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ARBNDEENIDTRUR
شَهْرُ
Month
رَمَضَانَ
(of) Ramadhaan
ٱلَّذِىٓ
(is) that
أُنزِلَ
was revealed
فِيهِ
therein
ٱلْقُرْءَانُ
the Quran,
هُدًى
a Guidance
لِّلنَّاسِ
for mankind
وَبَيِّنَٰتٍ
and clear proofs
مِّنَ
of
ٱلْهُدَىٰ
[the] Guidance
وَٱلْفُرْقَانِۚ
and the Criterion.
فَمَن
So whoever
شَهِدَ
witnesses
مِنكُمُ
among you
ٱلشَّهْرَ
the month,
فَلْيَصُمْهُۖ
then he should fast in it,
وَمَن
and whoever
كَانَ
is
مَرِيضًا
sick
أَوْ
or
عَلَىٰ
on
سَفَرٍ
a journey
فَعِدَّةٌ
then prescribed number (should be made up)
مِّنْ
from
أَيَّامٍ
days
أُخَرَۗ
other.
يُرِيدُ
Intends
ٱللَّهُ
Allah
بِكُمُ
for you
ٱلْيُسْرَ
[the] ease
وَلَا
and not
يُرِيدُ
Intends
بِكُمُ
for you
ٱلْعُسْرَ
[the] hardship,
وَلِتُكْمِلُوا۟
so that you complete
ٱلْعِدَّةَ
the prescribed period
وَلِتُكَبِّرُوا۟
and that you magnify
ٱللَّهَ
Allah
عَلَىٰ
on
مَا
[what]
هَدَىٰكُمْ
He guided you
وَلَعَلَّكُمْ
so that you may
تَشْكُرُونَ
(be) grateful.

Shahru Ramadaanallazeee unzila feehil Qur'aanu hudal linnaasi wa baiyinaatim minal hudaa wal furqaan; faman shahida minkumush shahra falyasumhu wa man kaana mareedan aw 'alaa safarin fa'iddatum min ayyaamin ukhar; yureedul laahu bikumul yusra wa laa yureedu bikumul 'usra wa litukmilul 'iddata wa litukabbirul laaha 'alaa maa hadaakum wa la'allakum tashkuroon

Sahih International:

The month of Ramadhan [is that] in which was revealed the Qur'an, a guidance for the people and clear proofs of guidance and criterion. So whoever sights [the new moon of] the month, let him fast it; and whoever is ill or on a journey - then an equal number of other days. Allah intends for you ease and does not intend for you hardship and [wants] for you to complete the period and to glorify Allah for that [to] which He has guided you; and perhaps you will be grateful.

Ahmed Ali

Ramadan is the month in which the Qur'an was revealed as guidance to man and clear proof of the guidance, and criterion (of falsehood and truth). So when you see the new moon you should fast the whole month; but a person who is ill or travelling (and fails to do so) should fast on other days, as God wishes ease and not hardship for you, so that you complete the (fixed) number (of fasts), and give glory to God for the guidance, and be grateful.

Ahmed Raza Khan

The month of Ramadan in which was sent down the Qur’an – the guidance for mankind, the direction and the clear criteria (to judge between right and wrong); so whoever among you witnesses this month, must fast for the (whole) month; and whoever is sick or on a journey, may fast the same number in other days; Allah desires ease for you and does not desire hardship for you – so that you complete the count (of fasts), and glorify Allah’s greatness for having guided you, and so that you may be grateful.

Ali Ünal

The month of Ramadan, in which the Qur’an was sent down as guidance for people, and as clear signs of Guidance and the Criterion (between truth and falsehood). Therefore whoever of you is present this month, must fast it, and whoever is so ill that he cannot fast or on a journey (must fast the same) number of other days. God wills ease for you, and He does not will hardship for you, so that you can complete the number of the days required, and exalt God for He has guided you, and so it may be that you will give thanks (due to Him).

