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ḥurrimat
حُرِّمَتْ
Forbidden
ʿalaykum
عَلَيْكُمْ
to you
ummahātukum
أُمَّهَٰتُكُمْ
(are) your mothers
wabanātukum
وَبَنَاتُكُمْ
and your daughters
wa-akhawātukum
وَأَخَوَٰتُكُمْ
and your sisters
waʿammātukum
وَعَمَّٰتُكُمْ
and your father's sisters
wakhālātukum
وَخَٰلَٰتُكُمْ
and your mother's sisters
wabanātu
وَبَنَاتُ
and daughters
l-akhi
ٱلْأَخِ
(of) brothers,
wabanātu
وَبَنَاتُ
and daughters
l-ukh'ti
ٱلْأُخْتِ
(of) sisters
wa-ummahātukumu
وَأُمَّهَٰتُكُمُ
and (the) mothers
allātī
ٱلَّٰتِىٓ
who
arḍaʿnakum
أَرْضَعْنَكُمْ
nursed you
wa-akhawātukum
وَأَخَوَٰتُكُم
and your sisters
mina
مِّنَ
from
l-raḍāʿati
ٱلرَّضَٰعَةِ
the nursing
wa-ummahātu
وَأُمَّهَٰتُ
and mothers
nisāikum
نِسَآئِكُمْ
(of) your wives
warabāibukumu
وَرَبَٰٓئِبُكُمُ
and your step daughters
allātī
ٱلَّٰتِى
who
فِى
(are) in
ḥujūrikum
حُجُورِكُم
your guardianship
min
مِّن
of
nisāikumu
نِّسَآئِكُمُ
your women
allātī
ٱلَّٰتِى
who
dakhaltum
دَخَلْتُم
you had relations
bihinna
بِهِنَّ
with them,
fa-in
فَإِن
but if
lam
لَّمْ
not
takūnū
تَكُونُوا۟
you had
dakhaltum
دَخَلْتُم
you had relations
bihinna
بِهِنَّ
with them,
falā
فَلَا
then (there is) no
junāḥa
جُنَاحَ
sin
ʿalaykum
عَلَيْكُمْ
to you.
waḥalāilu
وَحَلَٰٓئِلُ
And wives
abnāikumu
أَبْنَآئِكُمُ
(of) your sons,
alladhīna
ٱلَّذِينَ
those who
min
مِنْ
of
aṣlābikum
أَصْلَٰبِكُمْ
your loins
wa-an
وَأَن
and that
tajmaʿū
تَجْمَعُوا۟
you gather together
bayna
بَيْنَ
[between]
l-ukh'tayni
ٱلْأُخْتَيْنِ
two sisters
illā
إِلَّا
except
مَا
what
qad
قَدْ
has.
salafa
سَلَفَۗ
passed before.
inna
إِنَّ
Indeed,
l-laha
ٱللَّهَ
Allah
kāna
كَانَ
is
ghafūran
غَفُورًا
Oft-Forgiving,
raḥīman
رَّحِيمًا
Most-Merciful.

Hurrimat 'alaikum umma haatukum wa bannaatukum wa akhawaatukum wa 'ammaatukum wa khaalaatukum wa banaatul akhi wa banaatul ukhti wa ummahaatu kumul laateee arda' nakum wa akhawaatukum minarradaa'ati wa ummahaatu nisaaa'ikum wa rabaaa'i bukumul laatee fee hujoorikum min nisaaa'ikumul laatee dakhaltum bihinna Fa il lam takoonoo dakhaltum bihina falaa junaaha 'alaikum wa halaaa'ilu abnaaa'ikumul lazeena min aslaabikum wa an tajma'oo bainal ukhtaini illaa maa qad salaf; innallaaha kaana Ghafoorar Raheema

Sahih International:

Prohibited to you [for marriage] are your mothers, your daughters, your sisters, your father's sisters, your mother's sisters, your brother's daughters, your sister's daughters, your [milk] mothers who nursed you, your sisters through nursing, your wives' mothers, and your step-daughters under your guardianship [born] of your wives unto whom you have gone in. But if you have not gone in unto them, there is no sin upon you. And [also prohibited are] the wives of your sons who are from your [own] loins, and that you take [in marriage] two sisters simultaneously, except for what has already occurred. Indeed, Allah is ever Forgiving and Merciful.

