Feehi Aayaatum baiyinaatum Maqaamu Ibraaheema wa man dakhalahoo kaana aaminaa; wa lillaahi 'alan naasi Hijjul Baiti manis tataa'a ilaihi sabeelaa; wa man kafara fa innal laaha ghaniyyun 'anil 'aalameen
In it are clear signs [such as] the standing place of Abraham. And whoever enters it shall be safe. And [due] to Allah from the people is a pilgrimage to the House - for whoever is able to find thereto a way. But whoever disbelieves - then indeed, Allah is free from need of the worlds.
1 A. J. Arberry
Therein are clear signs -- the station of Abraham, and whosoever enters it is in security. It is the duty of all men towards God to come to the House a pilgrim, if he is able to make his way there. As for the unbeliever, God is All-sufficient nor needs any being.
2 Abdul Haleem
there are clear signs in it; it is the place where Abraham stood to pray; whoever enters it is safe. Pilgrimage to the House is a duty owed to God by people who are able to undertake it. Those who reject this [should know that] God has no need of anyone.
3 Abdul Majid Daryabadi
Therein are signs manifest, the station of Ibrahim. And whosoever entereth it shall be secure. And incumbent on mankind is pilgrimage to the House for that good-will of Allah: on him who is able to find a way thereunto. And whosoever disbelieveth, then verily Allah is Independent of the worlds.
4 Abdullah Yusuf Ali
In it are Signs Manifest; (for example), the Station of Abraham; whoever enters it attains security; Pilgrimage thereto is a duty men owe to Allah,- those who can afford the journey; but if any deny faith, Allah stands not in need of any of His creatures.
5 Abul Ala Maududi
In it there are clear signs and the station of Abraham; whoever enters it becomes secure. Pilgrimage to the House is a duty owed to Allah by all who can make their way to it. As for those who refuse to follow His command, surely Allah does not stand in need of anything.
6 Ahmed Ali
It contains clear signs, and the spot where Abraham had stood. And anyone who enters it will find security. And whosoever can afford should visit the House on a pilgrimage as duty to God. Whosoever denies, should remember that God is independent of the peoples of the world.
7 Ahmed Raza Khan
In it are clear signs – the place where Ibrahim stood (is one of them); and whoever enters it shall be safe; and performing the Hajj (pilgrimage) of this house, for the sake of Allah, is a duty upon mankind, for those who can reach it; and whoever disbelieves – then Allah is Independent (Unwanting) of the entire creation!
8 Ali Quli Qarai
In it are manifest signs [and] Abraham’s Station, and whoever enters it shall be secure. And it is the duty of mankind toward Allah to make pilgrimage to the House—for those who can afford the journey to it—and should anyone renege [on his obligation], Allah is indeed without need of the creatures.
9 Ali Ünal
In it there are clear signs (demonstrating that it is a blessed sanctuary, chosen by God as the center of guidance), and the Station of Abraham. Whoever enters it is in security (against attack and fear). Pilgrimage to the House is a duty owed to God by all who can afford a way to it. And whoever refuses (the obligation of the Pilgrimage) or is ungrateful to God (by not fulfilling this command), God is absolutely independent of all creatures.
10 Amatul Rahman Omar
Therein are clear Memorials: (The first is) the Place where Abraham stood for prayers (- Maqâm Ibrahîm); (secondly,) whosoever enters it (- the valley of Bakkah) is in a state of peace and security; (thirdly,) Pilgrimage to the House (- Ka`bah) is due to Allâh from everyone of mankind who is (physically, financially and in many other ways) able and has the means to make the journey thereto. And whosoever disobeys (let him remember that) Allâh is Independent of the worlds.
11 English Literal
In it (are) signs/verses/evidences evidences (in) Abraham`s place/position , and who entered it, was/is/became safe/secure, and to God on the people performing pilgrimage (to) the House/Home who was/is able (to find) a way/method to it, and who disbelieved, so that God (is) rich from (not in need to) the creations altogether/(universes).
