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ARBNDEENIDTRUR
كُتِبَ
Prescribed
عَلَيْكُمْ
for you
إِذَا
when
حَضَرَ
approaches
أَحَدَكُمُ
any of you
ٱلْمَوْتُ
[the] death,
إِن
if
تَرَكَ
he leaves
خَيْرًا
good
ٱلْوَصِيَّةُ
(making) the will
لِلْوَٰلِدَيْنِ
for the parents
وَٱلْأَقْرَبِينَ
and the near relatives
بِٱلْمَعْرُوفِۖ
with due fairness
حَقًّا
a duty
عَلَى
on
ٱلْمُتَّقِينَ
the righteous ones.

Kutiba 'alaikum izaa hadara ahadakumul mawtu in taraka khairanil wasiyyatu lilwaalidaini wal aqrabeena bilma'roofi haqqan 'alalmut taqeen

Sahih International:

Prescribed for you when death approaches [any] one of you if he leaves wealth [is that he should make] a bequest for the parents and near relatives according to what is acceptable - a duty upon the righteous.

Ahmed Ali

It is ordained that when any one of you nears death, and he owns goods and chattels, he should bequeath them equitably to his parents and next of kin. This is binding on those who are upright and fear God.

Ahmed Raza Khan

It is ordained for you that when death approaches one of you, and he leaves behind wealth, he must bequeath it to parents and near relatives in accordance with tradition; this is a duty upon the pious.

Ali Ünal

Prescribed for you, when any of you is visited by death, if he leaves behind wealth, is to make testament in favor of his parents and near relatives according to customary good and religiously approvable practice – a duty for the truly God-revering, pious.

Amatul Rahman Omar

It has been prescribed for you at the time of death to any one of you, that if the (dying) person is leaving considerable wealth behind, to make a will to his parents and the near of kin to act with equity and fairness. This is an obligation incumbent on those who guard against evil.

A. J. Arberry

Prescribed for you, when any of you is visited by death, and he leaves behind some goods, is to make testament in favour of his parents and kinsmen honourably -- an obligation on the godfearing.

Abdul Majid Daryabadi

Prescribed unto you, when death is nigh unto one of you, if he leaveth any property, is the making of a bequest for parents and kindred equitably - a duty on the God-fearing.

Faridul Haque

It is ordained for you that when death approaches one of you, and he leaves behind wealth, he must bequeath it to parents and near relatives in accordance with tradition; this is a duty upon the pious.

Hamid S. Aziz

It is prescribed for you that when any of you is facing death, if he leaves any goods, that he makes reasonable bequests to his parents, and to his kinsmen. It is a duty upon all those that are God-fearing.

Hilali & Khan

It is prescribed for you, when death approaches any of you, if he leaves wealth, that he make a bequest to parents and next of kin, according to reasonable manners. (This is) a duty upon Al-Muttaqun (the pious - see V. 2:2).

Talal Itani

It is decreed for you: when death approaches one of you, and he leaves wealth, to make a testament in favor of the parents and the relatives, fairly and correctly—a duty upon the righteous.

English Literal

It is dictated/ordered on you if the death/lifelessness came/attended (to) one of you, if he left wealth/goodness (in) the bequest/will, to the parents, and the nearest/closest (ones), with the kindness/goodness , dutifully/truthfully on the fearing and obeying (God).

Abul Ala Maududi

It has been prescribed for you that when death approaches one of you and he is leaving some property behind him, he should bequeath it equitably for his parents and relatives: it is an obligation on those who fear AIIah.

Maulana Mohammad Ali

It is prescribed for you, when death approaches one of you, if he leaves behind wealth for parents and near relatives, to make a bequest in a kindly manner; it is incumbent upon the dutiful.

Safi-ur-Rahman al-Mubarakpuri

It is prescribed for you, when death approaches any of you, if he leaves wealth, that he makes a bequest to parents and next of kin, according to reasonable manners. (This is) a duty upon Al-Muttaqin (the pious).

Mohammed Marmaduke William Pickthall

It is prescribed for you, when death approacheth one of you, if he leave wealth, that he bequeath unto parents and near relatives in kindness. (This is) a duty for all those who ward off (evil).

Ali Quli Qarai

Prescribed for you, when death approaches any of you and he leaves behind any property, is that he make a bequest for his parents and relatives, in an honourable manner—an obligation on the Godwary.

Qaribullah & Darwish

Written for any of you when death arrives, if he leaves behind goods, is the will for his parents and relatives with kindness. This is a duty incumbent on the cautious.

Muhammad Sarwar

If one of you facing death can leave a legacy, he should bequeath it to his parents and relatives, according to the law. This is the duty of the pious.

Mohammad Habib Shakir

Bequest is prescribed for you when death approaches one of you, if he leaves behind wealth for parents and near relatives, according to usage, a duty (incumbent) upon those who guard (against evil).

Wahiduddin Khan

It is prescribed that when death approaches any of you and he is leaving behind wealth, he shall make a will in favour of his parents and relatives equitably. This is a duty for all who fear God.

Abdullah Yusuf Ali

It is prescribed, when death approaches any of you, if he leave any goods that he make a bequest to parents and next of kin, according to reasonable usage; this is due from the Allah-fearing.