Amatul Rahman Omar

The (lunar) month of Ramadzân is that in which the Qur´ân (started to be) revealed as a guidance for the whole of mankind with its clear evidences (providing comprehensive) guidance and the Discrimination (between right and wrong). Therefore he who shall witness the month, should fast (for full month) during it, but he who is sick or is on a journey shall fast (to make up) the prescribed number in other days. Allâh wishes facility for you and does not wish hardship for you. (This facility is given to you) that you may complete the number (of required fasts) and you may exalt the greatness of Allâh for His having guided you, and that you may render thanks (to Him).

A. J. Arberry

the month of Ramadan, wherein the Koran was sent down to be a guidance to the people, and as clear signs of the Guidance and the Salvation. So let those of you, who are present at the month, fast it; and if any of you be sick, or if he be on a journey, then a number of other days; God desires ease for you, and desires not hardship for you; and that you fulfil the number, and magnify God that He has guided you, and haply you will be thankful.

Abdul Majid Daryabadi

The month of Ramadhan: therein was sent down the Qur'an: is a guidance unto mankind, and with evidences: one of the Books of guidance and the distinction. So whosoever of you witnesseth the month, he shall fast it, and whosoever sick or journeying, for him the like number of other days. Allah intendeth for you ease, and intendeth not for you hardship; so ye shall fulfil the number and shall magnify Allah for His having guided you, and haply ye may give thanks.

Faridul Haque

The month of Ramadan in which was sent down the Qur’an - the guidance for mankind, the direction and the clear criteria (to judge between right and wrong); so whoever among you witnesses this month, must fast for the (whole) month; and whoever is sick or on a journey, may fast the same number in other days; Allah desires ease for you and does not desire hardship for you - so that you complete the count (of fasts), and glorify Allah’s greatness for having guided you, and so that you may be grateful.

Hamid S. Aziz

The month of Ramadan, wherein was revealed the Quran as a Guidance to mankind, and as manifest Sign, and as a Discrimination. So he amongst you who is at his home during this month then let him fast through it; but he who is sick or on a journey, then another number of days; - Allah desires for you what is easy (or reasonable), and desires not for you what is difficult, that you may complete the prescribed period, and say, "Great is Allah," (or glorify Him) for that He has guided you; per chance (or possibly) you may give thanks.

Hilali & Khan

The month of Ramadan in which was revealed the Quran, a guidance for mankind and clear proofs for the guidance and the criterion (between right and wrong). So whoever of you sights (the crescent on the first night of) the month (of Ramadan i.e. is present at his home), he must observe Saum (fasts) that month, and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number [of days which one did not observe Saum (fasts) must be made up] from other days. Allah intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you. (He wants that you) must complete the same number (of days), and that you must magnify Allah [i.e. to say Takbir (Allahu-Akbar; Allah is the Most Great) on seeing the crescent of the months of Ramadan and Shawwal] for having guided you so that you may be grateful to Him.

Talal Itani

Ramadan is the month in which the Quran was revealed. Guidance for humanity, and clear portents of guidance, and the Criterion. Whoever of you witnesses the month, shall fast it. But whoever is sick, or on a journey, then a number of other days. God desires ease for you, and does not desire hardship for you, that you may complete the number, and celebrate God for having guided you, so that you may be thankful.

English Literal

(The) month (of) Ramadan , which the Koran was descended in it, (is) guidance to the people, and evidences from the guidance and the Separator of Right and Wrong/Koran , so who witnessed from you the month, so he should fast it (E) , and who was sick/diseased or on (a) journey/trip/voyage, so numbered/counted from other days. God wills/wants with you the ease/flexibility and does not want with you the difficulty/hardship , and to complete the term , and to greaten/magnify God on what He guided you, and maybe you thank/be grateful .

Abul Ala Maududi

Ramadan is the month in which the Qur'an was sent down: this Book is a perfect guidance for mankind and consists of clear teachings which show the right way and are a criterion of Truth and falsehood. Therefore from now on whoever witnesses it, it is obligatory on hire to fast the whole month, but if one be ill or on a journey, he should make up for the same number by fasting on other days. Allah desires to show leniency to you and does not desire to show any hardship. "therefore this method is being shown to you so that you may complete the number of Fast days and glorify Allah for the Guidance He has shown to you and be grateful to Him.

