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ARBNDEENIDTRUR
وَٱلَّذِينَ
And those who
يُتَوَفَّوْنَ
die
مِنكُمْ
among you
وَيَذَرُونَ
and leave behind
أَزْوَٰجًا
(their) wives
وَصِيَّةً
(should make) a will
لِّأَزْوَٰجِهِم
for their wives,
مَّتَٰعًا
provision
إِلَى
for
ٱلْحَوْلِ
the year
غَيْرَ
without
إِخْرَاجٍۚ
driving (them) out.
فَإِنْ
But if
خَرَجْنَ
they leave
فَلَا
then no
جُنَاحَ
blame
عَلَيْكُمْ
upon you
فِى
in
مَا
what
فَعَلْنَ
they do
فِىٓ
in
أَنفُسِهِنَّ
themselves
مِن
[of]
مَّعْرُوفٍۗ
honorably.
وَٱللَّهُ
And Allah
عَزِيزٌ
(is) All-Mighty,
حَكِيمٌ
All-Wise.

Wallazeena yutawaf fawna minkum wa yazaroona azwaajanw wasiyyatal li azwaajihim mataa'an ilal hawlighaira ikhraaj; fa in kharajna falaa junaaha 'alaikum fee maa fa'alna junaaha 'alaikum fee maa fa'alna feee anfusihinna mim ma'roof; wallaahu Azeezun Hakeem

Sahih International:

And those who are taken in death among you and leave wives behind - for their wives is a bequest: maintenance for one year without turning [them] out. But if they leave [of their own accord], then there is no blame upon you for what they do with themselves in an acceptable way. And Allah is Exalted in Might and Wise.

Ahmed Ali

Those among you about to die leaving wives behind, should bequeath a year's maintenance and lodging for them, without expelling them from home. But if they leave (of their own accord), you will not be blamed for what they do with themselves in their own rights. God is all-mighty and all-wise.

Ahmed Raza Khan

And those among you who die leaving wives behind them – they should bequeath for their wives a complete provision for one full year without turning them out; so if they go out themselves, there is no sin on you regarding what they do of themselves in a reasonable manner; and Allah is Almighty, Wise.

Ali Ünal

Those of you who (are about to) die leaving behind wives should make testament in their favor of one year’s provision without expulsion. If they themselves leave (of their own accord), there is no blame on you for what they may do of lawful deeds by themselves. Surely God is All-Glorious with irresistible might, All-Wise.

Amatul Rahman Omar

And those of you who die and leave wives behind, there is a binding injunction (of God) for their wives for a year´s maintenance without being turned out (of their homes). But if they go out (of their own accord during this period) there is no blame on you with regard to what they do about themselves in an equitable and decent manner. And Allâh is All-Mighty, All-Wise.

A. J. Arberry

And those of you who die, leaving wives, let them make testament for their wives, provision for a year without expulsion; but if they go forth, there is no fault in you what they may do with themselves honourably; God is All-mighty, All-wise.

Abdul Majid Daryabadi

And those of you who die and leave wives behind, they shall make a bequest unto their wives a year's maintenance without their having to go out, then if they go out, then no blame is on you for that which they, do with themselves reputably, and Allah is Mighty, Wise.

Faridul Haque

And those among you who die leaving wives behind them - they should bequeath for their wives a complete provision for one full year without turning them out; so if they go out themselves, there is no sin on you regarding what they do of themselves in a reasonable manner; and Allah is Almighty, Wise.

Hamid S. Aziz

Those of you who die and leave wives, should bequeath to their wives maintenance for a year, without expulsion (from their home); but if they go out of their accord, there is no crime in you for what they do of their own rights. Allah is Mighty and Wise.

Hilali & Khan

And those of you who die and leave behind wives should bequeath for their wives a year's maintenance and residence without turning them out, but if they (wives) leave, there is no sin on you for that which they do of themselves, provided it is honourable (e.g. lawful marriage). And Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise. [The order of this Verse has been cancelled (abrogated) by Verse 4:12].

Talal Itani

Those of you who die and leave wives behind—a will shall provide their wives with support for a year, provided they do not leave. If they leave, you are not to blame for what they do with themselves, provided it is reasonable. God is Mighty and Wise.

