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wal-muḥ'ṣanātu
وَٱلْمُحْصَنَٰتُ
And (prohibited are) the ones who are married
mina
مِنَ
of
l-nisāi
ٱلنِّسَآءِ
the women
illā
إِلَّا
except
مَا
whom
malakat
مَلَكَتْ
you possess.
aymānukum
أَيْمَٰنُكُمْۖ
rightfully.
kitāba
كِتَٰبَ
Decree
l-lahi
ٱللَّهِ
(of) Allah
ʿalaykum
عَلَيْكُمْۚ
upon you.
wa-uḥilla
وَأُحِلَّ
And are lawful
lakum
لَكُم
to you
مَّا
whom
warāa
وَرَآءَ
(is) beyond
dhālikum
ذَٰلِكُمْ
that;
an
أَن
that
tabtaghū
تَبْتَغُوا۟
you seek
bi-amwālikum
بِأَمْوَٰلِكُم
with your wealth
muḥ'ṣinīna
مُّحْصِنِينَ
desiring to be chaste
ghayra
غَيْرَ
not
musāfiḥīna
مُسَٰفِحِينَۚ
(to be) lustful.
famā
فَمَا
So what
is'tamtaʿtum
ٱسْتَمْتَعْتُم
you benefit[ed]
bihi
بِهِۦ
of it
min'hunna
مِنْهُنَّ
from them,
faātūhunna
فَـَٔاتُوهُنَّ
so you give them
ujūrahunna
أُجُورَهُنَّ
their bridal due
farīḍatan
فَرِيضَةًۚ
(as) an obligation.
walā
وَلَا
And (there is) no
junāḥa
جُنَاحَ
sin
ʿalaykum
عَلَيْكُمْ
upon you
fīmā
فِيمَا
concerning what
tarāḍaytum
تَرَٰضَيْتُم
you mutually agree
bihi
بِهِۦ
of it
min
مِنۢ
from
baʿdi
بَعْدِ
beyond
l-farīḍati
ٱلْفَرِيضَةِۚ
the obligation.
inna
إِنَّ
Indeed,
l-laha
ٱللَّهَ
Allah
kāna
كَانَ
is
ʿalīman
عَلِيمًا
All-Knowing,
ḥakīman
حَكِيمًا
All-Wise.

Walmuhsanaatu minan nisaaa'i illaa maa malakat aimaanukum kitaabal laahi 'alaikum; wa uhilla lakum maa waraaa'a zaalikum an tabtaghoo bi amwaali kum muhsineena ghaira musaa fiheen; famastamta'tum bihee minhunna fa aatoohunna ujoorahunna fareedah; wa laa junaaha 'alaikum feemaa taraadaitum bihee mim ba'dil fareedah; innal laaha kaana 'Aleeman Hakeemaa

Sahih International:

And [also prohibited to you are all] married women except those your right hands possess. [This is] the decree of Allah upon you. And lawful to you are [all others] beyond these, [provided] that you seek them [in marriage] with [gifts from] your property, desiring chastity, not unlawful sexual intercourse. So for whatever you enjoy [of marriage] from them, give them their due compensation as an obligation. And there is no blame upon you for what you mutually agree to beyond the obligation. Indeed, Allah is ever Knowing and Wise.

1 A. J. Arberry

and wedded women, save what your right hands own. So God prescribes for you. Lawful for you, beyond all that, is that you may seek, using your wealth, in wedlock and not in licence. Such wives as you enjoy thereby, give them their wages apportionate; it is no fault in you in your agreeing together, after the due apportionate. God is All-knowing, All-wise.

2 Abdul Haleem

women already married, other than your slaves.God has ordained all this for you. Other women are lawful to you, so long as you seek them in marriage, with gifts from your property, looking for wedlock rather than fornication. If you wish to enjoy women through marriage, give them their bride-gift- this is obligatory- though if you should choose mutually, after fulfilling this obligation, to do otherwise [with the bride-gift], you will not be blamed: God is all knowing and all wise.

3 Abdul Majid Daryabadi

And also forbidden are the wedded among women, save those whom your right hands own Allah's rescript for you. And allowed unto you is whatsoever is beyond that, so that ye may seek them with your substances as properly wedded men, not as fornicators. Then whomsoever of them ye have enjoyed, give them their dowers stipulated. And there will be no blame on you in regard to aught on which ye mutually agree after the stipulation; verily Allah is Knowing, Wise.

4 Abdullah Yusuf Ali

Also (prohibited are) women already married, except those whom your right hands possess; Thus hath Allah ordained (Prohibitions) against you; Except for these, all others are lawful, provided ye seek (them in marriage) with gifts from your property,- desiring chastity, not lust, seeing that ye derive benefit from them, give them their dowers (at least) as prescribed; but if, after a dower is prescribed, agree Mutually (to vary it), there is no blame on you, and Allah is All-knowing, All-wise.

