Skip to main content
ARBNDEENIDTRUR
أُحِلَّ
Permitted
لَكُمْ
for you
لَيْلَةَ
(in the) nights
ٱلصِّيَامِ
(of) fasting
ٱلرَّفَثُ
(is) the approach
إِلَىٰ
to
نِسَآئِكُمْۚ
your wives.
هُنَّ
They
لِبَاسٌ
(are) garments
لَّكُمْ
for you
وَأَنتُمْ
and you
لِبَاسٌ
(are) garments
لَّهُنَّۗ
for them.
عَلِمَ
Knows
ٱللَّهُ
Allah
أَنَّكُمْ
that you
كُنتُمْ
used to
تَخْتَانُونَ
deceive
أَنفُسَكُمْ
yourselves,
فَتَابَ
so He turned
عَلَيْكُمْ
towards you
وَعَفَا
and He forgave
عَنكُمْۖ
[on] you.
فَٱلْـَٰٔنَ
So now
بَٰشِرُوهُنَّ
have relations with them
وَٱبْتَغُوا۟
and seek
مَا
what
كَتَبَ
has ordained
ٱللَّهُ
Allah
لَكُمْۚ
for you.
وَكُلُوا۟
And eat
وَٱشْرَبُوا۟
and drink
حَتَّىٰ
until
يَتَبَيَّنَ
becomes distinct
لَكُمُ
to you
ٱلْخَيْطُ
the thread
ٱلْأَبْيَضُ
[the] white
مِنَ
from
ٱلْخَيْطِ
the thread
ٱلْأَسْوَدِ
[the] black
مِنَ
from
ٱلْفَجْرِۖ
[the] dawn.
ثُمَّ
Then
أَتِمُّوا۟
complete
ٱلصِّيَامَ
the fast
إِلَى
to
ٱلَّيْلِۚ
the night.
وَلَا
And (do) not
تُبَٰشِرُوهُنَّ
have relations with them
وَأَنتُمْ
and you
عَٰكِفُونَ
(are) secluded
فِى
in
ٱلْمَسَٰجِدِۗ
the masajid.
تِلْكَ
These
حُدُودُ
(are the) limits
ٱللَّهِ
(set by) Allah,
فَلَا
so (do) not
تَقْرَبُوهَاۗ
approach them.
كَذَٰلِكَ
Thus
يُبَيِّنُ
makes clear
ٱللَّهُ
Allah
ءَايَٰتِهِۦ
His verses
لِلنَّاسِ
for [the] people
لَعَلَّهُمْ
so that they may
يَتَّقُونَ
(become) righteous.

Uhilla lakum laylatas Siyaamir rafasu ilaa nisaaa'ikum; hunna libaasullakum wa antum libaasullahunn; 'alimal laahu annakum kuntum takhtaanoona anfusakum fataaba 'alaikum wa 'afaa 'ankum fal'aana baashiroo hunna wabtaghoo maa katabal laahoo lakum; wa kuloo washraboo hattaa yatabaiyana lakumul khaitul abyadu minal khaitil aswadi minal fajri summa atimmus Siyaama ilal layl; wa laa tubaashiroo hunna wa antum 'aakifoona fil masaajid; tilka hudoodul laahi falaa taqraboohaa; kazaalika yubaiyinul laahu aayaatihee linnaasi la'allahum yattaqoon

Sahih International:

It has been made permissible for you the night preceding fasting to go to your wives [for sexual relations]. They are clothing for you and you are clothing for them. Allah knows that you used to deceive yourselves, so He accepted your repentance and forgave you. So now, have relations with them and seek that which Allah has decreed for you. And eat and drink until the white thread of dawn becomes distinct to you from the black thread [of night]. Then complete the fast until the sunset. And do not have relations with them as long as you are staying for worship in the mosques. These are the limits [set by] Allah, so do not approach them. Thus does Allah make clear His ordinances to the people that they may become righteous.

Ahmed Ali

You are allowed to sleep with your wives on the nights of the fast: They are your dress as you are theirs. God is aware you were cheating yourselves, so He turned to you and pardoned you. So now you may have intercourse with them, and seek what God has ordained for you. Eat and drink until the white thread of dawn appears clear from the dark line, then fast until the night falls; and abstain from your wives (when you have decided) to stay in the mosques for assiduous devotion. These are the bounds fixed by God, so keep well within them. So does God make His signs clear to men that they may take heed for themselves.

Ahmed Raza Khan

Going to your wives during the nights of the fast is made lawful for you; they are coverings for you and you are coverings for them; Allah knows that you were deceiving yourselves (in this respect), so He accepted your penance and forgave you; so cohabit with them and seek what Allah has destined for you – and eat and drink until the white thread becomes distinct to you from the black thread at dawn – then complete the fast till nightfall; and do not touch women while staying in seclusion for worship in the mosques; these are the limits imposed by Allah, so do not go near them; this is how Allah explains His verses to mankind so that they may attain piety.

Ali Ünal

It is made lawful for you to go in to your wives on the night of the Fast. (There is such intimacy between you that) they are a garment for you (enfolding you to protect you against illicit relations and beautifying you) and you are (in the same way for the same reasons) a garment for them. God knows that (you felt that) you were betraying yourselves (by doing what you supposed was prohibited), and has turned to you in lenience (and protected you from possible sins by not legislating such a prohibition). So now associate in intimacy with them and seek what God has ordained for you. And (you are permitted to) eat and drink until you discern the white streak of dawn against the blackness of night; then observe the Fast until night sets in. But do not associate in intimacy with them (your wives) during the period when you are in retreat in the mosques. These are the bounds set by God; do not draw near them (keep a safe distance away from them). Thus does God make His Revelations clear to people, so that they may attain piety and be protected against the punishment therefor.

