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walyastaʿfifi
وَلْيَسْتَعْفِفِ
And let be chaste
alladhīna
ٱلَّذِينَ
those who
لَا
(do) not
yajidūna
يَجِدُونَ
find
nikāḥan
نِكَاحًا
(means for) marriage
ḥattā
حَتَّىٰ
until
yugh'niyahumu
يُغْنِيَهُمُ
Allah enriches them
l-lahu
ٱللَّهُ
Allah enriches them
min
مِن
from
faḍlihi
فَضْلِهِۦۗ
His Bounty.
wa-alladhīna
وَٱلَّذِينَ
And those who
yabtaghūna
يَبْتَغُونَ
seek
l-kitāba
ٱلْكِتَٰبَ
the writing
mimmā
مِمَّا
from (those) whom
malakat
مَلَكَتْ
possess
aymānukum
أَيْمَٰنُكُمْ
your right hands,
fakātibūhum
فَكَاتِبُوهُمْ
then give them (the) writing
in
إِنْ
if
ʿalim'tum
عَلِمْتُمْ
you know
fīhim
فِيهِمْ
in them
khayran
خَيْرًاۖ
any good
waātūhum
وَءَاتُوهُم
and give them
min
مِّن
from
māli
مَّالِ
the wealth of Allah
l-lahi
ٱللَّهِ
the wealth of Allah
alladhī
ٱلَّذِىٓ
which
ātākum
ءَاتَىٰكُمْۚ
He has given you.
walā
وَلَا
And (do) not
tuk'rihū
تُكْرِهُوا۟
compel
fatayātikum
فَتَيَٰتِكُمْ
your slave girls
ʿalā
عَلَى
to
l-bighāi
ٱلْبِغَآءِ
[the] prostitution,
in
إِنْ
if
aradna
أَرَدْنَ
they desire
taḥaṣṣunan
تَحَصُّنًا
chastity
litabtaghū
لِّتَبْتَغُوا۟
that you may seek
ʿaraḍa
عَرَضَ
temporary gain
l-ḥayati
ٱلْحَيَوٰةِ
(of) the life
l-dun'yā
ٱلدُّنْيَاۚ
(of) the world.
waman
وَمَن
And whoever
yuk'rihhunna
يُكْرِههُّنَّ
compels them,
fa-inna
فَإِنَّ
then indeed,
l-laha
ٱللَّهَ
Allah
min
مِنۢ
from
baʿdi
بَعْدِ
after
ik'rāhihinna
إِكْرَٰهِهِنَّ
their compulsion
ghafūrun
غَفُورٌ
(is) Oft-Forgiving,
raḥīmun
رَّحِيمٌ
Most Merciful.

Wal yasta'fifil lazeena laa yajidoona nikaahan hata yughniyahumul laahu mi fadlih; wallazeena yabtaghoonal kitaaba mimmaa malakat aimaanukum fakaatiboohum in 'alimtum feehim khairanw wa aatoohum mimmaalil laahil lazeee aataakum; wa laa tukrihoo fatayaatikum 'alal bighaaa'i in aradna tahassunal litabtaghoo 'aradal hayaatid dunyaa; wa mai yukrihhunna fa innal laaha mim ba'di ikraahihinna Ghafoor Raheem

Sahih International:

But let them who find not [the means for] marriage abstain [from sexual relations] until Allah enriches them from His bounty. And those who seek a contract [for eventual emancipation] from among whom your right hands possess - then make a contract with them if you know there is within them goodness and give them from the wealth of Allah which He has given you. And do not compel your slave girls to prostitution, if they desire chastity, to seek [thereby] the temporary interests of worldly life. And if someone should compel them, then indeed, Allah is [to them], after their compulsion, Forgiving and Merciful.

1 A. J. Arberry

And let those who find not the means to marry be abstinent till God enriches them of His bounty. Those your right hands own who seek emancipation, contract with them accordingly, if you know some good in them; and give them of the wealth of God that He has given you. And constrain not your slave-girls to prostitution, if they desire to live in chastity, that you may seek the chance goods of the present life. Whosoever constrains them, surely God, after their being constrained, is All-forgiving, All-compassionate.