12 Faridul Haque
In it are clear signs - the place where Ibrahim stood (is one of them); and whoever enters it shall be safe; and performing the Hajj (pilgrimage) of this house, for the sake of Allah, is a duty upon mankind, for those who can reach it; and whoever disbelieves - then Allah is Independent (Unwanting) of the entire creation!
13 Hamid S. Aziz
Say, "O people of the Book! Why do you disbelieve in Allah´s revelations, when Allah is witness of what you do?"
14 Hilali & Khan
In it are manifest signs (for example), the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim (Abraham); whosoever enters it, he attains security. And Hajj (pilgrimage to Makkah) to the House (Ka'bah) is a duty that mankind owes to Allah, those who can afford the expenses (for one's conveyance, provision and residence); and whoever disbelieves [i.e. denies Hajj (pilgrimage to Makkah), then he is a disbeliever of Allah], then Allah stands not in need of any of the 'Alamin (mankind and jinns).
15 Maulana Mohammad Ali
Certainly the first house appointed for men is the one at Bakkah, blessed and a guidance for the nations.
16 Mohammad Habib Shakir
In it are clear signs, the standing place of Ibrahim, and whoever enters it shall be secure, and pilgrimage to the House is incumbent upon men for the sake of Allah, (upon) every one who is able to undertake the journey to it; and whoever disbelieves, then surely Allah is Self-sufficient, above any need of the worlds.
17 Mohammed Marmaduke William Pickthall
Wherein are plain memorials (of Allah's guidance); the place where Abraham stood up to pray; and whosoever entereth it is safe. And pilgrimage to the House is a duty unto Allah for mankind, for him who can find a way thither. As for him who disbelieveth, (let him know that) lo! Allah is Independent of (all) creatures.
18 Muhammad Sarwar
In (Bakka), there are many clear signs (evidence of the existence of God). Among them is the spot where Abraham stood. Whoever seeks refuge therein will be protected by the laws of amnesty. Those who have the means and ability have a duty to God to visit the House and perform the hajj (pilgrimage) rituals. The unbelievers should know that God is Independent of all creatures.
19 Qaribullah & Darwish
In it, there are clear signs; the station where Abraham stood. Whoever enters it let him be safe. Pilgrimage to the House is a duty to Allah for all who can make the journey. And whosoever disbelieves, Allah is Rich, independent of all the worlds.
20 Safi-ur-Rahman al-Mubarakpuri
In it are manifest signs (for example), the Maqam (station) of Ibrahim; whosoever enters it, he attains security. And Hajj to the House is a duty that mankind owes to Allah, for those who are able to undertake the journey; and whoever disbelieves, then Allah stands not in need of any of the `Alamin.
21 Wahiduddin Khan
There are clear signs in it; it is the place where Abraham stood. Anyone who enters it will be secure. Pilgrimage to the House is a duty to God for anyone who is able to undertake it. Anyone who disbelieves should remember that God is independent of all creatures.
22 Talal Itani
In it are evident signs; the Station of Abraham. Whoever enters it attains security. Pilgrimage to the House is a duty to God for all who can make the journey. But as for those who refuse—God is Independent of the worlds.
23 Tafsir jalalayn
Therein are clear signs, among which is, the station of Abraham, that is, the stone upon which he stood to build the House, and on which his footprints remain; and it [the House] has endured all this length of time and the constant passing of hands over it. Among these [signs] are the fact that the reward for good deeds is multiplied in it and that birds never fly over it; and whoever enters it is in security, not liable therein to be killed or oppressed or otherwise. It is the duty of people towards God to make the pilgrimage to the House (read either as hijj al-bayt or hajj al-bayt, as two variants of the verbal noun from hajj, meaning `the intention [to journey there]'), if he is able to make his way there (man istat`a ilayhi sablan substitutes for al-ns, `people'). The Prophet (s) explained this [ability] as having provisions and a ride, as reported by al- Hkim [al-Naysbr] and others. As for the one who disbelieves, in God or in what He has made obligatory with regard to the Pilgrimage, God is Independent of all worlds, the humans, the jinn and the angels, and [is Independent of] their devotions.
