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ARBNDEENIDTRUR
أَيَّامًا
(Fasting for) days
مَّعْدُودَٰتٍۚ
numbered.
فَمَن
So whoever
كَانَ
is
مِنكُم
among you
مَّرِيضًا
sick
أَوْ
or
عَلَىٰ
on
سَفَرٍ
a journey,
فَعِدَّةٌ
then a prescribed number
مِّنْ
of
أَيَّامٍ
days
أُخَرَۚ
other.
وَعَلَى
And on
ٱلَّذِينَ
those who
يُطِيقُونَهُۥ
can afford it,
فِدْيَةٌ
a ransom
طَعَامُ
(of) feeding
مِسْكِينٍۖ
a poor.
فَمَن
So whoever
تَطَوَّعَ
volunteers
خَيْرًا
good
فَهُوَ
then it
خَيْرٌ
(is) better
لَّهُۥۚ
for him.
وَأَن
And to
تَصُومُوا۟
fast
خَيْرٌ
(is) better
لَّكُمْۖ
for you,
إِن
if
كُنتُمْ
you
تَعْلَمُونَ
know.

Ayyaamam ma'doodaat; faman kaana minkum mareedan aw'alaa safarin fa'iddatum min ayyaamin ukhar; wa 'alal lazeena yuteeqoonahoo fidyatun ta'aamu miskeenin faman tatawwa'a khairan fahuwa khairulo lahoo wa an tasoomoo khairul lakum in kuntum ta'lamoon

Sahih International:

[Fasting for] a limited number of days. So whoever among you is ill or on a journey [during them] - then an equal number of days [are to be made up]. And upon those who are able [to fast, but with hardship] - a ransom [as substitute] of feeding a poor person [each day]. And whoever volunteers excess - it is better for him. But to fast is best for you, if you only knew.

Ahmed Ali

Fast a (fixed) number of days, but if someone is ill or is travelling (he should complete) the number of days (he had missed); and those who find it hard to fast should expiate by feeding a poor person. For the good they do with a little hardship is better for men. And if you fast it is good for you, if you knew.

Ahmed Raza Khan

For a certain number of days only; so whoever is sick among you, or on a journey, the same number in other days; and those who do not have the strength for it must give a redemption by feeding a needy person; so whoever increases the good of his own accord, it is better for him; and fasting is better for you, if only you realise.

Ali Ünal

(Fasting is for) a fixed number of days. If any of you is so ill that he cannot fast, or on a journey, he must fast the same number of other days. But for those who can no longer manage to fast, there is a redemption (penance) by feeding a person in destitution (for each day missed or giving him the same amount in money). Yet better it is for him who volunteers greater good (by either giving more or fasting in case of recovery), and that you should fast (when you are able to) is better for you, if you but knew (the worth of fasting).

Amatul Rahman Omar

(You are required to fast) for a prescribed number of days. But if anyone of you is sick or is on a journey he shall fast (to make up) the prescribed number in other days. And for those who are able to fast is an expiation (as thanksgiving) the feeding of a poor person (daily for the days of fasting). And he who volunteers (extra) good, (will find that) it is even better for him. And that you observe fasting is better for you, if you only know.

A. J. Arberry

for days numbered; and if any of you be sick, or if he be on a journey, then a number of other days; and for those who are able to fast, a redemption by feeding a poor man. Yet better it is for him who volunteers good, and that you should fast is better for you, if you but know;

Abdul Majid Daryabadi

Days numbered and few; then whosoever among you is sick or journeying, for him the like number of other days. And for those who can keep it with hardship the ransom is the feeding of a and whosoever voluntarily poor man doth good, it will be better for him; and that ye fast Will be better for you, if ye only knew.

Faridul Haque

For a certain number of days only; so whoever is sick among you, or on a journey, the same number in other days; and those who do not have the strength for it must give a redemption by feeding a needy person; so whoever increases the good of his own accord, it is better for him; and fasting is better for you, if only you realise.

Hamid S. Aziz

(Fasting) A certain number of days, but he amongst you who is ill or on a journey, then (let him fast) another number of days. And those who can do it with hardship may redeem it by feeding a poor man; but he who gives more of his own will, it is better for him; but if you fast it is better for you, if you did but know.

Hilali & Khan

[Observing Saum (fasts)] for a fixed number of days, but if any of you is ill or on a journey, the same number (should be made up) from other days. And as for those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g. an old man, etc.), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a Miskin (poor person) (for every day). But whoever does good of his own accord, it is better for him. And that you fast, it is better for you if only you know.