Maulana Mohammad Ali

The month of Ramadan is that in which the Qur´an was revealed, a guidance to men and clear proofs of the guidance and the Criterion. So whoever of you is present in the month, he shall fast therein, and whoever is sick or on a journey, (he shall fast) a (like) number of other days. Allah desires ease for you, and He desires not hardship for you, and (He desires) that you should complete the number and that you should exalt the greatness of Allah for having guided you and that you may give thanks.

Safi-ur-Rahman al-Mubarakpuri

The month of Ramadan in which was revealed the Qur'an, a guidance for mankind and clear proofs for the guidance and the criterion (between right and wrong). So whoever of you sights (the crescent on the first night of) the month (of Ramadan, i.e., is present at his home), he must observe Sawm (fasting) that month, and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number [of days which one did not observe Sawm (fasting) must be made up] from other days. Allah intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you. (He wants that you) must complete the same number (of days), and that you must magnify Allah [i.e., to say Takbir (Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Most Great)] for having guided you so that you may be grateful to Him.

Mohammed Marmaduke William Pickthall

The month of Ramadan in which was revealed the Qur'an, a guidance for mankind, and clear proofs of the guidance, and the Criterion (of right and wrong). And whosoever of you is present, let him fast the month, and whosoever of you is sick or on a journey, (let him fast the same) number of other days. Allah desireth for you ease; He desireth not hardship for you; and (He desireth) that ye should complete the period, and that ye should magnify Allah for having guided you, and that peradventure ye may be thankful.

Ali Quli Qarai

The month of Rama¤¡n is one in which the Quran was sent down as guidance to mankind, with manifest proofs of guidance and the Criterion. So let those of you who witness it fast [in] it, and as for someone who is sick or on a journey, let it be a [similar] number of other days. Allah desires ease for you, and He does not desire hardship for you, and so that you may complete the number and magnify Allah for guiding you, and that you may give thanks.

Qaribullah & Darwish

The month of Ramadan is the month in which the Koran was sent down, a guidance for people, and clear verses of guidance and the criterion. Therefore, whoever of you witnesses the month, let him fast. But he who is ill, or on a journey shall (fast) a similar number (of days) later on. Allah wants ease for you and does not want hardship for you. And that you fulfill the number of days and exalt Allah who has guided you in order that you be thankful.

Muhammad Sarwar

The month of Ramadan is the month in which the Quran was revealed; a guide for the people, the most authoritative of all guidance and a criteria to discern right from wrong. Anyone of you who knows that the month of Ramadan has begun, he must start to fast. Those who are sick or on a journey have to fast the same number of days at another time. God does not impose any hardship upon you. He wants you to have comfort so that you may complete the fast, glorify God for His having given you guidance, and that, perhaps, you would give Him thanks.

Mohammad Habib Shakir

The month of Ramazan is that in which the Quran was revealed, a guidance to men and clear proofs of the guidance and the distinction; therefore whoever of you is present in the month, he shall fast therein, and whoever is sick or upon a journey, then (he shall fast) a (like) number of other days; Allah desires ease for you, and He does not desire for you difficulty, and (He desires) that you should complete the number and that you should exalt the greatness of Allah for His having guided you and that you may give thanks.

Wahiduddin Khan

The month of Ramadan is the month when the Quran was sent down as guidance for mankind with clear proofs of guidance and the criterion by which to distinguish right from wrong. Therefore, whoever of you is present in that month, let him fast; but he who is ill or on a journey shall fast a similar number of days later on. God desires ease for you, not hardship. He desires you to fast the whole month, so that you may glorify Him for His having guided you and so that you may be grateful to Him.