24 Tafseer Ibn Kathir
فِيهِ ايَاتٌ بَيِّـنَاتٌ
In it are manifest signs,
means, clear signs that Ibrahim built the Ka`bah and that Allah has honored and blessed it.
Allah then said,
the Maqam (station) of Ibrahim,
When the building (the Ka`bah) was raised, Ibrahim stood on; the Maqam so that he could raise the walls higher, while his son Ismail was handing the stones to him.
We should mention that the Maqam used to be situated right next to the House. Later, and during his reign, Umar bin Al-Khattab moved the Maqam farther to the east, so that those who go around the House in Tawaf are able to perform it easily, without disturbing those who pray next to the Maqam after finishing their Tawaf. Allah commanded us to pray next to the Maqam;
وَاتَّخِذُواْ مِن مَّقَامِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ مُصَلًّى
(And take you (people) the Maqam (station) of Ibrahim as a place of prayer), (2;125).
We mentioned the Hadiths about this subject before, and all the thanks are due to Allah.
Al-Awfi said that, Ibn Abbas commented on Allah's statement,
فِيهِ ايَاتٌ بَيِّـنَاتٌ
(In it are manifest signs, the Maqam of Ibrahim),
"Such as the Maqam and Al-Mash`ar (Al-Haram)."
"The impression of Ibrahim's feet remains on the Maqam as a clear sign."
It was reported that Umar bin Abdul-Aziz, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, As-Suddi, Muqatil bin Hayyan and others said similarly.
Al-Haram, the Sacred Area, is a Safe Area
وَمَن دَخَلَهُ كَانَ امِنًا
whosoever enters it, he attains security,
meaning, the Haram of Makkah is a safe refuge for those in a state of fear. There in its vicinity, they will be safe, just as was the case during the time of Jahiliyyah.
Al-Hasan Al-Basri said,
"(During the time of Jahiliyyah) a man would commit murder, then wear a piece of wool around his neck and enter the Haram. And even when the son of the murdered person would meet him, he would not make a move against him, until he left the sanctuary."
أَوَلَمْ يَرَوْاْ أَنَّا جَعَلْنَا حَرَماً ءامِناً وَيُتَخَطَّفُ النَّاسُ مِنْ حَوْلِهِمْ
Have they not seen that We have made (Makkah) a secure sanctuary, while men are being snatched away from all around them. (29;67)
فَلْيَعْبُدُواْ رَبَّ هَـذَا الْبَيْتِ
الَّذِى أَطْعَمَهُم مِّن جُوعٍ وَءَامَنَهُم مِّنْ خوْفٍ
So let them worship (Allah) the Lord of this House (the Ka`bah). (He) Who has fed them against hunger, and has made them safe from fear. (106;3-4)
It is not allowed for anyone to hunt in the Haram or to drive game out of its den to be hunted, or cut the trees in its vicinity, or pick its grass, as the Hadiths of the Prophet and the statements of the Companions testify.
The Two Sahihs recorded (this being the wording of Muslim) that Ibn Abbas said,
"On the day of the conquest of Makkah, the Messenger of Allah said,
لَاا هِجْرَةَ وَلــكِنْ جِهَادٌ وَنِيَّـةٌ وَإِذَا اسْتُنْفِرْتُمْ فَانْفِرُوا
There is no more Hijrah (migration to Makkah), only Jihad and good intention. If you were mobilized, then march forth.
He also said on the day of the conquest of Makkah,
إِنَّ هَذَا الْبَلَدَ حَرَّمَهُ اللهُ يَوْمَ خَلَقَ السَّمَواتِ وَالاَْرْضَ فَهُوَ حَرَامٌ بِحُرْمَةِ اللهِ إِلى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ
Beware! Allah made this town (Makkah) a sanctuary when He created the heavens and earth, and it is sacred by Allah's decree until the Day of Resurrection.