1 A. J. Arberry

Forbidden to you are your mothers and daughters, your sisters, your aunts paternal and maternal, your brother's daughters, your sister's daughters, your mothers who have given suck to you, your suckling sisters, your wives' mothers, your stepdaughters who are in your care being born of your wives you have been in to -- but if you have not yet been in to them it is no fault in you - and the spouses of your sons who are of your loins, and that you should take to you two sisters together, unless it be a thing of the past; God is All-forgiving, All-compassionate;

2 Abdul Haleem

You are forbidden to take as wives your mothers, daughters, sisters, paternal and maternal aunts, the daughters of brothers and daughters of sisters, your milk-mothers and milk-sisters, your wives’ mothers, the stepdaughters in your care- those born of women with whom you have consummated marriage, if you have not consummated the marriage, then you will not be blamed- wives of your begotten sons, two sisters simultaneously- with the exception of what is past: God is most forgiving and merciful-

3 Abdul Majid Daryabadi

Forbidden unto you are your mothers and your daughters and your sisters and your father's sisters and your mother's sisters, and your brother's daughters and your sister's daughters. and your foster mothers and your foster sisters, and the mothers of your wives and your step-daughters, that are your wards, born of your wives unto whom ye have gone in, but if ye have not gone in unto them, no sin shall be on you, and the wives of your sons that are from your own loins, and, also that ye should have two sisters together, except that which hath already passed; verily Allah is ever Forgiving, Merciful.

4 Abdullah Yusuf Ali

Prohibited to you (For marriage) are;- Your mothers, daughters, sisters; father's sisters, Mother's sisters; brother's daughters, sister's daughters; foster-mothers (Who gave you suck), foster-sisters; your wives' mothers; your step-daughters under your guardianship, born of your wives to whom ye have gone in,- no prohibition if ye have not gone in;- (Those who have been) wives of your sons proceeding from your loins; and two sisters in wedlock at one and the same time, except for what is past; for Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful;-

5 Abul Ala Maududi

Forbidden to you are your mothers, your daughters, your sisters, your father's sisters and your mother's sisters, your brother's daughters and your sister's daughters, your milk-mothers, your milk-sisters, the mothers of your wives, and the stepdaughters - who are your foster-children, born of your wives with whom you have consummated the marriage; but if you have not consummated the marriage with them, there will be no blame upon you (if you marry their daughters). It is also forbidden for you to take the wives of the sons who have sprung from your loins and to take two sisters together in marriage, although what is past is past. Surely Allah is All-Forgiving, All-Compassionate.

6 Ahmed Ali

Unlawful are your mothers and daughters and your sisters to you, and the sisters of your fathers and your mothers, and the daughters of your brothers and sisters, and foster mothers, foster sisters, and the mothers of your wives, and the daughters of the wives you have slept with who are under your charge; but in case you have not slept with them there is no offence (if you marry their daughters); and the wives of your own begotten sons; and marrying two sisters is unlawful. What happened in the past (is now past): God is forgiving and kind.

7 Ahmed Raza Khan

Forbidden for you are your mothers, and your daughters, and your sisters, and your father’s sisters, and your mother’s sisters, and your brothers’ daughters and your sisters’ daughters, and your foster-mothers (who breast-fed you), and their daughters (your foster-sisters), and your wives’ mothers (mothers-in-law), and your wives’ daughters who are under your protection – born of the women with whom you have cohabited; and if you have not cohabited with them, then it is no sin for you to marry their daughters; and (forbidden are) the wives of your own sons (and foster-sons and grandsons) and the keeping of two sisters together in marriage, except what has already passed; indeed Allah is Oft Forgiving, Most Merciful.

8 Ali Quli Qarai

Forbidden to you are your mothers, your daughters and your sisters, your paternal aunts and your maternal aunts, your brother’s daughters and your sister’s daughters, your [foster-]mothers who have suckled you and your sisters through fosterage, your wives’ mothers, and your stepdaughters who are under your care [born] of the wives whom you have gone into—but if you have not gone into them there is no sin upon you—and the wives of your sons who are from your own loins, and that you should marry two sisters at one time—excluding what is already past; indeed Allah is all-forgiving, all-merciful—

9 Ali Ünal

Forbidden to you (O believing men) are your mothers (including stepmothers and grandmothers) and daughters (including granddaughters), your sisters (including full sisters and half-sisters), your aunts paternal and maternal, your brothers’ daughters, your sisters’ daughters, your mothers who have given suck to you, your milk-sisters (all those as closely related to you through milk as through descent ), your wives’ mothers, your stepdaughters – who are your foster-children, born of your wives with whom you have consummated marriage; but if you have not consummated marriage with them, there will be no blame on you (should you marry their daughters) – and the spouses of your sons who are of your loins, and to take two sisters together in marriage (including a niece and her aunt maternal or paternal) – except what has happened (of that sort) in the past. Surely God is All-Forgiving, All-Compassionate.