Abdullah Yusuf Ali

Ramadhan is the (month) in which was sent down the Qur'an, as a guide to mankind, also clear (Signs) for guidance and judgment (Between right and wrong). So every one of you who is present (at his home) during that month should spend it in fasting, but if any one is ill, or on a journey, the prescribed period (Should be made up) by days later. Allah intends every facility for you; He does not want to put to difficulties. (He wants you) to complete the prescribed period, and to glorify Him in that He has guided you; and perchance ye shall be grateful.

Tafsir jalalayn

These days of, the month of Ramadn, wherein the Qur'n was revealed, from the Preserved Tablet to the earthly heaven on the Night of Ordainment [laylat al-qadr] from Him, a guidance (hudan, `a guidance', is a circumstantial qualifier), guiding away from error, for the people, and as clear proofs, lucid verses, of the Guidance, the rulings that guide to truth, and, of, the Criterion, that discriminates between truth and falsehood; So let those of you, who are present at the month, fast it and if any of you be sick, or if he be on a journey, then a number of other days (this [concession] has already been mentioned, but it is repeated here to avoid the mistaken impression that it has been abrogated by the comprehensive implication of man shahida, `who are present'). God desires ease for you, and desires not hardship for you, and for this reason He has permitted you the breaking of the fast during illness or travel, [this ease being] the very reason He has commanded you to fast; He supplements [the previous statement with]; and that you fulfil (read tukmil or tukammil) the number, of the fasting days of Ramadn, and magnify God, when you have completed them, for having guided you, for having directed you to the principal rites of His religion, and that you might be thankful, to God for this.

Tafseer Ibn Kathir

The Virtue of Ramadan and the Revelation of the Qur'an in it

Allah says;

شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ الَّذِيَ أُنزِلَ فِيهِ الْقُرْانُ

The month of Ramadan in which was revealed the Qur'an,

Allah praised the month of Ramadan out of the other months by choosing it to send down the Glorious Qur'an, just as He did for all of the Divine Books He revealed to the Prophets.

Imam Ahmad reported Wathilah bin Al-Asqa that Allah's Messenger said;

أُنْزِلَتْ صُحُفُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ فِي أَوَّلِ لَيْلَةٍ مِنْ رَمَضَانَ وَأُنْزِلَتِ التَّوْرَاةُ لِسِتَ مَضَيْنَ مِنْ رَمَضَانَ وَالاِْنْجِيلُ لِثَلثَ عَشَرةَ خَلَتْ مِنْ رَمَضَانَ وَأَنْزَلَ اللهُ الْقُرْانَ لَارْبَعٍ وَعِشْرِينَ خَلَتْ مِنْ رَمَضَان

The Suhuf (Pages) of Ibrahim were revealed during the first night of Ramadan. The Torah was revealed during the sixth night of Ramadan. The Injil was revealed during the thirteenth night of Ramadan. Allah revealed the Qur'an on the twenty-fourth night of Ramadan.
The Virtues of the Qur'an

Allah said;

هُدًى لِّلنَّاسِ وَبَيِّنَاتٍ مِّنَ الْهُدَى وَالْفُرْقَانِ
a guidance for mankind and clear proofs for the guidance and the criterion (between right and wrong).

Here Allah praised the Qur'an, which He revealed as guidance for the hearts of those who believe in it and adhere to its commands.

Allah said;
وَبَيِّنَاتٍ
(and clear proofs) meaning, as clear and unambiguous signs and unequivocal proof for those who understand them.

These proofs testify to the truth of the Qur'an, its guidance, the opposite of misguidance, and how it guides to the straight path, the opposite of the wrong path, and the distinction between the truth and falsehood, and the permissible and the prohibited.
The Obligation of Fasting Ramadan

Allah said;

فَمَن شَهِدَ مِنكُمُ الشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ

So whoever of you sights (the crescent on the first night of) the month (of Ramadan, i.e., is present at his home), he must observe Sawm (fasting) that month.

This Ayah requires the healthy persons who witness the beginning of the month, while residing in their land, to fast the month.

This Ayah abrogated the Ayah that allows a choice of fasting or paying the Fidyah. When Allah ordered fasting, He again mentioned the permission for the ill person and the traveler to break the fast and to fast other days instead as compensation.