وَإِنَّهُ لَمْ يَحِلَّ الْقِتَالُ فِيهِ لَاحَدٍ قَبْلِي وَلَمْ يَحِلَّ لِي إِلاَّ فِي سَاعَةٍ مِنْ نَهَارٍ فَهُوَ حَرَامٌ بِحُرْمَةِ اللهِ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ
Fighting in Makkah was not permitted for anyone before me, and it was made legal for me for only a few hours or so on that day. No doubt it is at this moment a sanctuary by Allah's decree until the Day of Resurrection.
لَاا يُعْضَدُ شَوْكُهُ وُلَاا يُنَفَّرُ صَيْدُهُ وَلَاا يَلْتَقِطُ لُقَطَتَهَا إِلاَّ مَنْ عَرَّفَهَا وَلَاا يُخْتَلَى خَلَاهَا
It is not allowed to uproot its thorny shrubs, hunt its game, pick up its lost objects, except by announcing it, or to uproot its trees.
Al-Abbas said, `Except the lemon grass, O Allah's Messenger, as they use it in their houses and graves.'
The Prophet said;
The Two Sahihs also recorded that Abu Shurayh Al-Adawi said that he said to `Amr bin Sa`id while he was sending the troops to Makkah (to fight Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr),
"O Commander! Allow me to tell you what Allah's Messenger said on the day following the conquest of Makkah. My ears heard it and my heart memorized it thoroughly, and I saw the Prophet with my own eyes when he, after glorifying and praising Allah, said,
إِنَّ مَكَّةَ حَرَّمَهَا اللهُ وَلَمْ يُحَرِّمْهَا النَّاسُ فَلَ يَحِلُّ لاِمْرِى يُوْمِنُ بِاللهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الاْخِرِ أَنْ يَسْفِكَ بِهَا دَمًا وَلَا يَعْضِدَ بِهَا شَجَرَةً فَإِنْ أَحَدٌ تَرَخَّصَ بِقِتَالِ رَسُولِ اللهِصلى الله عليه وسلّم فِيهَا فَقُولُوا لَهُ إِنَّ اللهَ أَذِنَ لِرَسُولِهِ وَلَمْ يَأْذَنْ لَكُمْ وَإِنَّمَا أَذِنَ لِي فِيهَا سَاعَةً مِنْ نَهَارٍ وَقَدْ عَادَتْ حُرْمَتُهَا الْيَوْمَ كَحُرْمَتِهَا بِالاَْمْسِ فَلْيُبَلِّغِ الشَّاهِدُ الْغَايِب
Allah, not the people, made Makkah a sanctuary. Therefore, anybody who has belief in Allah and the Last Day, should neither shed blood in it nor cut down its trees. If anybody argues that fighting in it is permissible on the basis that Allah's Messenger fought in Makkah, say to him, `Allah allowed His Messenger and did not allow you.' Allah allowed me only for a few hours on that day (of the conquest), and today its sanctity is as valid as it was before. So, those who are present, should inform those who are absent of this fact."
Abu Shurayh was asked, "What did `Amr reply?"
He said that `Amr said, "O Abu Shurayh! I know better than you in this respect; Makkah does not give protection to a sinner, a murderer or a thief."
Jabir bin Abdullah said,
"I heard the Messenger of Allah saying,
لَاا يَحِلُّ لاِاَحَدِكُمْ أَنْ يَحْمِلَ بِمَكَّةَ السِّلَاح
None of you is allowed to carry a weapon in Makkah.
Muslim recorded this Hadith.
Abdullah bin Adi bin Al-Hamra Az-Zuhri said that he heard the Messenger of Allah say while standing at Al-Hazwarah in the marketplace of Makkah,
وَاللهِ إِنَّكِ لَخَيْرُ أَرْضِ اللهِ وَأَحَبُّ أَرْضِ اللهِ إِلَى اللهِ وَلَوْلَاا أَنِّي أُخْرِجْتُ مِنْكِ مَا خَرَجْت
By Allah! You are the best of Allah's land and the most beloved land to Allah. Had it not been for the fact that I was driven out of you, I would not have left you.