Amatul Rahman Omar

(Though during Fasting you must abstain from all the urges of nature including the sexual urge) it is made lawful for you on the nights of the fasts to approach and lie with your wives (for sexual relationship). They are (a sort of) garment for you and you are (a sort of) garment for them. Allâh knows that you have been doing injustice to yourselves (by restricting conjugal relations with your wives even at night), so He turned to you with mercy and provided you relief; now enjoy their company (at night during Ramadzân) and seek what Allâh has ordained for you. Eat and drink till the white streak of the dawn becomes distinct to you from the black streak (of the darkness), then complete the fast till nightfall. And you shall not lie with them (- your wives) while you perform I`tikâf (- while you are secluding in the mosque for prayer and devotion to God). These are the limits (imposed) by Allâh so do not approach these (limits). Thus does Allâh explains His commandments for people that they may become secure against evil.

A. J. Arberry

Permitted to you, upon the night of the Fast, is to go in to your wives; -- they are a vestment for you, and you are a vestment for them. God knows that you have been betraying yourselves, and has turned to you and pardoned you. So now lie with them, and seek what God has prescribed for you. And eat and drink, until the white thread shows clearly to you from the black thread at the dawn; then complete the Fast unto the night, and do not lie with them while you cleave to the mosques. Those are God's bounds; keep well within them. So God makes clear His signs to men; haply they will be godfearing.

Abdul Majid Daryabadi

Allowed unto you, on the night of fasts, is consorting with your women. they are a garment unto you, and ye are a garment unto them. Allah knoweth that ye have been defrauding yourselves, so He hath relented toward you and pardoned you. Wherefore now copulate with them, and seek that which Allah hath prescribed for you, and eat and drink, Until the white thread becometh manifest unto you from the black thread of the dawn; thereafter complete the fast till night fall. And copulate not with them While ye are retreating in the mosques. These are the bounds of Allah, wherefore approach them not. Thus Allah expoundeth all His signs unto mankind that haply they may fear Him.

Faridul Haque

Going to your wives during the nights of the fast is made lawful for you; they are coverings for you and you are coverings for them; Allah knows that you were deceiving yourselves (in this respect), so He accepted your penance and forgave you; so cohabit with them and seek what Allah has destined for you - and eat and drink until the white thread becomes distinct to you from the black thread at dawn - then complete the fast till nightfall; and do not touch women while staying in seclusion for worship in the mosques; these are the limits imposed by Allah, so do not go near them; this is how Allah explains His verses to mankind so that they may attain piety.

Hamid S. Aziz

Lawful for you on the night of the fast is association with your wives; they are a garment unto you, and you a garment unto them. Allah knows that you did defraud yourselves, wherefore He has turned towards you and forgiven you; so now go in unto them and crave what Allah has prescribed (or ordained) for you, and eat and drink until a white thread can be distinguished by you from a black one at the dawn. Then fulfil the fast until the night, and go not in unto them while you are at your devotions in the mosques. These are the bounds that Allah has set, so draw not near thereto. Thus does Allah make manifest His signs to men, that per chance (or possibly) they may learn restraint.

Hilali & Khan

It is made lawful for you to have sexual relations with your wives on the night of As-Saum (the fasts). They are Libas [i.e. body cover, or screen, or Sakan, (i.e. you enjoy the pleasure of living with her - as in Verse 7:189) Tafsir At-Tabari], for you and you are the same for them. Allah knows that you used to deceive yourselves, so He turned to you (accepted your repentance) and forgave you. So now have sexual relations with them and seek that which Allah has ordained for you (offspring), and eat and drink until the white thread (light) of dawn appears to you distinct from the black thread (darkness of night), then complete your Saum (fast) till the nightfall. And do not have sexual relations with them (your wives) while you are in I'tikaf (i.e. confining oneself in a mosque for prayers and invocations leaving the worldly activities) in the mosques. These are the limits (set) by Allah, so approach them not. Thus does Allah make clear His Ayat (proofs, evidences, lessons, signs, revelations, verses, laws, legal and illegal things, Allah's set limits, orders, etc.) to mankind that they may become Al-Muttaqun (the pious - see V. 2:2).

Talal Itani

Permitted for you is intercourse with your wives on the night of the fast. They are a garment for you, and you are a garment for them. God knows that you used to betray yourselves, but He turned to you and pardoned you. So approach them now, and seek what God has ordained for you, and eat and drink until the white streak of dawn can be distinguished from the black streak. Then complete the fast until nightfall. But do not approach them while you are in retreat at the mosques. These are the limits of God, so do not come near them. God thus clarifies His revelations to the people, that they may attain piety.

English Literal

(It) became/is permitted/allowed to you (the) night of the fasting the obscenity/ indecency (intercourse), to your women (wives), they are (F) a cover/wives to you and you are a cover/husbands tothem (F), God knew that you were betraying/being unfaithful (to) yourselves, so He forgave on you, and He forgave/pardoned on you, so now touch their (F) outer skin , and desire (seek) what God has written/dictated for you, and eat and drink until the thread the white appears from the thread the black from the dawn , then complete the fasting to the night and do not touch their outer skin (while) you are devoting in the mosques/places of worshipping God. Those are God`s limits/orders , so do not approach/near it, like that God clarifies His verses/evidences to the people, maybe they fear and obey (God).