5 Abul Ala Maududi

And also forbidden to you are all married women (muhsanat) except those women whom your right hands have come to possess (as a result of war). This is Allah's decree and it is binding upon you. But it is lawful for you to seek out all women except these, offering them your wealth and the protection of wedlock rather than using them for the unfettered satisfaction of lust. And in exchange of what you enjoy by marrying them pay their bridal-due as an obligation. But there is no blame on you if you mutually agree to alter the settlement after it has been made. Surely Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.

6 Ahmed Ali

Also forbidden are married women unless they are captives (of war). Such is the decree of God. Lawful for you are women besides these if you seek them with your wealth for wedlock and not for debauchery. Then give those of these women you have enjoyed, the agreed dower. It will not be sinful if you agree to something (else) by mutual consent after having settled the dowry. God is certainly all-knowing and all-wise.

7 Ahmed Raza Khan

And all married women are forbidden for you except the wives of disbelievers who come into your possession as bondwomen; this is Allah’s decree for you; and other than these, all women are lawful for you so that you seek them in exchange of your wealth in proper wedlock, not adultery; therefore give the women you wish to marry, their appointed bridal money; and after the appointment (of bridal money) there is no sin on you if you come to a mutual agreement; indeed Allah is All Knowing, Wise.

8 Ali Quli Qarai

and married women, excepting your slave-women. This is Allah’s ordinance for you. As to others than these, it is lawful for you to seek [temporary union with them] with your wealth, in wedlock, not in license. For the enjoyment you have had from them thereby, give them their dowries, by way of settlement, and there is no sin upon you in what you may agree upon after the settlement. Indeed Allah is all-knowing, all-wise.

9 Ali Ünal

And (also forbidden to you are) all married women save those (captives) whom your right hands possess (and whose ties with their husbands have practically been cut off). This is God’s decree, binding upon you. Lawful for you are all beyond those mentioned, that you may seek, offering them of your wealth, taking them in sound chastity (i.e. in marriage), and not in licentiousness. And whomever of them you seek to enjoy in marriage (under these conditions), give them their bridal-due as a duty. But there is no blame on you for what you do by mutual agreement after the duty (has been done). Assuredly, God is All-Knowing (of what you do and why), and All-Wise.

10 Amatul Rahman Omar

And (you are also forbidden to marry) already married women who are in a wed-lock. Yet those (captives in war) whom your right hands possess (are permitted to you for marriage even if not formally divorced by their former husbands, since their captivity is equivalent to divorce). This is the law prescribed to you by Allâh. All (women) beyond those (mentioned above) are lawful to you, provided you seek (their hands) by means of your wealth (- by granting dowers), marrying them properly and not (committing fornication) to pursue your lust. You shall, for the benefits you draw from them (by regular marriage), pay them (- your wives) such of their dowers as have been fixed. There is, however, no blame on you (in increasing or decreasing the amount of dower) which you (- husband and wife) mutually agree upon, after it has been (once) fixed. Surely, Allâh is All-Knowing, All-Wise.

11 English Literal

And the married from the women except what your rights owned/possessed (from spoils of war) God`s decree/judgment on you, and became/is permitted/allowed for you, what (is) behind that, that you ask/desire with your (P) wealths , marrying not fornicating/adulterating, so what you enjoyed with it, from them (F), so give them (F) their (F) rewards/fees (dowries) a religious duty/command/stipulation ,and no offense/guilt on you in what you (P) mutually agreed with it, from after the religious duty/command/stipulation , that God was/is knowledgeable, wise/judicious.

12 Faridul Haque

And all married women are forbidden for you except the wives of disbelievers who come into your possession as bondwomen; this is Allah’s decree for you; and other than these, all women are lawful for you so that you seek them in exchange of your wealth in proper wedlock, not adultery; therefore give the women you wish to marry, their appointed bridal money; and after the appointment (of bridal money) there is no sin on you if you come to a mutual agreement; indeed Allah is All Knowing, Wise.

13 Hamid S. Aziz

Allah wishes to explain to you and to guide you into the ordinances of those who were before you, and would turn towards you in mercy, for Allah is Knowing, Wise.

14 Hilali & Khan

Also (forbidden are) women already married, except those (captives and slaves) whom your right hands possess. Thus has Allah ordained for you. All others are lawful, provided you seek (them in marriage) with Mahr (bridal money given by the husband to his wife at the time of marriage) from your property, desiring chastity, not committing illegal sexual intercourse, so with those of whom you have enjoyed sexual relations, give them their Mahr as prescribed; but if after a Mahr is prescribed, you agree mutually (to give more), there is no sin on you. Surely, Allah is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise.