2 Abdul Haleem

Those who are unable to marry should keep chaste until God gives them enough out of His bounty. If any of your slaves wish to pay for their freedom, make a contract with them accordingly, if you know they have good in them, and give them some of the wealth God has given you. Do not force your slave-girls into prostitution, when they themselves wish to remain honourable, in your quest for the short-term gains of this world, although, if they are forced, God will be forgiving and merciful to them.

3 Abdul Majid Daryabadi

And those who find not means to marry shall restrain themselves until Allah enricheth them of His grace. And from among those whom your right hands own those who seek a writing- write it for them if ye know in them any good, and vouchsafe unto them of the wealth of Allah which He hath vouchsafed unto you. And constrain not your bedmaids to harlotry if they would live chastely, in order that ye may seek the chance gain of the life of the world. And whosoever will constrain them, then verily Allah is--after their constraint--Forgiving, Mercifu1.

4 Abdullah Yusuf Ali

Let those who find not the wherewithal for marriage keep themselves chaste, until Allah gives them means out of His grace. And if any of your slaves ask for a deed in writing (to enable them to earn their freedom for a certain sum), give them such a deed if ye know any good in them; yea, give them something yourselves out of the means which Allah has given to you. But force not your maids to prostitution when they desire chastity, in order that ye may make a gain in the goods of this life. But if anyone compels them, yet, after such compulsion, is Allah, Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful (to them),

5 Abul Ala Maududi

And those, who cannot find a match, should observe continence till Allah provides them with means out of His bounty And if those who are in your possession, ask for a deed of emancipation, execute the deed of emancipation with them, provided that you find some good in them; and give them something out of the means Allah has given you. And do not force your slave-girls into prostitution for your own worldly gains when they themselves want to keep chaste; and if anyone forces them into it, after such a compulsion Allah will be forgiving and merciful for them.

6 Ahmed Ali

Those who cannot afford to marry should abstain from what is unlawful until God enriches them by His grace. And free those slaves you possess who wish to buy their freedom after a written undertaking, if you know they have some goodness, and give them out of the riches God has given you. Do not force your maids to prostitution if they wish to lead married lives, in order to get the benefits of this world. But if someone forces them, surely God (will forgive them) after their forced helplessness, for He is forgiving and kind.

7 Ahmed Raza Khan

And those who do not have the means to get married must keep chaste till Allah provides them the resources by His munificence; and the bondwomen in your possession who, in order to earn something, seek a letter of freedom from you – then write it for them if you consider some goodness in them; and help them in their cause with Allah’s wealth which He has bestowed upon you; and do not force your bondwomen into the dirty profession, while they wish to save themselves, in order to earn some riches of the worldly life; and if one forces them then indeed Allah, upon their remaining compelled, is Oft Forgiving, Most Merciful.

8 Ali Quli Qarai

Those who cannot afford marriage should be continent until Allah enriches them out of His grace. As for those who seek an emancipation deal from among your slaves, make such a deal with them if you know any good in them, and give them out of the wealth of Allah which He has given you. Do not compel your female slaves to prostitution when they desire to be chaste, seeking the transitory wares of the life of this world. Should anyone compel them, Allah will be forgiving and merciful to them following their compulsion.

9 Ali Ünal

Let those who cannot afford to marry keep themselves chaste until God grants them sufficiency out of His bounty. And if any of those whom your right hands possess desire to enter into a contract with you to purchase their freedom, make this contract with them if you know that they are honest (and able to earn without begging and be good, free citizens). Help them out of God’s wealth which He has granted you. And do not compel your slave-girls to prostitution in order to seek the (fleeting) benefits of the life of this world while they desire to remain chaste. If anyone compels them to prostitution, then God will be All-Forgiving, All-Compassionate to them after they are subjected to such compulsion.