Abul Ala Maududi

It has been made lawful for you to go to your wives during the nights of the fast days. They are as a garment to you and you are as a garment to them. Though Allah knew that you were secretly dishonest to yourselves, He has pardoned your guilt and forgiven you. NOW you are permitted to have intercourse with your wives and enjoy what Allah has made lawful for you. You are also pemitted to eat and drink during the nights of the Fast months. until you can discern the white streak of dawn from the blackness of night. " Then (abstain from all these things and) complete your fast till night-fall. But you should not have intercourse with your wives while you confine yourselves to mosques. These are the bounds set by Allah; so do nut go near them. In this way Allah makes His Commands clear to mankind. It is expected that they will guard themselves against wrong ways.

Maulana Mohammad Ali

It is made lawful for you to go in to your wives on the night of the fast. They are an apparel for you and you are an apparel for them. Allah knows that you acted unjustly to yourselves, so He turned to you in mercy and removed (the burden) from you. So now be in contact with them and seek what Allah has ordained for you, and eat and drink until the whiteness of the day becomes distinct from the blackness of the night at dawn, then complete the fast till nightfall, and touch them not while you keep to the mosques. These are the limits of Allah, so go not near them. Thus does Allah make clear His messages for men that they may keep their duty.

Safi-ur-Rahman al-Mubarakpuri

It is made lawful for you to have sexual relations with your wives on the night of As-Siyam (fasting). They are Libas [i.e., body-cover, or screen] for you and you are Libas for them. Allah knows that you used to deceive yourselves, so He turned to you (accepted your repentance) and forgave you. So now have sexual relations with them and seek that which Allah has ordained for you (offspring), and eat and drink until the white thread (light) of dawn appears to you distinct from the black thread (darkness of night), then complete your fast till the nightfall. And do not have sexual relations with them (your wives) while you are in I`tikaf in the Masjids. These are the limits (set) by Allah, so approach them not. Thus does Allah make clear His Ayat to mankind that they may acquire Taqwa.

Mohammed Marmaduke William Pickthall

It is made lawful for you to go in unto your wives on the night of the fast. They are raiment for you and ye are raiment for them. Allah is Aware that ye were deceiving yourselves in this respect and He hath turned in mercy toward you and relieved you. So hold intercourse with them and seek that which Allah hath ordained for you, and eat and drink until the white thread becometh distinct to you from the black thread of the dawn. Then strictly observe the fast till nightfall and touch them not, but be at your devotions in the mosques. These are the limits imposed by Allah, so approach them not. Thus Allah expoundeth His revelation to mankind that they may ward off (evil).

Ali Quli Qarai

You are permitted on the night of the fast to go into your wives: they are a garment for you, and you are a garment for them. Allah knew that you would betray yourselves, so He pardoned you and excused you. So now consort with them and seek what Allah has ordained for you, and eat and drink until the white streak becomes manifest to you from the dark streak at the crack of dawn. Then complete the fast until nightfall, and do not consort with them while you dwell in confinement in the mosques. These are Allah’s bounds, so do not approach them. Thus does Allah clarify His signs for mankind so that they may be Godwary.

Qaribullah & Darwish

Permitted to you, on the night of the Fast, is the approach to your wives; they are raiments for you, as you are raiments for them. Allah knows that you have been deceiving yourselves. He has accepted and pardoned you. Therefore, you may now touch them and seek what Allah has ordained for you. Eat and drink until the white thread becomes clear to you from a black thread at the dawn. Then resume the fast till nightfall and do not touch them while you cleave to the mosques. These are the Bounds of Allah, do not come near them. As such He makes known His verses to people so that they will be cautious.

Muhammad Sarwar

It is made lawful for you, during the nights of fasting, to have carnal relations with your wives. They are your garments and you are their garments. God knew that you were deceiving yourselves. He relented towards you and forgave you. Now it is lawful for you to have carnal relations with your wives and follow what God has commanded. Eat and drink until the white streak of dawn becomes distinguishable from darkness. Complete your fast, starting from dawn to dusk. It is not lawful to have carnal relations with your wives during i'tikaf in the mosque. Such are the limits of the laws of God. Do not come close to transgressing them. Thus has God explained His evidence to men so that perhaps they will have fear of God.

Mohammad Habib Shakir

It is made lawful to you to go into your wives on the night of the fast; they are an apparel for you and you are an apparel for them; Allah knew that you acted unfaithfully to yourselves, so He has turned to you (mercifully) and removed from you (this burden); so now be in contact with them and seek what Allah has ordained for you, and eat and drink until the whiteness of the day becomes distinct from the blackness of the night at dawn, then complete the fast till night, and have not contact with them while you keep to the mosques; these are the limits of Allah, so do not go near them. Thus does Allah make clear His communications for men that they may guard (against evil).

Wahiduddin Khan

It has been made lawful for you to go to your wives on the night of the fast: they are like a garment for you, and you are like a garment for them. God is aware that you were deceiving yourselves and He has turned in mercy towards you and pardoned you. So you may now consort with them and seek what God has ordained for you. Eat and drink until the white thread of dawn becomes distinct from the black. Then resume the fast until nightfall, and do not approach them during the nights of your devotional retreat in the mosques. These are the limits set by God, so do not approach them. Thus He makes clear His commandments to mankind, so that they may guard themselves [against evil].