15 Maulana Mohammad Ali

Forbidden to you are your mothers, and your daughters, and your sisters, and your paternal aunts, and your maternal aunts, and brother’s daughters and sister’s daughters, and your mothers that have suckled you, and your foster-sisters, and mothers of your wives, and your stepdaughters who are in your guardianship (born) of your wives to whom you have gone in -- but if you have not gone in to them, there is no blame on you -- and the wives of your sons who are of your own loins; and that you should have two sisters together, except what has already passed. Surely Allah is ever Forgiving, Merciful.

16 Mohammad Habib Shakir

And all married women except those whom your right hands possess (this is) Allah's ordinance to you, and lawful for you are (all women) besides those, provided that you seek (them) with your property, taking (them) in marriage not committing fornication. Then as to those whom you profit by, give them their dowries as appointed; and there is no blame on you about what you mutually agree after what is appointed; surely Allah is Knowing, Wise.

17 Mohammed Marmaduke William Pickthall

And all married women (are forbidden unto you) save those (captives) whom your right hands possess. It is a decree of Allah for you. Lawful unto you are all beyond those mentioned, so that ye seek them with your wealth in honest wedlock, not debauchery. And those of whom ye seek content (by marrying them), give unto them their portions as a duty. And there is no sin for you in what ye do by mutual agreement after the duty (hath been done). Lo! Allah is ever Knower, Wise.

18 Muhammad Sarwar

You are forbidden to marry married women except your slave-girls. This is the decree of God. Besides these, it is lawful for you to marry other women if you pay their dower, maintain chastity and do not commit indecency. If you marry them for the appointed time you must pay their dowries. There is no harm if you reach an understanding among yourselves about the dowry, God is All-knowing and All-wise.

19 Qaribullah & Darwish

And (forbidden to you) are married women, except those whom your right hand owns. Such Allah has written for you. Lawful to you beyond all that, is that you can seek using your wealth in marriage and not fornication. So whatever you have enjoyed from them give them their obligated wage. And there is no fault in you in what ever you mutually agree after the obligation. Allah is the Knower, the Wise.

20 Safi-ur-Rahman al-Mubarakpuri

Also (forbidden are) women already married, except those (slaves) whom your right hands possess. Thus has Allah ordained for you. All others are lawful, provided you seek them (with a dowry) from your property, desiring chastity, not fornication. So with those among them whom you have enjoyed, give them their required due, but if you agree mutually (to give more) after the requirement (has been determined), there is no sin on you. Surely, Allah is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise.

21 Wahiduddin Khan

Also forbidden are married women, except those who have passed into your hands as prisoners of war. This is a commandment of God to you. All women other than these are lawful to you, provided you seek them with your wealth in honest wedlock, not in fornication. When you consummate your marriage with them, give the dowers due to them. And there is no sin for you in what you do by mutual agreement after the fixing of the dower. God is all knowing and wise.

22 Talal Itani

And all married women, except those you rightfully possess. This is God’s decree, binding upon you. Permitted for you are those that lie outside these limits, provided you seek them in legal marriage, with gifts from your property, seeking wedlock, not prostitution. If you wish to enjoy them, then give them their dowry—a legal obligation. You commit no error by agreeing to any change to the dowry. God is All-Knowing, Most Wise.

23 Tafsir jalalayn

And, forbidden to you are, wedded women, those with spouses, that you should marry them before they have left their spouses, be they Muslim free women or not; save what your right hands own, of captured [slave] girls, whom you may have sexual intercourse with, even if they should have spouses among the enemy camp, but only after they have been absolved of the possibility of pregnancy [after the completion of one menstrual cycle]; this is what God has prescribed for you (kitba is in the accusative because it is the verbal noun). Lawful for you (read passive wa-uhilla, or active wa-ahalla), beyond all that, that is, except what He has forbidden you of women, is that you seek, women, using your wealth, by way of a dowry or a price, in wedlock and not, fornicating, in illicitly. Such wives as you enjoy thereby, and have had sexual intercourse with, give them their wages, the dowries that you have assigned them, as an obligation; you are not at fault in agreeing together, you and they, after the obligation, is waived, decreased or increased. God is ever Knowing, of His creatures, Wise, in what He has ordained for them.

24 Tafseer Ibn Kathir

Forbidding Women Already Married, Except for Female Slaves

Allah said,

وَالْمُحْصَنَاتُ مِنَ النِّسَاء إِلاَّ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ

Also (forbidden are) women already married, except those whom your right hands possess.

The Ayah means, you are prohibited from marrying women who are already married,
إِلاَّ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ
(except those whom your right hands possess) except those whom you acquire through war, for you are allowed such women after making sure they are not pregnant.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri said,

"We captured some women from the area of Awtas who were already married, and we disliked having sexual relations with them because they already had husbands. So, we asked the Prophet about this matter, and this Ayah was revealed,
وَالْمُحْصَنَاتُ مِنَ النِّسَاء إِلاَّ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ
(Also (forbidden are) women already married, except those whom your right hands possess). Consequently, we had sexual relations with these women."