10 Amatul Rahman Omar

And those who find no (means of) marriage should (exercise restraint and) keep themselves chaste until Allâh grants them means (to marry) out of His grace and bounty. (There is another commandment,) as for those of your bondsmen (or women) as ask for a written contract (of freedom for themselves on payment of ransom), write this (deed of manumission for them) provided you find good capabilities in them and give them out of Allâh´s wealth which He has given you. (Another commandment for you is that,) with a mind to gain (by this unrighteous means) the benefits of the present life do not constrain your slave-girls to unchaste life (by keeping them unmarried) when they desire (to marry) to preserve their virtue. But if anybody forces them (to abstain from marrying and to become unchaste) they will find, after they are forced, that God is Most Forgiving, Ever Merciful.

11 English Literal

And those who do not find marriage should refrain/be chaste until God enriches/suffices them from His grace/favour/blessing, and those who ask/wish/desire the destiny/fate/term (marriage) from what your rights owned/possessed, so write with them (marry them), if you knew goodness in them, and give/bring them from God`s property/possession/wealth which He gave you, and do not compel/force your young women/(F) youths on (to) the prostitution, if they (F) wanted/intended chastity, to desire the life the present`s/worldly life`s vanities/non-essentials, and who compels/forces them (F), so then God (is) from after their having been compelled/forced, forgiving, merciful.

12 Faridul Haque

And those who do not have the means to get married must keep chaste till Allah provides them the resources by His munificence; and the bondwomen in your possession who, in order to earn something, seek a letter of freedom from you – then write it for them if you consider some goodness in them; and help them in their cause with Allah’s wealth which He has bestowed upon you; and do not force your bondwomen into the dirty profession, while they wish to save themselves, in order to earn some riches of the worldly life; and if one forces them then indeed Allah, upon their remaining compelled, is Oft Forgiving, Most Merciful.

13 Hamid S. Aziz

And marry the single amongst you, and the righteous among your slaves and your handmaidens. If they be poor, Allah will enrich them of His grace, for Allah encompasses all and knows all.

14 Hilali & Khan

And let those who find not the financial means for marriage keep themselves chaste, until Allah enriches them of His Bounty. And such of your slaves as seek a writing (of emancipation), give them such writing, if you know that they are good and trustworthy. And give them something yourselves out of the wealth of Allah which He has bestowed upon you. And force not your maids to prostitution, if they desire chastity, in order that you may make a gain in the (perishable) goods of this worldly life. But if anyone compels them (to prostitution), then after such compulsion, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful (to those women, i.e. He will forgive them because they have been forced to do this evil action unwillingly).

15 Maulana Mohammad Ali

And marry those among you who are single, and those who are fit among your males slaves and your female slaves. If they are needy, Allah will make them free from want out of His grace. And Allah is Ample-giving, Knowing.

16 Mohammad Habib Shakir

And let those who do not find the means to marry keep chaste until Allah makes them free from want out of His grace. And (as for) those who ask for a writing from among those whom your right hands possess, give them the writing if you know any good in them, and give them of the wealth of Allah which He has given you; and do not compel your slave girls to prostitution, when they desire to keep chaste, in order to seek the frail good of this world's life; and whoever compels them, then surely after their compulsion Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

17 Mohammed Marmaduke William Pickthall

And let those who cannot find a match keep chaste till Allah give them independence by His grace. And such of your slaves as seek a writing (of emancipation), write it for them if ye are aware of aught of good in them, and bestow upon them of the wealth of Allah which He hath bestowed upon you. Force not your slave-girls to whoredom that ye may seek enjoyment of the life of the world, if they would preserve their chastity. And if one force them, then (unto them), after their compulsion, lo! Allah will be Forgiving, Merciful.

18 Muhammad Sarwar

Let those who cannot find someone to marry maintain chastity until God makes them rich through His favors. Let the slaves who want to buy their freedom have an agreement with you in writing if you find them to be virtuous. Give them money out of God's property which He has given to you. Do not force your girls into prostitution to make money if they want to be chaste. If they have been compelled to do so, God will be All-merciful and All-forgiving to them.

