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idh
إِذْ
When
antum
أَنتُم
you (were)
bil-ʿud'wati
بِٱلْعُدْوَةِ
on side of the valley
l-dun'yā
ٱلدُّنْيَا
the nearer
wahum
وَهُم
and they
bil-ʿud'wati
بِٱلْعُدْوَةِ
on side of the valley
l-quṣ'wā
ٱلْقُصْوَىٰ
the farther
wal-rakbu
وَٱلرَّكْبُ
and the caravan
asfala
أَسْفَلَ
(was) lower
minkum
مِنكُمْۚ
than you.
walaw
وَلَوْ
And if
tawāʿadttum
تَوَاعَدتُّمْ
you (had) made an appointment
la-ikh'talaftum
لَٱخْتَلَفْتُمْ
certainly you would have failed
فِى
in
l-mīʿādi
ٱلْمِيعَٰدِۙ
the appointment.
walākin
وَلَٰكِن
But
liyaqḍiya
لِّيَقْضِىَ
that might accomplish
l-lahu
ٱللَّهُ
Allah
amran
أَمْرًا
a matter
kāna
كَانَ
(that) was
mafʿūlan
مَفْعُولًا
destined,
liyahlika
لِّيَهْلِكَ
that (might be) destroyed
man
مَنْ
(those) who
halaka
هَلَكَ
(were to be) destroyed
ʿan
عَنۢ
on
bayyinatin
بَيِّنَةٍ
a clear evidence
wayaḥyā
وَيَحْيَىٰ
and (might) live
man
مَنْ
(those) who
ḥayya
حَىَّ
(were to) live
ʿan
عَنۢ
on
bayyinatin
بَيِّنَةٍۗ
a clear evidence.
wa-inna
وَإِنَّ
And indeed,
l-laha
ٱللَّهَ
Allah
lasamīʿun
لَسَمِيعٌ
(is) All-Hearing,
ʿalīmun
عَلِيمٌ
All-Knowing.

Iz antum bil'udwatid dunyaa wa hum bil'udwatil quswaa warrakbu asfala minkum; wa law tawaa'attum lakhtalaftum fil mee'aadi wa laakil liyaqdiyal laahu amran kaana maf'oolal liyahlika man halaka 'am baiyinatinw wa yahyaa man haiya 'am baiyinah; wa innal laaha la Samee'un 'Aleem

Sahih International:

[Remember] when you were on the near side of the valley, and they were on the farther side, and the caravan was lower [in position] than you. If you had made an appointment [to meet], you would have missed the appointment. But [it was] so that Allah might accomplish a matter already destined - that those who perished [through disbelief] would perish upon evidence and those who lived [in faith] would live upon evidence; and indeed, Allah is Hearing and Knowing.

1 A. J. Arberry

when you were on the nearer bank, and they were on the farther bank, and the cavalcade was below you; and had you made tryst together, you would have surely failed the tryst; but that God might determine a matter that was done, that whosoever perished might perish by a clear sign, and by a clear sign he might live who lived; and surely God is All-hearing, All-knowing.

2 Abdul Haleem

Remember when you were on the near side of the valley, and they were on the far side and the caravan was below you. If you had made an appointment to fight, you would have failed to keep it [but the battle took place] so that God might bring about something already ordained, so that those who were to die might die after seeing a clear proof, and so that those who were to live might live after seeing a clear proof- God is all hearing and all seeing.

3 Abdul Majid Daryabadi

And recall what time ye were on the hither side and they were on the yonder side and the caravan below you. And if ye had mutually appointed ye would surely have failed the appointment. But the action wao brought about in order that Allah may decree an affair already enacted, so that he who was to perish, should perish after an evidence and he who was to remain alive may remain alive after an evidence. And verily Allah is Hearing, Knowing.