Abdullah Yusuf Ali

Permitted to you, on the night of the fasts, is the approach to your wives. They are your garments and ye are their garments. Allah knoweth what ye used to do secretly among yourselves; but He turned to you and forgave you; so now associate with them, and seek what Allah Hath ordained for you, and eat and drink, until the white thread of dawn appear to you distinct from its black thread; then complete your fast Till the night appears; but do not associate with your wives while ye are in retreat in the mosques. Those are Limits (set by) Allah; Approach not nigh thereto. Thus doth Allah make clear His Signs to men; that they may learn self-restraint.

Tafsir jalalayn

Permitted to you, upon the night of the Fast, is to go in to your wives, in sexual intercourse; this was revealed as an abrogation of its unlawfulness during the earliest phase of Islam, as well as [an abrogation of] the unlawfulness of eating and drinking after the night prayer; they are a vestment for you, and you are a vestment for them (a metaphor for their embraces or their need for one another); God knows that you have been betraying yourselves, by having sexual intercourse on the eve of the fast; this happened with `Umar [b. al-Khattb] and others, and they apologised to the Prophet (s), and so He has turned to you [relenting], before you even turned in repentance, and He has pardoned you. So now, when it is permitted to you, lie with them, in sexual intercourse, and seek what God has prescribed for you, of sexual intercourse or what it produces of offspring; and eat and drink, [at any time] during the night, until the white thread is distinct, to you, from the black thread at daybreak, that is, the true [moment of daybreak], which explains the white thread, while the explanation of the black thread, namely, the night, has been left out. The whiteness and the darkness of the dawn [twilight] are likened to two black and white threads in the way they stretch out; then complete the fast, from daybreak, to the night, that is, until it arrives, after the setting of the sun; and do not lie with them, your women, while you cleave to the mosques in devotion [to God], while you are residing [therein] with the intention of [performing] i`tikf (`spiritual retreat'). This was a prohibition pertaining to one who used to leave [the mosque], whilst in a state of i`tikf, have sexual intercourse with his wife, and then return. Those, rulings mentioned, are God's bounds, delimited by God for His servants so that they do not overstep them; do not approach them (l taqrabh, is more intense than l ta`taddh, `Do not overstep', used in verses elsewhere). So, just as He makes clear to you what has been mentioned, God makes clear His signs to people so that they might fear [disobeying] His prohibitions.

Tafseer Ibn Kathir

Eating, Drinking and Sexual Intercourse are allowed during the Nights of Ramadan

Allah says;

أُحِلَّ لَكُمْ لَيْلَةَ الصِّيَامِ الرَّفَثُ إِلَى نِسَأيِكُمْ

It is made lawful for you to have sexual relations with your wives on the night of As-Siyam (fasting).

These Ayat contain a relief from Allah for the Muslims by ending the practice that was observed in the early years of Islam. At that time, Muslims were allowed to eat, drink and have sexual intercourse only until the `Isha' (Night) prayer, unless one sleeps before the `Isha' prayer. Those who slept before `Isha' or offered the `Isha' prayer, were not allowed to drink, eat or sexual intercourse sex until the next night. The Muslims found that to be difficult for them.

According to Ibn Abbas, Ata and Mujahid,

the Ayat used the word `Rafath' to indicate sexual intercourse,

Similar Tafsir was offered by Sa`id bin Jubayr, Tawus, Salim bin Abdullah, Amr bin Dinar, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Az-Zuhri, Ad-Dahhak, Ibrahim An-Nakhai, As-Suddi, Ata Al-Khurasani and Muqatil bin Hayyan.

Allah said;

هُنَّ لِبَاسٌ لَّكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ لِبَاسٌ لَّهُنَّ

They are Libas (i.e., body-cover, or screen) for you and you are Libas for them.

Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, As-Suddi and Muqatil bin Hayyan said that this Ayah means,

"Your wives are a resort for you and you for them."

Ar-Rabi bin Anas said,

"They are your cover and you are their cover."

In short, the wife and the husband are intimate and have sexual intercourse with each other, and this is why they were permitted to have sexual activity during the nights of Ramadan, so that matters are made easier for them.

Abu Ishaq reported that Al-Bara bin Azib said,

"When the Companions of Allah's Messenger observed fast but would sleep before breaking their fast, they would continue fasting until the following night.

Qays bin Sirmah Al-Ansari was fasting one day and was working in his land. When the time to break the fast came, he went to his wife and said, `Do you have food?'

She said, `No. But I could try to get you some.'

His eyes then were overcome by sleep and when his wife came back, she found him asleep. She said, `Woe unto you! Did you sleep?'

In the middle of the next day, he lost consciousness and mentioned what had happened to the Prophet.

Then, this Ayah was revealed;
أُحِلَّ لَكُمْ لَيْلَةَ الصِّيَامِ الرَّفَثُ إِلَى نِسَأيِكُمْ
(It is made lawful for you to have sexual relations with your wives on the night of As-Siyam (fasting)) until...
وَكُلُواْ وَاشْرَبُواْ حَتَّى يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ الْخَيْطُ الَابْيَضُ مِنَ الْخَيْطِ الَاسْوَدِ مِنَ الْفَجْرِ
(and eat and drink until the white thread (light) of dawn appears to you distinct from the black thread (darkness of night), then complete your fast till the nightfall).