19 Qaribullah & Darwish

Let those who do not find the means to marry be abstinent until Allah enriches them of His bounty. Those your right hand owns who seek their freedom, make a contract with them accordingly if you know some good in them, and give them from the wealth of Allah that He has given you. Do not force your slavegirls into prostitution in order to seek worldly gain for they wish to preserve their chastity. Whosoever compels them, surely Allah, after their being compelled, is the Forgiver (to the girls), the Most Merciful.

20 Safi-ur-Rahman al-Mubarakpuri

And let those who find not the financial means for marriage keep themselves chaste, until Allah enriches them of His bounty. And such of your servants as seek a writing (of emancipation), give them such writing, if you find that there is good and honesty in them. And give them something (yourselves) out of the wealth of Allah which He has bestowed upon you. And force not your slave-girls to prostitution, if they desire chastity, in order that you may make a gain in the goods of this worldly life. But if anyone compels them, then after such compulsion, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

21 Wahiduddin Khan

Those who do not have the means to marry should keep themselves chaste until God grants them enough out of His bounty. If any of your slaves desire a deed of freedom, write it out for them, if you find any promise in them, and give them some of the wealth God has given you. Do not force your [slave] maids into prostitution, in order to enrich yourself, when they wish to preserve their chastity. Yet if anyone forces them, once they have been forced, God will be forgiving and merciful to them.

22 Talal Itani

And let those who do not find the means to marry abstain, until God enriches them from His bounty. If any of your servants wish to be freed, grant them their wish, if you recognize some good in them. And give them of God’s wealth which he has given you. And do not compel your girls to prostitution, seeking the materials of this life, if they desire to remain chaste. Should anyone compel them—after their compulsion, God is Forgiving and Merciful.

23 Tafsir jalalayn

And let those who cannot find the means to marry be continent, [those who do not have] the bridal money or the means for financial support needed for marriage, [let them restrain themselves] from fornication, until God enriches them, [until] He improves their means, out of His bounty, and they marry. And those who seek a written contract [of emancipation], from among those whom your right hand owns, of male slaves and female slaves, contract with them accordingly, if you know in them any good, such as trustworthiness and the ability to earn [income] in order to fulfil the amount stated in the written contract, which might be worded for example thus; `I contract you for [the amount of] two thousand to be paid over a period of two months, at one thousand a month, and if you fulfill this, you are a free man', and the other would say, `I accept'; and give them -- this is a command for the [slaves'] owners -- out of the wealth of God which He has given you, in the measure that will help them to fulfill their commitment to you (the action of t', `giving', here suggests that some of the amount to which they have committed themselves should be waived). And do not compel your slave-girls, your handmaidens, to prostitution, fornication, when they desire to be chaste, to abstain therefrom (this `desire' is the cause of the [act of] `compulsion', so that the statement is not properly a conditional), that you may seek, through such compulsion, the transient things of the life of this world -- this was revealed regarding `Abd Allh b. Ubayy, who used to force his slave-girls to earn money through fornication. And should anyone compel them, then surely God, after their compulsion, will be Forgiving, to these [slave-girls], Merciful, to them.

24 Tafseer Ibn Kathir

وَلْيَسْتَعْفِفِ الَّذِينَ لَا يَجِدُونَ نِكَاحًا حَتَّى يُغْنِيَهُمْ اللَّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِ

And let those who find not the financial means for marriage keep themselves chaste, until Allah enriches them of His bounty.

This is a command from Allah to those who do not have the means to get married;they are to keep themselves chaste and avoid unlawful things, as the Prophet said;

يَا مَعْشَرَ الشَّبَابِ مَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ مِنْكُمُ الْبَاءَةَ فَلْيَتَزَوَّجْ فَإِنَّهُ أَغَضُّ لِلْبَصَرِ وَأَحْصَنُ لِلْفَرْجِ وَمَنْ لَمْ يَسْتَطِعْ فَعَلَيْهِ بِالصَّوْمِ فَإِنَّهُ لَهُ وِجَاءٌ

O young men, whoever among you can afford to get married, let him marry, for it is more effective in lowering the gaze and protecting the private parts. Whoever cannot do that, then let him fast, for it is a protection for him.