10 Amatul Rahman Omar

Forbidden to you (for marriage) are your mothers, your daughters, your sisters, your paternal aunts, and your maternal aunts, and the daughters of a brother, and the daughters of a sisters, and your (foster) mothers who have given suck to you, and your foster sisters, and the mothers of your wives, and your step-daughters who are being brought up under your care and have been born of your wives (by their former husbands,) unto whom you have gone in, but if you have not gone in unto them (- their mothers), then there is no blame on you (in marrying their daughters), and the wives of your sons who are from your own loins; and (it is forbidden to you) to keep in wedlock two sisters (at one and the same time), except what has already passed, (you have to divorce one of them). Surely, Allâh is Most Protector (against faults), Ever Merciful.

11 English Literal

Your mothers, and your daughters, and your sisters, and your paternal aunts, and your maternal aunts, and the brothers` daughters (nieces), and the sisters` daughters (nieces), and your mothers who breast fed you, and your sisters from the lactation/breast feeding, and your women`s (wives`) mothers (mothers in-law), and your step- daughters who (are) in your custody from your women (wives) whom you entered with them (F), are forbidden on you, so if you were not entered with them (F), so no offense/sin on you, and (also forbidden on you are) your sons` allowed/permitted women (wives) whom (are) from your backbones/genealogical relations ,and that you combine between the two sisters, except what had preceded, that God was/is forgiving, merciful.

12 Faridul Haque

Forbidden for you are your mothers, and your daughters, and your sisters, and your father’s sisters, and your mother’s sisters, and your brothers’ daughters and your sisters’ daughters, and your foster-mothers (who breast-fed you), and their daughters (your foster-sisters), and your wives’ mothers (mothers-in-law), and your wives’ daughters who are under your protection - born of the women with whom you have cohabited; and if you have not cohabited with them, then it is no sin for you to marry their daughters; and (forbidden are) the wives of your own sons (and foster-sons and grandsons) and the keeping of two sisters together in marriage, except what has already passed; indeed Allah is Oft Forgiving, Most Merciful.

13 Hamid S. Aziz

But whoever of you cannot marry free women who believe, then marry from what your right hands possess, believing maids; Allah knows best about your faith. You arise one from the other, so marry them with the permission of their people, and give them their portions in kindness and equity, they being chaste and not lecherous, and not of loose conduct. But when they are married, if they commit fornication, then inflict upon them half the penalty for free women; that is for whomsoever of you fears wrong; but that you should have patience is better for you, for Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.

14 Hilali & Khan

Forbidden to you (for marriage) are: your mothers, your daughters, your sisters, your father's sisters, your mother's sisters, your brother's daughters, your sister's daughters, your foster mother who gave you suck, your foster milk suckling sisters, your wives' mothers, your step daughters under your guardianship, born of your wives to whom you have gone in - but there is no sin on you if you have not gone in them (to marry their daughters), - the wives of your sons who (spring) from your own loins, and two sisters in wedlock at the same time, except for what has already passed; verily, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

15 Maulana Mohammad Ali

And marry not women whom your fathers married, except what has already passed. This surely is indecent and hateful; and it is an evil way.

16 Mohammad Habib Shakir

Forbidden to you are your mothers and your daughters and your sisters and your paternal aunts and your maternal aunts and brothers' daughters and sisters' daughters and your mothers that have suckled you and your foster-sisters and mothers of your wives and your step-daughters who are in your guardianship, (born) of your wives to whom you have gone in, but if you have not gone in to them, there is no blame on you (in marrying them), and the wives of your sons who are of your own loins and that you should have two sisters together, except what has already passed; surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

17 Mohammed Marmaduke William Pickthall

Forbidden unto you are your mothers, and your daughters, and your sisters, and your father's sisters, and your mother's sisters, and your brother's daughters and your sister's daughters, and your foster-mothers, and your foster-sisters, and your mothers-in-law, and your step-daughters who are under your protection (born) of your women unto whom ye have gone in - but if ye have not gone in unto them, then it is no sin for you (to marry their daughters) - and the wives of your sons who (spring) from your own loins. And (it is forbidden unto you) that ye should have two sisters together, except what hath already happened (of that nature) in the past. Lo! Allah is ever Forgiving, Merciful.

18 Muhammad Sarwar

You are forbidden to marry your mothers, daughters, sisters, paternal aunts, maternal aunts, nieces, your foster-mothers, your foster-sisters, your mothers-in-law, your step-daughters whom you have brought up and with whose mothers you have had carnal relations. It would not be a sin to marry her if you did not have carnal relations with her mother. You are forbidden to marry the wives of your own sons and to marry two sisters at the same time without any adverse affect to the such relations of the past. God is All-forgiving and All-merciful.