4 Abdullah Yusuf Ali

Remember ye were on the hither side of the valley, and they on the farther side, and the caravan on lower ground than ye. Even if ye had made a mutual appointment to meet, ye would certainly have failed in the appointment; But (thus ye met), that Allah might accomplish a matter already enacted; that those who died might die after a clear Sign (had been given), and those who lived might live after a Clear Sign (had been given). And verily Allah is He Who heareth and knoweth (all things).

5 Abul Ala Maududi

And recall when you were encamped at the nearer end of the valley (of Badr) and they were at the farther end and the caravan below you (along the seaside). Had you made a mutual appointment to meet in encounter, you would have declined. But encounter was brought about so that Allah might accomplish what He had decreed, and that he who was to perish should perish through a clear proof, and who was to survive might survive through a clear proof. Surely Allah is All-Hearing, All-Knowing.

6 Ahmed Ali

(That day) when you were at one end of the valley, (the unbelievers) at the other, and the caravan below you (on the lowland by the coast), you would surely have declined to fight if (the Makkans) had offered you battle. (But the battle did take place) that God may end the matter which had been accomplished, so that he who had to die may perish after a clear demonstration, and he who had to live may survive in the light of positive proof, for God hears all and knows everything.

7 Ahmed Raza Khan

When you were on the near bank and the disbelievers on the far bank, and the caravan below you; and had you made an agreement between one another, you would have failed to reach on the appointed time – but this is in order that Allah may complete a thing that must be done – that he who dies may die by a clear proof and he who lives may live by a clear proof; and indeed Allah is surely, All Hearing, All Knowing.

8 Ali Quli Qarai

When you were on the nearer side, and they on the farther side, while the caravan was below you, and had you agreed together on an encounter, you would have certainly failed to keep the tryst, but in order that Allah may carry through a matter that was bound to be fulfilled, so that he who perishes might perish by a manifest proof, and he who lives may live on by a manifest proof, and Allah is indeed all-hearing, all-knowing.

9 Ali Ünal

(Remember the day) when you were at the nearer end of the valley (of Badr on the Madinah side) and they were at the farther end and the caravan below you (on the coastal plain). If you had mutually made an appointment to meet for battle in such circumstances, indeed you would not have been able to hold to the appointment. But (God caused you to meet for battle in such circumstances) so that God might accomplish a thing that He had already decreed in order that he who was to perish should perish by a clear evidence (of his deserving perishing because he followed falsehood), and he who survived might survive by a clear evidence (of his deserving survival because of his devotion to the truth). Surely God is All-Hearing, All-Knowing.

10 Amatul Rahman Omar

When (on that day) you were on the nearer end (-the side nearer to Madînah of the valley of Badr) and those (of the hostile forces of disbelievers) were at its farther end (- the side which was farther from Madînah) and the caravan (of the Quraish from Syria) was on a level lower than yours (- towards the sea-coast). And had you made a mutual appointment beforehand (as to when and where to meet the foe) you would have differed with regard to the place and time of the appointment, (but the encounter did take place), that Allâh brought about that which was already decreed (by Him), so that he who had (already spiritually) perished on the altar of reason might perish (physically also), and he who has (already spiritually) come to life through a clear sign might live (physically also). Most surely, Allâh is All-Hearing, All-Knowing.

11 English Literal

When you were by the elevated place/edge of the valley the near, and they are by the edge of the valley the farthest, and the riders/caravan/convoy (is) lower from (than) you, and if you made appointments with each other you would have differed/disagreed in the appointment and but (for) God to execute/order an order/command, (it) was made/done, to perish/destroy who perished/died on/of an evidence, and lives who lived on/of an evidence, and that God (is) hearing/listening (E), knowledgeable.

12 Faridul Haque

When you were on the near bank and the disbelievers on the far bank, and the caravan below you; and had you made an agreement between one another, you would have failed to reach on the appointed time - but this is in order that Allah may complete a thing that must be done - that he who dies may die by a clear proof and he who lives may live by a clear proof; and indeed Allah is surely, All Hearing, All Knowing.