This Ayah is general in meaning, and the Ayah in Surah An-Nisa' is more specific, where Allah says;

وَمَن لَّمْ يَسْتَطِعْ مِنكُمْ طَوْلاً أَن يَنكِحَ الْمُحْصَنَاتِ
(And whoever of you have not the means wherewith to wed free believing women) until His statement;
وَأَن تَصْبِرُواْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ
(but it is better for you that you practice self-restraint.

meaning, it is better for you to be patient and refrain from marrying slave-girl, because any child that is born will also be a slave.

وَاللّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
(and Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful). (4;25)

وَلْيَسْتَعْفِفِ الَّذِينَ لَا يَجِدُونَ نِكَاحًا


And let those who find not the financial means for marriage keep themselves chaste,

Ikrimah said,

"This refers to a man who sees a woman and it is as if he feels desire; if he has a wife then let him go to her and fulfill his desire with her, and if he does not have a wife, then let him ponder the kingdom of heaven and earth until Allah grants him means of livelihood."
The Command to grant Slaves a Contract of Emancipation

Allah's saying;

وَالَّذِينَ يَبْتَغُونَ الْكِتَابَ مِمَّا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ فَكَاتِبُوهُمْ إِنْ عَلِمْتُمْ فِيهِمْ خَيْرًا

And such of your servants as seek a writing (of emancipation), give them such writing, if you find that there is good and honesty in them.

This is a command from Allah to slave-owners;if their servants ask them for a contract of emancipation, they should write it for them, provided that the servant has some skill and means of earning so that he can pay his master the money that is stipulated in the contract.

Al-Bukhari said;"Rawh narrated from Ibn Jurayj;

`I said to Ata', "If I know that my servant has money, is it obligatory for me to write him a contract of emancipation."

He said, "I do not think it can be anything but obligatory."

Amr bin Dinar said;"I said to Ata', `Are you narrating this from anybody?'

He said, `No,' then he told me that Musa bin Anas told him that Sirin, who had a lot of money, asked Anas for a contract of emancipation and he refused. So he went to Umar (bin Al-Khattab), may Allah be pleased with him, and he said, `Write it for him.'

He refused, so Umar hit him with his whip and recited,
فَكَاتِبُوهُمْ إِنْ عَلِمْتُمْ فِيهِمْ خَيْرًا
(give them such writing, if you find that there is good and honesty in them).

Then he wrote the contract."

This was mentioned by Al-Bukhari with a disconnected chain of narration.

It was also narrated by Abdur-Razzaq who said Ibn Jurayj told them;

I said to Ata', "If I know that my servant has some money, is it obligatory for me to write him a contract of emancipation."

He said, `I do not think it can be anything but obligatory."'

It was also said by Amr bin Dinar who said,

"I said to `Ata', `Are you narrating this from anybody?'

He said, `No."'

Ibn Jarir recorded that Sirin wanted Anas bin Malik to write a contract of emancipation and he delayed, then Umar said to him,

"You should certainly write him a contract of emancipation."
Its chain of narrators is Sahih.
Allah's saying;

إِنْ عَلِمْتُمْ فِيهِمْ خَيْرًا

if you find that there is good and honesty in them.

Some of them said (this means) trustworthiness.

Some said;"Honesty,"

and others said;"A skill and ability to earn."

وَاتُوهُم مِّن مَّالِ اللَّهِ الَّذِي اتَاكُمْ

And give them something out of the wealth of Allah which He has bestowed upon you.

This is the share of the wealth of Zakah that Allah stated to be their right.

This is the opinion of Al-Hasan, Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam and his father and Muqatil bin Hayyan.

It was also the opinion favored by Ibn Jarir.

وَاتُوهُم مِّن مَّالِ اللَّهِ الَّذِي اتَاكُمْ

And give them something out of the wealth of Allah which He has bestowed upon you.