Allah said;

وَمَن كَانَ مَرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَى سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِّنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ
and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number (of days which one did not observe Sawm (fasting) must be made up) from other days.

This Ayah indicates that ill persons who are unable to fast or fear harm by fasting, and the traveler, are all allowed to break the fast. When one does not fast in this case, he is obliged to fast other days instead.

Allah said;

يُرِيدُ اللّهُ بِكُمُ الْيُسْرَ وَلَا يُرِيدُ بِكُمُ الْعُسْرَ

Allah intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you.

This Ayah indicates that Allah allowed such persons, out of His mercy and to make matters easy for them, to break the fast when they are ill or traveling, while the fast is still obligatory on the healthy persons who are not traveling.
Several Rulings concerning the Fast

The authentic Sunnah states that;

Allah's Messenger traveled during the month of Ramadan for the battle for Makkah. The Prophet marched until he reached the area of Kadid and then broke his fast and ordered those who were with him to do likewise.

This was recorded in the Two Sahihs.

Breaking the fast mentioned in this Hadith was not required, for the Companions used to go out with Allah's Messenger during the month of Ramadan, then, some of them would fast while some of them would not fast and neither category would criticize the others. If the command mentioned in the Hadith required breaking the fast, the Prophet would have criticized those who fasted. Allah's Messenger himself sometimes fasted while traveling.

For instance, it is reported in the Two Sahihs that Abu Ad-Darda said,

"We once went with Allah's Messenger during Ramadan while the heat was intense. One of us would place his hand on his head because of the intense heat. Only Allah's Messenger and Abdullah bin Rawahah were fasting at that time."

We should state that observing the permission to break the fast while traveling is better, as Allah's Messenger said about fasting while traveling;

مَنْ أَفْطَرَ فَحَسَنٌ وَمَنْ صَامَ فَلَ جُنَاحَ عَلَيْه

Those who did not fast have done good, and there is no harm for those who fasted.

In another Hadith, the Prophet said;

عَلَيْكُمْ بِرُخْصَةِ اللهِ الَّتِي رُخِّصَ لَكُم

Hold to Allah's permission that He has granted you.

Some scholars say that the two actions are the same, as Aishah narrated that;

Hamzah bin Amr Al-Aslami said, "O Messenger of Allah! I fast a lot, should I fast while traveling?"

The Prophet said;

إِنْ شِيْتَ فَصُمْ وَإِنْ شِيْتَ فَأَفْطِر

Fast if you wish or do not fast if you wish.

This Hadith is in the Two Sahihs.

It was reported that;

if the fast becomes difficult (while traveling), then breaking the fast is better.

Jabir said that;

Allah's Messenger saw a man who was being shaded (by other people while traveling). The Prophet asked about him and he was told that man was fasting.

The Prophet said;

لَيْسَ مِنَ الْبِرِّ الصِّيَامُ فِي السَّفَر

It is not a part of Birr (piety) to fast while traveling.

This was recorded by Al-Bukhari and Muslim.

As for those who ignore the Sunnah and believe in their hearts that breaking the fast while traveling is disliked, they are required to break the fast and are not allowed to fast.

As for making up for missed fasting days, it is not required to be consecutive. One may do so consecutively or not consecutively. There are ample proofs to this fact.

We should mention that fasting consecutive days is only required exclusively during Ramadan. After the month of Ramadan, what is required then is to merely make up for missed days. This is why Allah said;
فَعِدَّةٌ مِّنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ
(...the same number (should be made up) from other day).
Ease and not Hardship

Allah then said;

يُرِيدُ اللّهُ بِكُمُ الْيُسْرَ وَلَا يُرِيدُ بِكُمُ الْعُسْرَ

Allah intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you.

Imam Ahmad recorded Anas bin Malik saying that Allah's Messenger said;

يَسِّرُوا وَلَا تُعَسِّرُوا وَسَكِّنُوا وَلَا تُنَفِّرُوا

Treat the people with ease and don't be hard on them; give them glad tidings and don't fill them with aversion.