English Literal

And those who are made to die from you, and they leave spouses/wives , a bequest to their spouses/wives, alimony/enjoyment to the year without/not bringing out/forcing out, so if they (F) got out , so no offense/guilt/sin on you, in what they made/did in themselves (F) from kindness/known/goodness, and God (is) glorious/mighty , wise/judicious.

Abul Ala Maududi

Those of you, who shall die and leave wives behind them, should make a will to the effect that they should be provided with a year's maintenance and should not be turned out of their homes. But if they leave their homes of their own accord, you shall not be answerable for whatever they choose for themselves in a fair way; Allah is All-Powerful, All-Wise.

Maulana Mohammad Ali

And those of you who die and leave wives behind, should make a bequest in favour of their wives of maintenance for a year without turning (them) out. Then if they themselves go away, there is no blame on you for what they do of lawful deeds concerning themselves. And Allah is Mighty, Wise.

Safi-ur-Rahman al-Mubarakpuri

And those of you who die and leave behind wives should bequeath for their wives a year's maintenance (and residence) without turning them out, but if they (wives) leave, there is no sin on you for that which they do of themselves, provided it is honorable (e.g., lawful marriage). And Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise.

Mohammed Marmaduke William Pickthall

(In the case of) those of you who are about to die and leave behind them wives, they should bequeath unto their wives a provision for the year without turning them out, but if they go out (of their own accord) there is no sin for you in that which they do of themselves within their rights. Allah is Mighty, Wise.

Ali Quli Qarai

Those of you who die leaving wives shall bequeath for their wives providing for a year, without turning them out; but if they leave, there is no sin upon you in respect of what they may do with themselves in accordance with honourable norms. And Allah is all-mighty, all-wise.

Qaribullah & Darwish

Those who die and leave wives behind should bequeath to them a year's maintenance without causing them to leave their homes; but if they leave, no blame shall be attached to you in what they do with themselves kindly. Allah is Mighty and Wise.

Muhammad Sarwar

Those who are about to die and leave widows behind should bequeath for their wives the expenses of one year's maintenance. The widows must not be expelled from the house for up to one year. It is no sin for the relatives of the deceased to permit the widows to leave the house before the appointed time and do what is reasonable. God is Majestic and Wise.

Mohammad Habib Shakir

And those of you who die and leave wives behind, (make) a bequest in favor of their wives of maintenance for a year without turning (them) out, then if they themselves go away, there is no blame on you for what they do of lawful deeds by themselves, and Allah is Mighty, Wise.

Wahiduddin Khan

If any of you die and leave widows, make a bequest for them of a year's maintenance without causing them to leave their homes; but if they leave of their own accord, you will not be blamed for what they may reasonably choose to do with themselves. God is almighty and wise.

Abdullah Yusuf Ali

Those of you who die and leave widows should bequeath for their widows a year's maintenance and residence; but if they leave (The residence), there is no blame on you for what they do with themselves, provided it is reasonable. And Allah is Exalted in Power, Wise.

Tafsir jalalayn

And those of you who die, leaving wives, let them, make testament (wasiyyatan, or wasiyyatun) for their wives, as an obligation, and give them provision, what they can enjoy of property and clothes, for, until the completion of, a year (mat`an il l-hawl, `provision for a year', is a circumstantial qualifier), that is, without expelling them from their habitations; but if they go forth, of their own accord, you would not be at fault, [you] the guardians of the dead one, regarding what they may do with themselves honourably, in accordance with the Law, such as adorning themselves or abandoning the mourning, or that you should cut off their expenditure; God is Mighty, in His Kingdom, Wise, in His actions. The testament mentioned here was abrogated by the `inheritance' verse [Q. 4;12], and the waiting of one year [without expulsion] was abrogated by the previous verse four months and ten [Q. 2;234] which was revealed later. In the opinion of al-Shfi`, may God have mercy on him, the habitation remains hers.