13 Hamid S. Aziz

When you were on the near side of the valley, and they were on the far side, and the camel caravan was below you, had you made an appointment then to meet, you would have failed to keep it. But it was otherwise, so that Allah might accomplish a thing that must be done (or was already decreed); that he who was to perish might perish on clear proof (either as a forewarning or to some other manifest purpose or cause); and that he who was to survive might survive on clear proof. Verily, Allah is Hearer, Knower.

14 Hilali & Khan

(And remember) when you (the Muslim army) were on the near side of the valley, and they on the farther side, and the caravan on the ground lower than you. Even if you had made a mutual appointment to meet, you would certainly have failed in the appointment, but (you met) that Allah might accomplish a matter already ordained (in His Knowledge); so that those who were to be destroyed (for their rejecting the Faith) might be destroyed after a clear evidence, and those who were to live (i.e. believers) might live after a clear evidence. And surely, Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower.

15 Maulana Mohammad Ali

And know that whatever you acquire in war, a fifth of it is for Allah and for the Messenger and for the near of kin and the orphans and the needy and the wayfarer, if you believe in Allah and in that which We revealed to Our servant, on the day of Discrimination, the day on which the two parties met. And Allah is Possessor of power over all things.

16 Mohammad Habib Shakir

When you were on the nearer side (of the valley) and they were on the farthest side, while the caravan was in a lower place than you; and if you had mutually made an appointment, you would certainly have broken away from the appointment, but-- in order that Allah might bring about a matter which was to be done, that he who would perish might perish by clear proof, and he who would live might live by clear proof; and most surely Allah is Hearing, Knowing;

17 Mohammed Marmaduke William Pickthall

When ye were on the near bank (of the valley) and they were on the yonder bank, and the caravan was below you (on the coast plain). And had ye trysted to meet one another ye surely would have failed to keep the tryst, but (it happened, as it did, without the forethought of either of you) that Allah might conclude a thing that must be done; that he who perished (on that day) might perish by a clear proof (of His Sovereignty) and he who survived might survive by a clear proof (of His Sovereignty). Lo! Allah in truth is Hearer, Knower.

18 Muhammad Sarwar

Recall when your army was positioned at the less defensible brink of the valley, (the pagans') army had the more defensible higher side of the valley and the caravan was led (out of your reach) below. This situation did not take place according to your previous plans, otherwise, everything would have been different. (It was God's plan) to place you in a vulnerable position, exposed to the enemy and it was His plan to lead the caravan out of your reach) so that His decree that you would be granted a victory by a miracle would become a doubtless fact and so that those who were to be destroyed would face destruction with a clear knowledge of the Truth and those who were to survive would also survive with a clear knowledge of the Truth. God is All-hearing and All-knowing.

19 Qaribullah & Darwish

And when you were encamped on the nearside and they (the unbelievers) on the farther side, with the caravan below, had you made an appointment with them, you would have surely failed to keep it; but Allah sought to accomplish what He had ordained, so that by clear evidence, he who was destined to perish might perish, and he who was destined to live might live. Surely, Allah is Hearing, Knowing.

20 Safi-ur-Rahman al-Mubarakpuri

(And remember) when you (the Muslim army) were on the near side of the valley, and they on the farther side, and the caravan on the ground lower than you. Even if you had made a mutual appointment to meet, you would certainly have failed in the appointment, but (you met) that Allah might accomplish a matter already ordained (in His knowledge), so that those who were to be destroyed (for rejecting the faith) might be destroyed after a clear evidence, and those who were to live (believers) might live after a clear evidence. And surely, Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower.

21 Wahiduddin Khan

You were on the nearer side of the valley, and they were on the farther side, and the caravan was below you. Had you wished to set a time by mutual agreement, you would certainly have disagreed on the timing. However, the encounter took place, so that God might settle a matter which had already been ordained, so that he who was to perish might perish after clear evidence of the truth, and he who was to live might live in clear evidence of the truth. Surely, God is all hearing and all-knowing.