Consequently, they were very delighted."

Al-Bukhari reported this Hadith by Abu Ishaq who related that he heard Al-Bara say,

"When fasting Ramadan was ordained, Muslims used to refrain from sleeping with their wives the entire month, but some men used to deceive themselves.

Allah revealed;
عَلِمَ اللّهُ أَنَّكُمْ كُنتُمْ تَخْتانُونَ أَنفُسَكُمْ فَتَابَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَعَفَا عَنكُمْ
(Allah knows that you used to deceive yourselves, so He turned to you (accepted your repentance) and forgave you)."

Ali bin Abu Talhah narrated that Ibn Abbas said,

"During the month of Ramadan, after Muslims would pray `Isha', they would not touch their women and food until the next night. Then some Muslims, including Umar bin Al-Khattab, touched (had sex with) their wives and had some food during Ramadan after `Isha'. They complained to Allah's Messenger. Then Allah sent down;
عَلِمَ اللّهُ أَنَّكُمْ كُنتُمْ تَخْتانُونَ أَنفُسَكُمْ فَتَابَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَعَفَا عَنكُمْ فَالانَ بَاشِرُوهُنَّ


(Allah knows that you used to deceive yourselves, so He turned to you (accepted your repentance) and forgave you. So now have sexual relations with them)."

This is the same narration that Al-Awfi related from Ibn Abbas.

Allah said;

وَابْتَغُواْ مَا كَتَبَ اللّهُ لَكُمْ
and seek that which Allah has ordained for you (offspring),

Abu Hurayrah, Ibn Abbas, Anas, Shurayh Al-Qadi, Mujahid, Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Ata, Ar-Rabi bin Anas, As-Suddi, Zayd bin Aslam, Hakam bin Utbah, Muqatil bin Hayyan, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, and others said that;

this Ayah refers to having offspring.

Qatadah said that the Ayah means,

"Seek the permission that Allah has allowed for you."

Sa`id narrated that Qatadah said,
وَابْتَغُواْ مَا كَتَبَ اللّهُ لَكُمْ
(and seek that which Allah has ordained for you).
Time for Suhur

Allah said;

وَكُلُواْ وَاشْرَبُواْ حَتَّى يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ الْخَيْطُ الَابْيَضُ مِنَ الْخَيْطِ الَاسْوَدِ مِنَ الْفَجْرِ ثُمَّ أَتِمُّواْ الصِّيَامَ إِلَى الَّليْلِ
and eat and drink until the white thread (light) of dawn appears to you distinct from the black thread (darkness of night), then complete your fast till the nightfall.

Allah has allowed eating and drinking, along with having sexual intercourse, as we have stated, during any part of the night until the light of dawn is distinguished from the darkness of the night.

Allah has described that time as `distinguishing the white thread from the black thread.' He then made it clearer when He said;
مِنَ الْفَجْرِ
(of dawn).

As stated in a Hadith that Imam Abu Abdullah Al-Bukhari recorded, Sahl bin Sa`d said,

"When the following verse was revealed;

وَكُلُواْ وَاشْرَبُواْ حَتَّى يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ الْخَيْطُ الَابْيَضُ مِنَ الْخَيْطِ الَاسْوَدِ
(Eat and drink until the white thread appears to you, distinct from the black thread), and (of dawn) was not revealed, some people who intended to fast, tied black and white threads to their legs and went on eating till they differentiated between the two.

Allah then revealed the words, (of dawn), and it became clear to them that it meant (the darkness of) night and (the light of) day."

Al-Bukhari recorded that Ash-Sha`bi said that Adi said,

"I took two strings, one black and the other white and kept them under my pillow and went on looking at them throughout the night, but could not make any distinction between the two.

So, the next morning I went to Allah's Messenger and told him the whole story. He said;

إِنَّ وِسَادَكَ إِذًا لَعَرِيضٌ أَنْ كَانَ الْخَيْطُ الاَْبْيَضُ وَالاَْسْوَدُ تَحْتَ وِسَادَتِك

Your pillow is very wide if the white and black threads are under it!

Some wordings for this Hadith read,

إِنَّكَ لَعَرِيضُ الْقَفَا

Your Qafa (back side of your neck) is wide!

Some people said that these words meant that Adi was not smart. This is a weak opinion.

The narration that Al-Bukhari collected explains this part of the Hadith.

Al-Bukhari recorded that Adi bin Hatim narrated;

I said, "O Messenger of Allah! What is the white thread from the black thread? Are they actual threads?"

He said;

إنَّكَ لَعَرِيضُ الْقَفَا أَنْ أَبْصَرْتَ الْخَيْطَيْنِ ثُمَّ قَالَ لَا بَلْ هُوَ سَوَادُ اللَّيْلِ وَبَيَاضُ النَّهَار

Your Qafa is wide if you see the two threads. Rather, they are the blackness of the night and the whiteness of the daylight.
Suhur is Recommended

Allah allowed eating and drinking until dawn, it represents proof that Suhur is encouraged, since it is a Rukhsah (concession or allowance) and Allah likes that the Rukhsah is accepted and implemented.

The authentic Sunnah indicates that eating the Suhur is encouraged.

It is reported in the Two Sahihs that Anas narrated that Allah's Messenger said;

تَسَحَّرُوا فَإِنَّ فِي السَّحُورِ بَرَكَة

Eat the Suhur, for there is a blessing in Suhur.