Talal Itani

For a specified number of days. But whoever among you is sick, or on a journey, then a number of other days. For those who are able: a ransom of feeding a needy person. But whoever volunteers goodness, it is better for him. But to fast is best for you, if you only knew.

English Literal

Days/times counted/numbered, so who was from you sick/diseased or on (a) journey/trip/voyage, so numbered/counted from other days/times, and on those who (can) endure/tolerate/bear it a ransom/redemption (of) feeding a poorest of poor/poor oppressed, so who volunteered goodness/generosity , so it is best for him, and that you fast (it is) best for you, if you are knowing.

Abul Ala Maududi

The Fast is to be observed for a fixed number of days. If, however, anyone of you be sick or on a journey, he should fast the same number of other days. As for those who can fast (but do not), the expiation of this shall be the feeding of one needy person for one fast day, and whoso does more than this with a willing heart does it for his own good. But if you understand the thing, it is better for you to observe the Fast.

Maulana Mohammad Ali

For a certain number of days. But whoever among you is sick or on a journey, (he shall fast) a (like) number of other days. And those who find it extremely hard may effect redemption by feeding a poor man. So whoever does good spontaneously, it is better for him; and that you fast is better for you if you know.

Safi-ur-Rahman al-Mubarakpuri

Fast for a fixed number of days, but if any of you is ill or on a journey, the same number (should be made up) from other days. And as for those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g., an old man), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a Miskin (poor person) (for every day). But whoever does good of his own accord, it is better for him. And that you fast is better for you if only you know.

Mohammed Marmaduke William Pickthall

(Fast) a certain number of days; and (for) him who is sick among you, or on a journey, (the same) number of other days; and for those who can afford it there is a ransom: the feeding of a man in need - but whoso doeth good of his own accord, it is better for him: and that ye fast is better for you if ye did but know -

Ali Quli Qarai

That for known days. But should any of you be sick or on a journey, let it be a [similar] number of other days. Those who find it straining shall be liable to atonement by feeding a needy person. Should anyone do good of his own accord, that is better for him, and to fast is better for you, should you know.

Qaribullah & Darwish

(Fast) a certain number of days, but if any one of you is ill or on a journey let him (fast) a similar number of days later on; and for those who are unable (tofast), there is a ransom the feeding of a needy person. Whosoever volunteers good, it is good for him; but to fast is better for you, if you but knew.

Muhammad Sarwar

Fasting is only for a certain number of days. One who is sick or on a journey has to fast the same number of days at another time. Those who can afford a redemption should feed a poor person. Good deeds performed on one's own initiative will be rewarded. However, fasting is better and will be rewarded. Would that you knew this!

Mohammad Habib Shakir

For a certain number of days; but whoever among you is sick or on a journey, then (he shall fast) a (like) number of other days; and those who are not able to do it may effect a redemption by feeding a poor man; so whoever does good spontaneously it is better for him; and that you fast is better for you if you know.

Wahiduddin Khan

Fast for a specified number of days, but if any one among you is ill or on a journey, let him fast the same number of days later. For those who can fast only with extreme difficulty, there is a way to compensate -- the feeding of a needy person. But he who does good of his own accord shall be well rewarded; but to fast is better for you, if you only knew.

Abdullah Yusuf Ali

(Fasting) for a fixed number of days; but if any of you is ill, or on a journey, the prescribed number (Should be made up) from days later. For those who can do it (With hardship), is a ransom, the feeding of one that is indigent. But he that will give more, of his own free will,- it is better for him. And it is better for you that ye fast, if ye only knew.

Tafsir jalalayn

For days (ayyman, `days', is in the accusative as the object of al-siym, `the fast', or of an implied yasm, `he fasts') numbered, few or specific in number, that is, those of Ramadn, as will be mentioned below; God has specified a small number as a way of facilitating matters for those under the obligation; and if any of you, during the month, be sick, or be on a journey, in which prayers are shortened, or if one is strained by the fast in both cases and breaks it, then a number of other days, equal to the ones during which he broke his fast -- let him fast them instead; and for those who are, not, able to do it, [to fast] on account of old age or chronic illness, a redemption; which is, the feeding of a poor man, with about the same amount one consumes in a given day, that is, one mudd measure of the principal food of that town each day (a variant reading has [genitive] fidyatin as an explicative clause. It is also said that the [l] negation of the verb [yutqnahu] is not actually implied, because at the very beginning of Islam, they could choose between fasting or offering the redemption; but later on this was abrogated by fixing the Fast [as an obligation], where God says, So let those of you, who are present at the month, fast it [Q. 2;185]; Ibn `Abbs said [by way of qualification] `Except for the pregnant one and the one breastfeeding, if they break their fast out of concern for the child; in the case of these two, the verse remains valid and has not been abrogated'). For him who volunteers good, by offering more than the minimum amount mentioned for the redemption; that, volunteering, is good for him; but that you should fast (wa-an tasm is the subject) is better for you (khayrun lakum is its predicate), than breaking the fast and paying the redemption, if you but knew, that this is better for you, then do it.