22 Talal Itani

Recall when you were on the nearer bank, and they were on the further bank, and the caravan was below you. Had you planned for this meeting, you would have disagreed on the timing, but God was to carry out a predetermined matter, so that those who perish would perish by clear evidence, and those who survive would survive by clear evidence. God is Hearing and Knowing.

23 Tafsir jalalayn

When (idh substitutes for yawma, `the day') you were on the nearer bank, the one nearer to Medina (read `udwa or `idwa, meaning `the side of a valley'), and they were on the yonder bank, the one further from it, and the cavalcade, the caravan, was, in a place, below you, the coastal side; and had you, and the [enemy] band, agreed to meet, for battle, you would have surely failed to keep meeting; but, He brought you together at a different time, that God might conclude a matter that was to be done, through His knowledge -- namely, the victory of Islam and the obliteration of unbelief -- He did this so, that he who perished might perish, might be a disbeliever [even], after a clear proof, that is, after a manifest proof has been established against him, namely, the triumph of the believers, despite their small number, over the larger [enemy] army; and that he who survived might live, might believe, after a clear proof; surely God is Hearing, Knowing.

24 Tafseer Ibn Kathir

Some Details of the Battle of Badr

Allah describes Yawm Al-Furqan, (i.e. the day of Badr),

إِذْ أَنتُم بِالْعُدْوَةِ الدُّنْيَا

(And remember) when you (the Muslim army) were on the near side of the valley,

camping in the closest entrance of the valley towards Al-Madinah,

وَهُم

and they,

the idolators, who were camped,

بِالْعُدْوَةِ الْقُصْوَى

on the farther side,

from Al-Madinah, towards Makkah.

وَالرَّكْبُ

and the caravan,

that was under the command of Abu Sufyan, with the wealth that it contained,

أَسْفَلَ مِنكُمْ

on the ground lower than you,

closer to the sea,

وَلَوْ تَوَاعَدتَّمْ

even if you had made a mutual appointment to meet,

you and the idolators,

لَاخْتَلَفْتُمْ فِي الْمِيعَادِ

you would certainly have failed in the appointment,

Muhammad bin Ishaq said, "Yahya bin Abbad bin Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr narrated to me from his father about this Ayah

"Had there been an appointed meeting set between you and them and you came to know of their superior numbers and your few forces, you would not have met them,

وَلَـكِن لِّيَقْضِيَ اللّهُ أَمْراً كَانَ مَفْعُولاً

but (you met) that Allah might accomplish a matter already ordained,

Allah had decreed that He would bring glory to Islam and its people, while disgracing Shirk and its people. You (the companions) had no knowledge this would happen, but it was out of Allah's compassion that He did that."

In a Hadith, Ka`b bin Malik said,

"The Messenger of Allah and the Muslims marched to intercept the Quraysh caravan, but Allah made them meet their (armed) enemy without appointment."

Muhammad bin Ishaq said that Yazid bin Ruwman narrated to him that Urwah bin Az-Zubayr said,

"Upon approaching Badr, the Messenger of Allah sent Ali bin Abi Talib, Sa`d bin Abi Waqqas, Az-Zubayr bin Al-Awwam and several other Companions to spy the pagans.

They captured two boys, a servant of Bani Sa`id bin Al-`As and a servant of Bani Al-Hajjaj, while they were bringing water for Quraysh. So they brought them to the Messenger of Allah, but found him praying.

The Companions started interrogating the boys, asking them to whom they belonged. Both of them said that they were employees bringing water for Quraysh (army). The Companions were upset with that answer, since they thought that the boys belonged to Abu Sufyan (who was commanding the caravan). So they beat the two boys vehemently, who said finally that they belonged to Abu Sufyan. Thereupon companions left them alone.