Muslim reported that Amr bin Al-As narrated that Allah's Messenger said;

إِنَّ فَصْلَ مَا بَيْنَ صِيَامِنَا وصِيَامِ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ أَكْلَةُ السَّحَر

The distinction between our fast and the fast of the People of the Book is the meal of Suhur.

Imam Ahmad reported that Abu Sa`id narrated that Allah's Messenger said;

السَّحُورُ أَكْلُهُ بَرَكَةٌ فَلَ تَدَعُوهُ وَلَوْ أَنَّ أَحَدَكُمْ تَجْرَعُ جُرْعَةَ مَاءٍ فَإِنَّ اللهَ وَمَلَيِكَتَهُ يُصَلُّون عَلَى الْمُتَسَحِّرِين
Suhur is a blessed meal. Hence, do not abandon it, even if one just takes a sip of water. Indeed, Allah and His angels send Salah (blessings) upon those who eat Suhur.

There are several other Hadiths that encourage taking the Suhur, even if it only consists of a sip of water.

It is preferred that Suhur be delayed until the time of dawn.

It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that Anas bin Malik narrated that Zayd bin Thabit said,

"We had Suhur with Allah's Messenger and then went on to pray."

Anas asked, "How much time was there between the Adhan (call to prayer) and the Suhur?"

He said, "The time that fifty Ayat take (to recite)."

Imam Ahmad recorded Abu Dharr saying that Allah's Messenger said;

لَاا تَزَالُ أُمَّتِي بِخَيْرٍ مَا عَجَّلُوا الاْاِفْطَارَ وَأَخَّرُوا السُّحُور

My Ummah will always retain goodness as long as they hasten in breaking the fast and delay the Suhur.

There are several Hadiths that narrate that,

the Prophet called Suhur "the blessed meal."

There are narrations from several of the Salaf that;

they allowed the Suhur to be eaten later until close to Fajr.

This is reported from Abu Bakr, Umar, Ali, Ibn Mas`ud, Hudhayfah, Abu Hurayrah, Ibn Umar, Ibn Abbas and Zayd bin Thabit.

It is also reported from many of the Tabi`in, such as Muhammad bin Ali bin Husayn, Abu Mijlaz, Ibrahim An-Nakhai, Abu Ad-Duha, Abu Wa'il and other companions of Ibn Mas`ud.

This is also the opinion of Ata, Al-Hasan, Hakam bin Uyainah, Mujahid, Urwah bin Az-Zubayr, Abu Shatha Jabir bin Zayd, Al- Amash and Ma`mar bin Rashid.

We have mentioned the chains of narrations for their statements in our (Ibn Kathir's) book about Siyam (Fasting), and all praise is due to Allah.

It is also recorded in the Two Sahihs that Al-Qasim said that Aishah narrated that Allah's Messenger said;

لَاا يَمْنَعُكُمْ أَذَانُ بِلَالٍ عَنْ سَحُورِكُمْ فَإِنَّهُ يُنَادِي بِلَيْلٍ فَكُلُوا وَاشْرَبُوا حَتَّى تَسْمَعُوا أَذَانَ ابْنِ أُمِّ مَكْتُومٍ فَإِنَّهُ لَا يُوَذِّنُ حَتَّى يَطْلُعَ الْفَجْر

The Adhan pronounced by Bilal should not stop you from taking Suhur, for he pronounces the Adhan at night. Hence, eat and drink until you hear the Adhan by Ibn Umm Maktum, for he does not call the Adhan until dawn.

This is the wording collected by Al-Bukhari.

Imam Ahmad reported that Qays bin Talq quoted from his father that Allah's Messenger said;

لَيْسَ الْفَجْرُ الْمُسْتَطِيلَ فِي الاُْفُقِ وَلَكِنِ الْمُعْتَرِضُ الاَْحْمَر

Dawn is not the (ascending) glow of white light of the horizon. Rather, it is the red (radiating) light.

Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi also recorded this Hadith, but their wording is;

كُلُوا واشْرَبُوا وَلَا يَهِيدَنَّكُمُ السَّاطِعُ الْمُصْعِدُ فَكُلُوا واشْرَبُوا حَتَّى يَعْتَرِضَ لَكُمُ الاَْحْمَر

Eat and drink and do not be rushed by the ascending (white) light. Eat and drink until the redness (of the dawn) appears.

Ibn Jarir (At-Tabari) recorded that Samurah bin Jundub narrated that Allah's Messenger said;

لَاا يَغُرَّنَّكُمْ أَذَانُ بِلَالٍ وَلَاا هَذَا الْبَيَاضُ لِعَمُودِ الصُّبْحِ حَتَّى يَسْتَطِير

Do not be stopped by Bilal's Adhan or the (ascending) whiteness, until it spreads.

Muslim also recorded this Hadith.
There is no Harm in beginning the Fast while Junub (a state of major ritual impurity)
Issue;

Among the benefits of allowing sexual activity, eating and drinking until dawn for those who are fasting, is that it is allowed to start the fast while Junub (in the state of impurity after sexual discharge), and there is no harm in this case if one takes a bath any time in the morning after waking up, and completes the fast.

This is the opinion of the Four Imams and the majority of the scholars.

Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded that Aishah and Umm Salamah said that;

Allah's Messenger used to wake up while Junub from sexual intercourse, not wet dreams, and he would take a bath and fast.