Tafseer Ibn Kathir

Ayah (2;240) was abrogated

Allah said;

وَالَّذِينَ يُتَوَفَّوْنَ مِنكُمْ وَيَذَرُونَ أَزْوَاجًا وَصِيَّةً لاَِّزْوَاجِهِم مَّتَاعًا إِلَى الْحَوْلِ غَيْرَ إِخْرَاجٍ فَإِنْ خَرَجْنَ فَلَ جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي مَا فَعَلْنَ فِيَ أَنفُسِهِنَّ مِن مَّعْرُوفٍ وَاللّهُ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ



And those of you who die and leave behind wives should bequeath for their wives a year's maintenance (and residence) without turning them out, but if they (wives) leave, there is no sin on you for that which they do of themselves, provided it is honorable (e.g., lawful marriage). And Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise.

The majority of the scholars said that;

this Ayah (2;240) was abrogated by the Ayah (2;234), what Allah said;
يَتَرَبَّصْنَ بِأَنفُسِهِنَّ أَرْبَعَةَ أَشْهُرٍ وَعَشْرًا
(...they (the wives) shall wait (as regards their marriage) for four months and ten days), (2;234).

For instance, Al-Bukhari reported that;

Ibn Az-Zubayr said;I said to Uthman bin Affan;
وَالَّذِينَ يُتَوَفَّوْنَ مِنكُمْ وَيَذَرُونَ أَزْوَاجًا
(And those of you who die and leave wives behind them) was abrogated by the other Ayah (2;234). Therefore, why did you collect it (meaning, in the Qur'an)?"

He said, "O my nephew! I shall not change any part of the Qur'an from its place."

The question that Ibn Az-Zubayr asked Uthman means;

`If the ruling of the Ayah (2;240) was abrogated to four months (the Iddah of the widow, and refer to 2;234), then what is the wisdom behind including it in the Qur'an, although its ruling has been abrogated?

If the Ayah (2;240) remains (in the Qur'an) after the Ayah that abrogated it (2;234), this might imply that its ruling is still valid.'

Uthman, the Leader of the faithful, answered him by stating that this is a matter of the revelation, which mentioned these Ayat in this order. `Therefore, I shall leave the Ayah where I found it in the Qur'an.'

Ibn Abu Hatim reported that Ibn Abbas said about what Allah said;
وَالَّذِينَ يُتَوَفَّوْنَ مِنكُمْ وَيَذَرُونَ أَزْوَاجًا وَصِيَّةً لاَِّزْوَاجِهِم مَّتَاعًا إِلَى الْحَوْلِ غَيْرَ إِخْرَاجٍ
(And those of you who die and leave behind wives should bequeath for their wives a year's maintenance (and residence) without turning them out),

"The widow used to reside, and have her provisions provided for her for a year, in her deceased husband's house.

Later, the Ayah that specified the inheritance (4;12) abrogated this Ayah (2;240), and thus the widow inherits one-fourth or one-eighth of what her (deceased) husband leaves behind."

Ibn Abu Hatim also related that Ali bin Abu Talhah stated that Ibn Abbas said,

"When a man died and left behind a widow, she used to remain in his house for a year for her Iddah, all the while receiving her provisions during this time.

Thereafter, Allah revealed this Ayah;
وَالَّذِينَ يُتَوَفَّوْنَ مِنكُمْ وَيَذَرُونَ أَزْوَاجًا يَتَرَبَّصْنَ بِأَنفُسِهِنَّ أَرْبَعَةَ أَشْهُرٍ وَعَشْرًا
(And those of you who die and leave wives behind them, they (the wives) shall wait (as regards their marriage) for four months and ten days), (2;234).

So, this is the Iddah of the widow, unless she was pregnant, for her Iddah then ends when she gives birth.

Allah also said;

وَلَهُنَّ الرُّبُعُ مِمَّا تَرَكْتُمْ إِن لَّمْ يَكُنْ لَّكُمْ وَلَدٌ فَإِن كَانَ لَكُمْ وَلَدٌ فَلَهُنَّ الثُّمُنُ مِمَّا تَرَكْتُم

In that which you leave, their (your wives') share is a fourth if you leave no child; but if you leave a child, they get an eighth of that which you leave. (4;12)

So Allah specified the share of the widow in the inheritance and there was no need for the will or the Nafaqah (maintenance) which were mentioned in (2;240)."

