purity is half of faith and Al-Hamdu Lillah (all the thanks are due to Allah) fills the Mizan (the Scale). And Subhan Allah and Allahu Akbar (all praise is due to Allah, and Allah is the Most Great) fills what is between the heaven and earth.
As-Sawm (the fast) is a Junnah (a shield), Sabr (patience) is a light, Sadaqah (charity) is evidence (of faith) and the Qur'an is proof for, or against you.

Every person goes out in the morning and ends up selling himself, he either frees his soul or destroys it.

Muslim recorded that Ibn Umar said that the Messenger of Allah said,

لَاا يَقْبَلُ اللهُ صَدَقَةً مِنْ غُلُولٍ وَلَاا صَلَاةً بِغَيْرِ طُهُور

Allah does not accept charity from one who commits Ghulul, or prayer without purity