Ibrahim An-Nakha`i said,

"This is urging the people, their masters and others."

This was also the view of Buraydah bin Al-Husayb Al-Aslami and Qatadah.

Ibn Abbas said;

"Allah commanded the believers to help in freeing slaves."
The Prohibition of forcing One's Slave-Girls to commit Zina

Allah's saying;

وَلَا تُكْرِهُوا فَتَيَاتِكُمْ عَلَى الْبِغَاء

And force not your slave-girls to prostitution...

Among the people of the Jahiliyyah, there were some who, if he had a slave-girl, he would send her out to commit Zina and would charge money for that, which he would take from her every time.

When Islam came, Allah forbade the believers to do that. The reason why this Ayah was revealed, according to the reports of a number of earlier and later scholars of Tafsir, had to do with Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Salul. He had slave-girls whom he used to force into prostitution so that he could take their earnings and because he wanted them to have children which would enhance his status, or so he claimed.
Reports narrated on this Topic

In his Musnad, Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr Ahmad bin Amr bin Abd Al-Khaliq Al-Bazzar, may Allah have mercy on him, recorded that Az-Zuhri said,

"Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Salul had a slave-girl whose name was Mu`adhah, whom he forced into prostitution. When Islam came, the Ayah
وَلَا تُكْرِهُوا فَتَيَاتِكُمْ عَلَى الْبِغَاء
(And force not your slave-girls to prostitution...) was revealed."

Al-A`mash narrated from Abu Sufyan that Jabir said concerning this Ayah,

"This was revealed about a slave-girl belonging to Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Salul whose name was Musaykah. He used to force her to commit immoral actions, but there was nothing wrong with her and she refused. Then Allah revealed this Ayah;

وَلَا تُكْرِهُوا فَتَيَاتِكُمْ عَلَى الْبِغَاء
(And force not your slave-girls to prostitution), until His saying;
وَمَن يُكْرِههُّنَّ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ مِن بَعْدِ إِكْرَاهِهِنَّ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
(But if anyone compels them, then after such compulsion, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful)."

An-Nasa'i also recorded something similar.

Muqatil bin Hayyan said,

"I heard -- and Allah knows best -- that this Ayah was revealed about two men who used to force two slave-girls of theirs (into prostitution). One of them was called Musaykah who belonged to (the Ansari), and Umaymah the mother of Musaykah belonged to Abdullah bin Ubayy.

Mu`adhah and Arwa were in the same situation. Then Musaykah and her mother came to the Prophet and told him about that. Then Allah revealed;
وَلَا تُكْرِهُوا فَتَيَاتِكُمْ عَلَى الْبِغَاء
(And force not your slave-girls to prostitution), meaning Zina.

إِنْ أَرَدْنَ تَحَصُّنًا

if they desire chastity,

means, if they want to be chaste, which is the case with the majority of slave-girls.

لِّتَبْتَغُوا عَرَضَ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا

in order that you may make a gain in the goods of this worldly life.

meaning, from the money they earn and their children.

The Messenger of Allah forbade the money earned by;

the cupper,

the prostitute and

the fortune-teller.

According to another report;

مَهْرُ الْبَغِيِّ خَبِيثٌ

وَكَسْبُ الْحَجَّامِ خَبِيثٌ

وَثَمَنُ الْكَلْبِ خَبِيثٌ

The earnings of a prostitute are evil,

the earnings of a cupper are evil, and

the price of a dog is evil.

وَمَن يُكْرِههُّنَّ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ مِن بَعْدِ إِكْرَاهِهِنَّ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ



But if anyone compels them, then after such compulsion, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

meaning, towards them, as has already been stated in the Hadith narrated from Jabir.

Ibn Abi Talhah narrated that Ibn Abbas said,

"If you do that, then Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful, and their sin will be on the one who forced them to do that."

This was also the view of Mujahid, Ata' Al-Khurasani, Al-A`mash and Qatadah.

After explaining these rulings in detail, Allah says