Tafsir jalalayn

Prescribed, made obligatory, for you, when any of you is approached by death, that is, [by] its causes, and leaves behind some good, material possessions, is to make testament (al-wasiyyatu is in the nominative because of kutiba, and is semantically connected to the particle idh, `when', if the latter is adverbial; but if this latter is conditional, then it [al-wasiyyatu] indicates the response; the response to the [conditional] particle in, `if', is, in other words, [implied to be] fa'l-ysi, `let him make testament'); in favour of his parents and kinsmen honourably, that is justly, not giving more than the allotted share of a third, nor preferring the richer person -- an obligation (haqqan here emphasises the import of what has preceded) on those that fear, God (this verse has been abrogated by the `inheritance' verse [yat al-mrth, see Q. 4;11] and by the hadth; `Do not make testament for one [already] inheriting', as reported by al-Tirmidh).

Tafseer Ibn Kathir

Including Parents and Relatives in the Will was later abrogated

Allah says;

كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذَا حَضَرَ أَحَدَكُمُ الْمَوْتُ إِن تَرَكَ خَيْرًا

الْوَصِيَّةُ لِلْوَالِدَيْنِ وَالاقْرَبِينَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ حَقًّا عَلَى الْمُتَّقِينَ



It is prescribed for you, when death approaches any of you, if he leaves wealth, that he makes a bequest to parents and next of kin, according to reasonable manners. (This is) a duty upon Al-Muttaqin (the pious).

This Ayah contains the command to include parents and relatives in the will, which was obligatory, according to the most correct view, before the Ayah about inheritance was revealed.

When the Ayah of inheritance was revealed, this Ayah was abrogated, so fixed shares of the inheritance for deserving recipients were legislated by Allah. Therefore, deserving inheritors take their fixed inheritance without the need to be included in the will or to be reminded of the favor of the inherited person.

For this reason we see the Hadith narrated in the Sunan and other books that Amr bin Kharijah said;

I heard Allah's Messenger saying in a speech;

إِنَّ اللهَ قَدْ أَعْطَى كُلَّ ذِي حَقَ حَقَّهُ فَلَ وَصِيَّــةَ لِوَارِث

Allah has given each heir his fixed share. So there is no will for a deserving heir.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Muhammad bin Sirin said;

Ibn Abbas recited Surah Al-Baqarah until he reached the Ayah;
إِن تَرَكَ خَيْرًا الْوَصِيَّةُ لِلْوَالِدَيْنِ وَالاقْرَبِينَ
(...if he leaves wealth, that he makes a bequest to parents and next of kin), he then said,

"This Ayah was abrogated."

This was recorded by Sa`id bin Mansur and Al-Hakim in his Mustadrak.

Al-Hakim Said, "It is Sahih according to their criteria (Al-Bukhari and Muslim)."

Ibn Abu Hatim reported that Ibn Abbas said that Allah's statement;
الْوَصِيَّةُ لِلْوَالِدَيْنِ وَالاقْرَبِينَ
(a bequest to parents and next of kin),

was abrogated by the Ayah;

لِّلرِّجَالِ نَصيِبٌ مِّمَّا تَرَكَ الْوَلِدَنِ وَالاٌّقْرَبُونَ وَلِلنِّسَأءِ نَصِيبٌ مِّمَّا تَرَكَ الْوَلِدَنِ وَالاٌّقْرَبُونَ مِمَّا قَلَّ مِنْهُ أَوْ كَثُرَ نَصِيباً مَّفْرُوضاً

There is a share for men and a share for women from what is left by parents and those nearest related, whether the property be small or large ـ a legal share. (4;7)

Ibn Abu Hatim then said,

"It was reported from Ibn Umar, Abu Musa, Sa`id bin Musayyib, Al-Hasan, Mujahid, Ata Sa`id bin Jubayr, Muhammad bin Sirin, Ikrimah, Zayd bin Aslam and Ar-Rabi bin Anas. Qatadah, As-Suddi, Muqatil bin Hayyan, Tawus, Ibrahim An-Nakhai, Shurayh, Ad-Dahhak and Az-Zuhri said that;

this Ayah (2;180 above) was abrogated by the Ayah about the inheritors (4;7)."
The Will for the Relatives that do not qualify as Inheritors

It is recommended that the remaining relatives who do not have a designated fixed share of the inheritance, be willed up to a third, due to the general meaning of the Ayah about the will.

It is recorded in the Sahihayn that Ibn Umar said that;

Allah's Messenger said;

مَا حَقُّ امْرِىءٍ مُسْلِمٍ لَهُ شَيْءٌ يُوصِي فِيه يَبِيتُ لَيْلَتَيْنِ إلاَّ وَوَصِيَّتُهُ مَكْتُوبَةٌ عِنْدَه

It is not permissible for any Muslim who has something to will to stay for two nights without having his last will and testament written and kept ready with him.

Ibn Umar commented,

"Ever since I heard this statement from Allah's Messenger, no night has passed, but my will is kept ready with me."

There are many other Ayat and Hadiths ordering kindness and generosity to one's relatives.
The Will should observe Justice

The will should be fair, in that one designates a part of the inheritance to his relatives without committing injustice against his qualified inheritors and without extravagance or stinginess.

It is recorded in the Sahihayn that Sa`d bin Abu Waqqas said,

"O Allah's Messenger! I have some money and only a daughter inherits from me, should I will all my remaining property (to others)?"

He said, "No."

Sa`d said, "Then may I will half of it?"

He said, "No."

Sa`d said, "One-third?"

He said, "Yes, one-third, yet even one-third is too much. It is better for you to leave your inheritors wealthy than to leave them poor, begging from others."

Al-Bukhari mentioned in his Sahih that Ibn Abbas said,

"I recommend that people reduce the proportion of what they bequeath by will to a fourth (of the whole legacy) rather than a third, for Allah's Messenger said;

الثُّلُثُ وَالثُّلُثُ كَثِير

One-third, yet even one-third is too much."

Allah's statement