Tafseer Ibn Kathir

أَيَّامًا مَّعْدُودَاتٍ فَمَن كَانَ مِنكُم مَّرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَى سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِّنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ

Fast for a fixed number of days, but if any of you is ill or on a journey, the same number (should be made up) from other days.

Allah states that the fast occurs during a fixed number of days, so that it does not become hard on the hearts, thereby weakening their resolve and endurance.
The various Stages of Fasting

Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded that Aishah said,

"(The day of) `Ashura' was a day of fasting. When the obligation to fast Ramadan was revealed, those who wished fasted, and those who wished did not."

Al-Bukhari recorded the same from Ibn `Umar and Ibn Mas`ud.

Allah said;

وَعَلَى الَّذِينَ يُطِيقُونَهُ فِدْيَةٌ طَعَامُ مِسْكِينٍ
those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g., an old man), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a Miskin (poor person) (for every day).

Mu`adh commented,

"In the beginning, those who wished, fasted and those who wished, did not fast and fed a poor person for each day."

Al- Bukhari recorded Salamah bin Al-Akwa saying that;

when the Ayah was revealed, those who did not wish to fast, used to pay the Fidyah (feeding a poor person for each day they did not fast) until the following Ayah (2;185) was revealed abrogating the previous Ayah.

It was also reported from Ubaydullah from Nafi that Ibn Umar said;

"It was abrogated."

As-Suddi reported that Murrah narrated that Abdullah said about this Ayah;

"It means `those who find it difficult (to fast).' Formerly, those who wished, fasted and those who wished, did not but fed a poor person instead."

Allah then said;

فَمَن تَطَوَّعَ خَيْرًا

But whoever does good of his own accord,

meaning whoever fed an extra poor person.

فَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَّهُ وَأَن تَصُومُواْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ



it is better for him. And that you fast is better for you if only you know.

Later the Ayah;
فَمَن شَهِدَ مِنكُمُ الشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ
(So whoever of you sights (the crescent on the first night of) the month (of Ramadan, i.e., is present at his home), he must observe Sawm (fasting) that month) (2;185) was revealed and this abrogated the previous Ayah (2;184).
The Fidyah (Expiation) for breaking the Fast is for the Old and the Ailing

Al-Bukhari reported that;

Ata heard Ibn Abbas recite;
وَعَلَى الَّذِينَ يُطِيقُونَهُ فِدْيَةٌ طَعَامُ مِسْكِينٍ
(And as for those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g., an old man), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a Miskin (poor person) (for every day). Ibn Abbas then commented,

"(This Ayah) was not abrogated, it is for the old man and the old woman who are able to fast with difficulty, but choose instead to feed a poor person for every day (they do not fast)."

Others reported that Sa`id bin Jubayr mentioned this from Ibn Abbas.

So the abrogation here applies to the healthy person, who is not traveling and who has to fast, as Allah said;
فَمَن شَهِدَ مِنكُمُ الشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ
(So whoever of you sights (the crescent on the first night of) the month (of Ramadan, i.e., is present at his home), he must observe Sawm (fasting) that month. (2;185)

As for the old man (and woman) who cannot fast,

he is allowed to abstain from fasting and does not have to fast another day instead, because he is not likely to improve and be able to fast other days. So he is required to pay a Fidyah for every day missed.

This is the opinion of Ibn Abbas and several others among the Salaf who read the Ayah;
وَعَلَى الَّذِينَ يُطِيقُونَهُ
(And as for those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g., an old man)), to mean those who find it difficult to fast as Ibn Mas`ud stated.

This is also the opinion of Al-Bukhari who said,

"As for the old man (person) who cannot fast, (he should do like) Anas who, for one or two years after he became old fed some bread and meat to a poor person for each day he did not fast."

This point, which Al-Bukhari attributed to Anas without a chain of narrators, was collected with a continuous chain of narrators by Abu Ya`la Mawsuli in his Musnad, that Ayub bin Abu Tamimah said;

"Anas could no longer fast. So he made a plate of Tharid (broth, bread and meat) and invited thirty poor persons and fed them."

The same ruling applies for the pregnant and breast-feeding women if they fear for themselves or their children or fetuses. In this case, they pay the Fidyah and do not have to fast other days in place of the days that they missed