This Hadith was also collected in the Two Sahihs.

It is reported in the Sahihayn that Allah's Messenger said to Mu`adh and Abu Musa when he sent them to Yemen;

بَشِّرَا وَلَا تُنَفِّرَا وَيَسِّرَا وَلَا تُعَسِّرَا وَتَطَاوَعَا وَلَا تَخْتَلِفَا

Treat the people with ease and don't be hard on them; give them glad tidings and don't fill them with aversion; and love each other, and don't differ.

The Sunan and the Musnad compilers recorded that Allah's Messenger said;

بُعِثْتُ بِالْحَنِيفِيَّةِ السَّمْحَة

I was sent with the easy Hanifiyyah (Islamic Monotheism).

Allah's statement;

يُرِيدُ اللّهُ بِكُمُ الْيُسْرَ وَلَا يُرِيدُ بِكُمُ الْعُسْرَ

وَلِتُكْمِلُواْ الْعِدَّةَ

Allah intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you. (He wants that you) must complete the same number (of days),

means;You were allowed to break the fast while ill, while traveling, and so forth, because Allah wanted to make matters easy for you. He only commanded you to make up for missed days so that you complete the days of one month.
Remembering Allah upon performing the Acts of Worship

Allah's statement;

وَلِتُكَبِّرُواْ اللّهَ عَلَى مَا هَدَاكُمْ
and that you must magnify Allah (i.e., to say Takbir (Allahu Akbar;Allah is the Most Great)) for having guided you,

means;So that you remember Allah upon finishing the act of worship.

This is similar to Allah's statement;

فَإِذَا قَضَيْتُم مَّنَـسِكَكُمْ فَاذْكُرُواْ اللَّهَ كَذِكْرِكُمْ ءَابَأءَكُمْ أَوْ أَشَدَّ ذِكْرًا

So when you have accomplished your Manasik, (rituals) remember Allah as you remember your forefathers or with far more remembrance. (2;200)

and,

فَإِذَا قُضِيَتِ الصَّلَوةُ فَانتَشِرُواْ فِى الاٌّرْضِ وَابْتَغُواْ مِن فَضْلِ اللَّهِ وَاذْكُرُواْ اللَّهَ كَثِيراً لَّعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ
Then when the (Jumuah) Salah (prayer) is ended, you may disperse through the land, and seek the bounty of Allah (by working), and remember Allah much, that you may be successful. (62;10)

and,

فَاصْبِرْ عَلَى مَا يَقُولُونَ وَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ قَبْلَ طُلُوعِ الشَّمْسِ وَقَبْلَ الْغُرُوبِ

وَمِنَ الَّيْلِ فَسَبِّحْهُ وَأَدْبَـرَ السُّجُودِ
and glorify the praises of your Lord, before the rising of the sun and before (its) setting. And during a part of the night, glorify His praises, and after the prayers. (50;39-40)

This is why the Sunnah encouraged;
Tasbih saying, Subhan Allah, i.e., all praise is due to Allah,
Tahmid saying Al-Hamdu Lillah, i.e., all the thanks are due to Allah, and
Takbir saying Allahu Akbar, i.e., Allah is the Most Great.

after the compulsory prayers.

Ibn Abbas said,

"We used to know that Allah's Messenger has finished the prayer by the Takbir."

Similarly, several scholars have stated that;

reciting Takbir the during Id-ul-Fitr was specified by the Ayah that states;

وَلِتُكْمِلُواْ الْعِدَّةَ

وَلِتُكَبِّرُواْ اللّهَ عَلَى مَا هَدَاكُمْ


(He wants that you) must complete the same number (of days), and that you must magnify Allah (i.e., to say Takbir (Allahu Akbar;Allah is the Most Great)) for having guided you...

Allah's statement;

وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ


so that you may be grateful to Him.

means;If you adhere to what Allah commanded you, obeying Him by performing the obligations, abandoning the prohibitions and abiding by the set limits, then perhaps you will be among the grateful.

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