Imam Ahmad collected this Hadith and this is his wording.
At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah also collected it.
At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih."
The Necessity of Performing Hajj
وَلِلّهِ عَلَى النَّاسِ حِجُّ الْبَيْتِ مَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ إِلَيْهِ سَبِيلً
And Hajj to the House is a duty that mankind owes to Allah, for those who are able to undertake the journey.
This Ayah established the obligation of performing Hajj.
There are many Hadiths that mention it as one of the pillars and fundamentals of Islam, and this is agreed upon by the Muslims.
According to texts and the consensus of the scholars, it is only obligatory for the adult Muslim to perform it once during his lifetime.
Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah once gave a speech in which he said,
أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ قَدْ فُرِضَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْحَجُّ فَحُجُّوا
O people! Hajj has been enjoined on you, therefore, perform Hajj.
A man asked, "Is it every year, O Allah's Messenger!"
The Prophet remained silent until the man repeated the question three times and he then said,
لَوْ قُلْتُ نَعَمْ لَوَجَبَتْ وَلَمَا اسْتَطَعْتُم
Had I said yes, it would have become an obligation and you would not have been able to fulfill it.
He said next,
ذَرُونِي مَا تَرَكْتُكُمْ فَإِنَّمَا هَلَكَ مَنْ كَانَ قَبْلَكُمْ بِكَثْرَةِ سُوَالِهِمْ وَاخْتِلَفِهِمْ عَلى أَنْبِيَايِهِمْ وَإِذَا أَمَرْتُكُمْ بِشَيْءٍ فَأْتُوا مِنْهُ مَا اسْتَطَعْتُمْ وَإِذَا نَهَيْتُكُمْ عَنْ شَيْءٍ فَدَعُوه
Leave me as I leave you, those before you were destroyed because of their many questions and disputing with their Prophets. If I command you with something, perform it as much as you can. If I forbid something for you, then refrain from it.
Muslim recorded similarly.
Meaning of `Afford' in the Ayah
There are several categories of "the ability to under take the journey". There is the physical ability of the person himself and the ability that is related to other things as mentioned in the books of jurisprudence.
Abu Isa At-Tirmidhi recorded that Ibn Umar said,
"A man stood up and asked the Messenger of Allah, `O Messenger of Allah! Who is the pilgrim?'
He said, `He who has untidy hair and clothes.'
Another man asked, `Which Hajj is better, O Messenger of Allah'!
He said, `The noisy (with supplication to Allah) and bloody (with sacrifice).'
Another man asked, `What is the ability to undertake the journey, O Messenger of Allah!'
He said, `Having provision and a means of transportation."'
This is the narration that Ibn Majah collected.
Al-Hakim narrated that Anas said that the Messenger of Allah was asked about Allah's statement,
مَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ إِلَيْهِ سَبِيلً
(for those who are able to undertake the journey),"What does `able to undertake the journey' mean?"
The Prophet answered,
"Having sufficient provision and a means of transportation."
Al-Hakim stated that this Hadith's chain of narration is authentic, following the guidelines of Muslim in his Sahih, but the Two Sahihs did not collect it.
Ahmad recorded that Ibn Abbas said that the Messenger of Allah said,
مَنْ أَرَادَ الْحَجَّ فَلْيَتَعَجَّل
Whoever intends to perform Hajj, let him rush to perform it.
Abu Dawud also collected this Hadith.
The One who Denies the Necessity of Hajj Becomes a Disbeliever
وَمَن كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ الله غَنِيٌّ عَنِ الْعَالَمِينَ
and whoever disbelieves, then Allah stands not in need of any of the Alamin. (3;97)
Ibn Abbas, Mujahid and several others commented on this Ayah,
"Whoever denies the necessity of Hajj becomes disbeliever, and Allah is far Richer than to need him."
Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr Al-Ismaili recorded that Umar bin Al-Khattab said,
"Whoever can afford Hajj but did not perform it, there is no difference in his case if he dies while Jew or Christian."
This has an authentic chain of narration leading to Umar