When the Prophet ended the prayer, he said,

إَذَا صَدَّقَاكُمْ ضَرَبْتُمُوهُمَا وَإِذَا كَذَّبَاكُمْ تَرَكْتُمُوهُمَا صَدَقَا وَاللهِ إِنَّهُمَا لِقُرَيْشٍ أَخْبِرَانِي عَنْ قُرَيْش

When they tell you the truth you beat them, but when they lie you let them go They have said the truth, by Allah! They belong to the Quraysh.

addressing to the boys He said;Tell me the news about Quraysh.

The two boys said, `They are behind this hill that you see, on the far side of the valley.'

The Messenger of Allah asked,

كَمِ الْقَوْمُ



How many are they?

They said, `They are many.'

He asked,

مَاعُدَّتُهُمْ




How many?

They said, `We do not know the precise number.'

He asked,

كَمْ يَنْحَرُونَ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ




How many camels do they slaughter every day?

They said, `Nine or ten a day.'

The Messenger of Allah said,

الْقَوْمُ مَا بَيْنَ التِّسْعمِايَةِ إِلَى الاَْلْف

They are between nine-hundred and a thousand.

He asked again,

فَمَنْ فِيهِمْ مِنْ أَشْرَافِ قُرَيْشٍ



Which chiefs of Quraysh are accompanying the army?

They said,

Utbah bin Rabiah,

Shaybah bin Rabiah,

Abu Al-Bakhtari bin Hisham,

Hakim bin Hizam,

Nawfal bin Khuwaylid,

Al-Harith bin Amir bin Nawfal,

Tu`aymah bin Adi bin Nawfal,

An-Nadr bin Al-Harith,

Zam`ah bin Al-Aswad,

Abu Jahl bin Hisham,

Umayyah bin Khalaf,

Nabih and Munabbih sons of Al-Hajjaj,

Suhayl bin Amr and

Amr bin Abd Wadd.

The Messenger of Allah said to the people,

هَذِهِ مَكَّةُ قَدْ أَلْقَتْ إِلَيْكُمْ أَفَلَذَ كَبِدِهَا

This is Makkah! She has brought you her most precious sons (its chiefs)!"

Allah said,

لِّيَهْلِكَ مَنْ هَلَكَ عَن بَيِّنَةٍ وَيَحْيَى مَنْ حَيَّ عَن بَيِّنَةٍ

So that those who were to be destroyed might be destroyed after a clear evidence.

Muhammad bin Ishaq commented,

"So that those who disbelieve do so after witnessing clear evidence, proof and lessons, and those who believe do so after witnessing the same."

This is a sound explanation.

Allah says,

He made you meet your enemy in one area without appointment, so that He gives you victory over them.' This way, `He will raise the word of truth above falsehood, so that the matter is made clear, the proof unequivocal and the evidence plain. Then there will be no more plea or doubt for anyone. Then, those destined to destruction by persisting in disbelief do so with evidence, aware that they are misguided and that proof has been established against them,
وَيَحْيَى مَنْ حَيَّ
(and those who were to live might live), those who wish to believe do so,
عَن بَيِّنَةٍ
(after a clear evidence), and proof. Verily, faith is the life of the heart, as Allah said,

أَوَمَن كَانَ مَيْتًا فَأَحْيَيْنَـهُ وَجَعَلْنَا لَهُ نُورًا يَمْشِي بِهِ فِى النَّاسِ كَمَن

Is he who was dead (without faith by ignorance and disbelief) and We gave him life (by knowledge and faith) and set for him a light (of belief) whereby he can walk among men (6;122)

Allah said next,

وَإِنَّ اللّهَ لَسَمِيعٌ

And surely, Allah is All-Hearer,

of your invocation, humility and requests for His help,

عَلِيمٌ



All-Knower.

meaning; about you, and you deserve victory over your rebellious, disbelieving enemies