This is the wording collected by At-Tirmidhi An-Nasa'i, Ibn Jarir and Muslim in his Sahih.

Allah's statement,

كِتَابَ اللّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ

Thus has Allah ordained for you.

means, this prohibition was ordained for you by Allah. Therefore, adhere to Allah's Book, do not transgress His set limits, and adhere to His legislation and decrees.
The Permission to Marry All Other Women

Allah said,

وَأُحِلَّ لَكُم مَّا وَرَاءَ ذَلِكُمْ

All others are lawful,

meaning, you are allowed to marry women other than the prohibited types mentioned here, as Ata and others have stated.

Allah's statement,

أَن تَبْتَغُواْ بِأَمْوَالِكُم مُّحْصِنِينَ غَيْرَ مُسَافِحِينَ

provided you seek them (with a dowry) from your property, desiring chastity, not fornication,

meaning, you are allowed to use your money to marry up to four wives and for (the purchase of) as many female slaves as you like, all through legal means,
مُّحْصِنِينَ غَيْرَ مُسَافِحِينَ
((desiring) chastity, not fornication).

Allah's statement,

فَمَا اسْتَمْتَعْتُم بِهِ مِنْهُنَّ فَأتُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ فَرِيضَةً

So with those among them whom you have enjoyed, give them their required due,

means, to enjoy them sexually, surrender to them their rightful dowry as compensation.

In other Ayat, Allah said,

وَكَيْفَ تَأْخُذُونَهُ وَقَدْ أَفْضَى بَعْضُكُمْ إِلَى بَعْضٍ

And how could you take it (back) while you have gone in unto each other, (4;21)

وَاتُواْ النَّسَاء صَدُقَاتِهِنَّ نِحْلَةً


And give to the women (whom you marry) their dowry with a good heart, (4;4)

and,

وَلَا يَحِلُّ لَكُمْ أَن تَأْخُذُواْ مِمَّأ ءَاتَيْتُمُوهُنَّ شَيْيًا

And it is not lawful for you (men) to take back (from your wives) any of what (dowry) you gave them. (2;229)
Prohibiting the Mut`ah of Marriage

Mujahid stated that,

فَمَا اسْتَمْتَعْتُم بِهِ مِنْهُنَّ فَأتُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ فَرِيضَةً
(So with those among them whom you have enjoyed, give them their required due) was revealed about the Mut`ah marriage.

A Mut`ah marriage is a marriage that ends upon a predetermined date.

In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that the Leader of the Faithful Ali bin Abi Talib said,

"The Messenger of Allah prohibited Mut`ah marriage and eating the meat of domesticated donkeys on the day of Khyber (battle)."

In addition, in his Sahih, Muslim recorded that Ar-Rabi bin Sabrah bin Ma`bad Al-Juhani said that his father said that;

he accompanied the Messenger of Allah during the conquest of Makkah, and that the Prophet said,

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنِّي كُنْتُ أَذِنْتُ لَكُمْ فِي الاسْتِمْتَاعِ مِنَ النِّسَاءِ وَإنَّ اللهَ قَدْ حَرَّمَ ذَلِكَ إِلى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ فَمَنْ كَانَ عِنَدَهُ مِنْهُنَّ شَيْءٌ فَلْيُخَلِّ سَبِيلَهُ وَلَاا تَأْخُذُوا مِمَّا اتَيْتُمُوهُنَّ شييًا

O people! I allowed you the Mut`ah marriage with women before. Now, Allah has prohibited it until the Day of Resurrection. Therefore, anyone who has any women in Mut`ah, let him let them go, and do not take anything from what you have given them.

Allah's statement,

وَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِيمَا تَرَاضَيْتُم بِهِ مِن بَعْدِ الْفَرِيضَةِ

but if you agree mutually (to give more) after the requirement (has been determined), there is no sin on you.

is similar to His other statement,

وَءَاتُواْ النِّسَأءَ صَدُقَـتِهِنَّ نِحْلَةً

And give to the women their dowry with a good heart. (4;4)

The meaning of these Ayat is;

If you have stipulated a dowry for her, and she later forfeits it, either totally or partially, then this bears no harm on you or her in this case.

Ibn Jarir said,

"Al-Hadrami said that some men would designate a certain dowry, but then fall into financial difficulties. Therefore, Allah said that there is no harm on you, O people, concerning your mutual agreement after the requirement (has been determined)."

meaning, if she gives up part of the dowry, then you men are allowed to accept that.

Allah's statement,

إِنَّ اللّهَ كَانَ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا



Surely, Allah is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise.

is suitable here, after Allah mentioned these prohibitions