Umm Salamah added that he would not break his fast or make up for that day.

Muslim recorded that Aishah said that a man asked;

"O Messenger of Allah! The (Dawn) prayer time starts while I am Junub, should I fast?"

Allah's Messenger replied,

وَأَنَا تُدْرِكُنِي الصَّلةُ وَأَنَا جُنُبٌ فَأَصُوم

And I, the prayer time starts while I am Junub and I fast.

He said, "You are not like us, O Messenger of Allah! Allah has forgiven your previous and latter sins."

Allah's Messenger said;

وَاللهِ إِنَّي لَااَرْجُو أَنْ أَكُونَ أَخْشَاكُمْ للهِ وَأَعْلَمَكُمْ بِمَا أَتَّقِي

By Allah! I hope that I have the most fear from Allah among you and the best knowledge of what Taqwa is.
Fasting ends at Sunset

Allah said;

ثُمَّ أَتِمُّواْ الصِّيَامَ إِلَى الَّليْلِ
then complete your fast till the nightfall.

This Ayah orders breaking the fast at sunset.

It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that Umar bin Al-Khattab said that Allah's Messenger said;

إِذَا أَقْبَلَ اللَّيْلُ مِنْ ههُنَا وَأَدْبَرَ النَّهَارُ مِنْ ههُنَا فَقَدْ أَفْطَرَ الصَّايِم

If the night comes from this direction (the east), and the day departs from that direction (the west), then the fasting person breaks his fast.

It is reported that Sahl bin Sa`d As-Sa`idi narrated that Allah's Messenger said;

لَاا يَزَالُ النَّاسُ بِخَيْرٍ مَا عَجَّلُوا الْفِطْر

The people will retain goodness as long as they hasten in breaking the fast.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Prophet said;

يَقُولُ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِنَّ أَحَبَّ عِبَادِي إِلَيَّ أَعْجَلُهُمْ فِطْرًا

Allah the Exalted said, `the dearest among My servants to Me are those who hasten in breaking the fast the most.'

At-Tirmidhi recorded this Hadith and said that this Hadith is Hasan Gharib.
Prohibition of Uninterrupted Fasting (Wisal)

There are several authentic Hadiths that prohibit Al-Wisal, which means continuing the fast through the night to the next night, without eating.

Imam Ahmad recorded Abu Hurayrah saying that Allah's Messenger said;

لَاا تُوَاصِلُوا

Do not practice Al-Wisal in fasting.

So, they said to him, "But you practice Al-Wisal, O Allah's Messenger!"

The Prophet replied,

فَإِنِّي لَسْتُ مِثْلَكُمْ إِنِّي أَبِيتُ يُطْعِمُنِي رَبِّي وَيَسْقِينِي

"I am not like you, I am given food and drink during my sleep by my Lord."

So, when the people refused to stop Al-Wisal, the Prophet fasted two days and two nights (along with those who practiced Wisal) and then they saw the crescent moon (of the month of Shawwal). The Prophet said to them (angrily);

لَوْ تَأَخَّرَ الْهِلَلُ لَزِدْتُكُم

If the crescent had not appeared, I would have made you fast for a longer period.

That was as a punishment for them (when they refused to stop practicing Al-Wisal).

This Hadith is also recorded in the Sahihayn.

The prohibition of Al-Wisal was also mentioned in a number of other narrations. It is a fact that practicing Al-Wisal was one of the special qualities of the Prophet, for he was capable and assisted in his practice of it. It is obvious that the food and drink that the Prophet used to get while practicing Al-Wisal was spiritual and not material, otherwise he would not be practicing Al-Wisal.

We should mention that it is allowed to refrain from breaking the fast from sunset until before dawn (Suhur).

A Hadith narrated by Abu Sa`id Khudri states that Allah's Messenger said;

لَاا تُوَاصِلُوا فَأَيُّكُمْ أَرَادَ أَنْ يُوَاصِلَ فَلْيُوَاصِلْ إِلَى السَّحَر

Do not practice Al-Wisal, but whoever wishes is allowed to practice it until the Suhur.

They said, "You practice Al-Wisal, O Messenger of Allah!"

He said;

إِنِّي لَسْتُ كَهَيْيَتِكُمْ إِنِّي أَبِيتُ لِي مُطْعِمٌ يُطْعِمُنِي وَسَاقٍ يَسْقِينِي

I am not similar to you, for I have One Who makes me eat and drink during the night.

This Hadith is also collected in the Two Sahihs.
The Rulings of Itikaf

Allah said;

وَلَا تُبَاشِرُوهُنَّ وَأَنتُمْ عَاكِفُونَ فِي الْمَسَاجِدِ

And do not have sexual relations with them (your wives) while you are in Itikaf in the Masjids.

Ali bin Abu Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas said,

"This Ayah is about the man who stays in Itikaf at the mosque during Ramadan or other months, Allah prohibited him from touching (having sexual intercourse with) women, during the night or day, until he finishes his Itikaf."

Ad-Dahhak said,

"Formerly, the man who practiced Itikaf would go out of the mosque and, if he wished, would have sexual intercourse (with his wife). Allah then said;
وَلَا تُبَاشِرُوهُنَّ وَأَنتُمْ عَاكِفُونَ فِي الْمَسَاجِدِ
(And do not have sexual relations with them (your wives) while you are in Itikaf in the Masjids.

meaning, `Do not touch your wives as long as you are in Itikaf, whether you were in the mosque or outside of it'."