Ibn Abu Hatim stated that Mujahid, Al-Hasan, Ikrimah, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak, Ar-Rabi and Muqatil bin Hayyan said that;

the Ayah (2;240) was abrogated by;
أَرْبَعَةَ أَشْهُرٍ وَعَشْرًا
(four months and ten days. (2;234)

Al-Bukhari reported that;

Mujahid said that;
وَالَّذِينَ يُتَوَفَّوْنَ مِنكُمْ وَيَذَرُونَ أَزْوَاجًا
(And those of you who die and leave wives behind them) (2;234) used to be the Iddah, and the widow had to remain with her (deceased) husband's family (during that period, i.e., four months and ten days). Then, Allah revealed;

وَالَّذِينَ يُتَوَفَّوْنَ مِنكُمْ وَيَذَرُونَ أَزْوَاجًا وَصِيَّةً لاَِّزْوَاجِهِم مَّتَاعًا إِلَى الْحَوْلِ غَيْرَ إِخْرَاجٍ فَإِنْ خَرَجْنَ فَلَ جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي مَا فَعَلْنَ فِيَ أَنفُسِهِنَّ مِن مَّعْرُوفٍ


(And those of you who die and leave behind wives should bequeath for their wives a year's maintenance (and residence) without turning them out, but if they (wives) leave, there is no sin on you for that which they do of themselves, provided it is honorable (e.g., lawful marriage).

So, Allah made the rest of the year, which is seven months and twenty days, as a will and testament for her. Consequently, if she wants, she could use her right in this will and remain in the residence (for the rest of the year). Or, if she wants, she could leave the (deceased husband's) house after the four months and ten days have passed. This is the meaning of what Allah said;
غَيْرَ إِخْرَاجٍ فَإِنْ خَرَجْنَ فَلَ جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ
(...without turning them out, but if they (wives) leave, there is no sin on you).

Therefore, the required term of Iddah is still unchanged (refer to 2;234).

Ata quoted Ibn Abbas,

"This Ayah (2;240) has abrogated (the requirement that) the widow spends the Iddah with his (i.e., her deceased husband's) family. So, she spends her Iddah wherever she wants. This is the meaning of what Allah said;
غَيْرَ إِخْرَاجٍ
(without turning them out)."
Ata also said;
"If she wants, she spends the Iddah with his family and resides there according to the will (meaning the rest of the year). If she wants, she is allowed to leave, for Allah said;
فَلَ جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي مَا فَعَلْنَ
(there is no sin on you for that which they do of themselves)."
Ata then said;
"Then (the Ayah on) the inheritance (refer to 4;12) came and abrogated the residence. Hence, the widow spends her Iddah wherever she wants and does not have the right to residence any more."

The statement of Ata and those who held the view that the Ayah (2;240) was abrogated by the Ayah on the inheritance (4;12), is only valid for more than the four months and ten days (required in 2;234). However, if they mean that the four months and ten days are not required from the deceased husband's estate, then this opinion is the subject of disagreement among the scholars.
As proof, they said that the widow is required to remain in her (deceased) husband's house (for four months and ten days) according to what Malik reported from Zaynab bint Ka`b bin Ujrah.
She said that Fari`ah bint Malik bin Sinan, the sister of Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri, told her that she came to Allah's Messenger asking him to return to her family's residence with Banu Khudrah. Her husband had pursued some of his servants who ran away, but when he reached the area of Al-Qadum, they killed him.
She said, "So I asked Allah's Messenger if I should stay with my family in Banu Khudrah, for my (deceased) husband did not leave me a residence that he owns or Nafaqah (maintenance).
Allah's Messenger answered in the positive. While I was in the room, Allah's Messenger summoned me or had someone summon me and said;

كَيْفَ قُلْت

What did you say?

I repeated the story to him about my (deceased) husband.

He said;

امْكُثي فِي بَيْتِكِ حَتَّى يَبْلُغَ الكِتَابُ أَجَلَه

Stay at your home until the term reaches its end.

So I remained through the Iddah term for four months and ten days in my (deceased husband's) house.

Thereafter, Uthman bin Affan sent for me during his reign and asked me about this matter and I told him what happened. He made a judgment to the same effect."

This Hadith was also collected by Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah.

At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih".
The Necessity of the Mut`ah (Gift) at the Time of Divorce

Allah said;

وَلِلْمُطَلَّقَاتِ مَتَاعٌ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ حَقًّا عَلَى الْمُتَّقِينَ