It is also the opinion of Mujahid, Qatadah and several other scholars, that;

the Muslims used to have sexual intercourse with the wife while in Itikaf if they departed the mosque until the Ayah was revealed.

Ibn Abu Hatim commented, "It was reported that Ibn Mas`ud, Muhammad bin Ka`b, Mujahid, Ata Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak, As-Suddi, Ar-Rabi bin Anas and Muqatil said that the Ayah means,

`Do not touch the wife while in Itikaf."'

What Ibn Abu Hatim reported from these people is the agreed upon practice among the scholars.

Those who are in Itikaf are not allowed to have sexual intercourse as long as they are still in Itikaf in the mosque. If one has to leave the mosque to attend to a need, such as to relieve the call of nature or to eat, he is not allowed to kiss or embrace his wife or to busy himself with other than his Itikaf. He is not even allowed to visit ailing persons, but he can merely ask about their condition while passing by.
Itikaf has several other rulings that are explained in the books (of Fiqh), and we have mentioned several of these rulings at the end of our book on Siyam (Fasting), all praise is due to Allah.

Furthermore, the scholars of Fiqh used to follow their explanation of the rules for fasting with the explanation of the rules for Itikaf, as this is the way these acts of worship were mentioned in the Qur'an.

By mentioning Itikaf after fasting, Allah draws attention to practicing Itikaf during the month of the fast, especially the last part of the month. The Sunnah of Allah's Messenger is that he used to perform Itikaf during the last ten nights of the month of Ramadan until he died.

Afterwards, the Prophet's wives used to perform Itikaf as the Two Sahihs recorded from Aishah the Mother of the believers.

It is reported in the Two Sahihs that;

Safiyyah, the daughter of Huyai, went to Allah's Messenger to visit him in the mosque while he was in Itikaf.

She had a talk with him for a while, then she got up in order to return home. The Prophet accompanied her back home, as it was night. Her house was at Usamah bin Zayd's house on the edge of Al-Madinah.

While they were walking, two Ansari men met them and passed by them in a hurry, for they were shy to bother the Prophet while he was walking with his wife. He told them;

عَلى رِسْلِكُمَا إِنَّهَا صَفِيَّةُ بِنْتُ حُيَي

Do not run away! She is (my wife) Safiyyah bint Huyai.

Both of them said, "All praise is due to Allah, How dare we think of any evil? O Allah's Messenger!"

The Prophet said (to them);

إِنَّ الشَّيْطَانَ يَجْرِي مِنِ ابْنِ ادَمَ مَجْرَى الدَّمِ وَإِنِّي خَشِيتُ أَنْ يَقْذِفَ فِي قُلُوبِكُمَا شَيْيًا أَوْ قَالَ شَرًّا
Shaytan reaches everywhere in the human body, that the blood reaches. I was afraid lest Shaytan might suggest an evil thought in your minds.

Imam Ash-Shafii commented,

"Allah's Messenger sought to teach his Ummah to instantly eliminate any evil thought, so that they do not fall into the prohibited. They (the two Ansari men) had more fear of Allah than to think evil of the Prophet. Allah knows best."

The Ayah (2;187) prohibits sexual intercourse and anything like kissing or embracing that might lead to it during Itikaf. As for having the wife helping the husband, it is allowed.

It is reported in the Two Sahihs that Aishah said,

"Allah's Messenger would bring his head near me (in her room) and I would comb his hair, while I was on my menses. He would enter the room only to attend to what a man needs."

Allah's statement;

تِلْكَ حُدُودُ اللّهِ

These are the limits (set) by Allah,

means, `This is what We have explained, ordained, specified, allowed and prohibited for fasting. We also mentioned the fast's objectives, what is permitted during it, and what is required of it. These are the set limits that Allah has legislated and explained, so do not come near them or transgress them.'

لَا تَقْرَبُوهَا

so approach them not.

Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said,

"Allah's set limits mentioned in the Ayah mean these four limits (and he then recited);
أُحِلَّ لَكُمْ لَيْلَةَ الصِّيَامِ الرَّفَثُ إِلَى نِسَأيِكُمْ
(It is made lawful for you to have sexual relations with your wives on the night of As-Siyam (fasting).) and he recited up to;
ثُمَّ أَتِمُّواْ الصِّيَامَ إِلَى الَّليْلِ
(then complete your Sawm (fast) till the nightfall).

My father and other's used to say similarly and recite the same Ayah to us."

Allah said;

كَذَلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللّهُ ايَاتِهِ لِلنَّاسِ

Thus does Allah make clear His Ayat to mankind,

meaning, `Just as He explains the fast and its rulings, He also explains the other rulings by the words of His servant and Messenger, Muhammad.'

Allah continues;

لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَّقُونَ



to mankind that they may attain Taqwa.

meaning, `So that they know how to acquire the true guidance and how to worship (Allah).'

Similarly, Allah said;

هُوَ الَّذِى يُنَزِّلُ عَلَى عَبْدِهِ ءَايَـتٍ بَيِّنَـتٍ لِّيُخْرِجَكُمْ مِّنَ الظُّلُمَـتِ إِلَى النُّورِ وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ بِكُمْ لَرَءُوفٌ رَّحِيمٌ

It is He Who sends down manifest Ayat to His servant (Muhammad) that He may bring you out from (types of) darkness into the light. And verily, Allah is to you full of kindness, Most Merciful. (57;9