19 Qaribullah & Darwish

Forbidden to you are your mothers, your daughters, your sisters, your paternal aunts and maternal aunts, your brother's daughters, your sister's daughters, your mothers who have given suck to you, your suckling sisters, your wives mothers, and your stepdaughters who are in your care from your wives with whom you have lain, but if you have never lain with them it is no fault in you. (Also forbidden to you) are the wives of your sons who are of your loins, and to take to you two sisters together unless it is a thing of the past. Allah is the Forgiver and the Most Merciful.

20 Safi-ur-Rahman al-Mubarakpuri

Forbidden to you (for marriage) are: your mothers, your daughters, your sisters, your father's sisters, your mother's sisters, your brother's daughters, your sister's daughters, your foster mothers who suckled you, your foster milk suckling sisters, your wives' mothers, your stepdaughters under your guardianship, born of your wives unto whom you have gone in -- but there is no sin on you if you have not gone in unto them (to marry their daughters), -- the wives of your sons who (spring) from your own loins, and two sisters in wedlock at the same time, except for what has already passed; verily, Allah is Oft- Forgiving, Most Merciful.

21 Wahiduddin Khan

You are forbidden to take as wives your mothers, daughters, sisters, paternal and maternal aunts, your brothers' daughters and your sisters' daughters, your foster mothers and foster sisters, your wives' mothers and stepdaughters in your protection and the daughters of your wives with whom you have consummated your marriage; but if you have not consummated your marriage then you will not be blamed [if you marry their daughters.] You are also forbidden to marry the spouses of your sons or two sisters together, except what has already passed. Surely, God is ever-forgiving and merciful.

22 Talal Itani

Forbidden for you are your mothers, your daughters, your sisters, your paternal aunts, your maternal aunts, your brother's daughters, your sister's daughters, your foster-mothers who nursed you, your sisters through nursing, your wives' mothers, and your stepdaughters in your guardianship—born of wives you have gone into—but if you have not gone into them, there is no blame on you. And the wives of your genetic sons, and marrying two sisters simultaneously. Except what is past. God is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

23 Tafsir jalalayn

Forbidden to you are your mothers, in marriage, and this includes the paternal and maternal grandmothers; and daughters, including their children, if they should lower themselves [to such standards]; your sisters, from your fathers and mothers; your paternal aunts, that is, the sisters of your fathers and grandfathers; and maternal aunts, that is, the sisters of your mothers and grandmothers; your brother's daughters, your sister's daughters, including the children of these daughters; your foster mothers who have given you milk, five times within the first two years, as pointed out in a hadth; your foster sisters, and, according to the Sunna, the daughters of these; and these foster-sisters include those suckled by a woman with whom the man has had intercourse, those suckled by the man's paternal aunts, or maternal aunts, or those suckled by his brother's daughters, or his sister's daughters, on account of the [Prophet's] hadth that, `What kinship makes unlawful suckling also makes unlawful', as reported by al-Bukhr and Muslim; your mothers-in-law, your step-daughters (rab'ib, plural of rabba, the daughter of one's wife from another husband), who are, being brought up, in your care (allt f hujrikum is an adjectival qualifier, reiterating the obvious, without any additional import); being born of your wives you have been in to, in sexual intercourse -- but if you have not yet been in to them you are not at fault, if you leave them, to then marry their daughters -- and the spouses of your sons who are of your loins, as opposed to those whom you have adopted, whose spouses, in contrast, you may marry; and that you should take to you, in marriage, two sisters together, [sisters] by kinship or by suckling; the Sunna adds that you may not marry her together with her paternal or maternal aunt; it is permissible to marry each of these separately or to own them [as handmaidens] together, but only have sexual intercourse with one of them; unless it be a thing of the past, from pre- Islamic times, when you may have married in one of the ways mentioned; you are not at fault. God is ever Forgiving, of what you have done in the past, prior to this prohibition, Merciful, to you in this matter.

24 Tafseer Ibn Kathir

Degrees of Women Never Eligible for One to Marry

Allah said

حُرِّمَتْ عَلَيْكُمْ أُمَّهَاتُكُمْ وَبَنَاتُكُمْ وَأَخَوَاتُكُمْ وَعَمَّاتُكُمْ وَخَالَاتُكُمْ وَبَنَاتُ الَاخِ وَبَنَاتُ الاُخْتِ

Forbidden to you (for marriage) are;

your mothers,

your daughters,

your sisters,

your father's sisters,

your mother's sisters,

your brother's daughters,

your sister's daughters,

This honorable Ayah is the Ayah that establishes the degrees of women relatives who are never eligible for one to marry, because of blood relations, relations established by suckling or marriage.

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn Abbas said,

"(Allah said) I have prohibited for you seven types of relatives by blood and seven by marriage."

Ibn Abbas then recited the Ayah,
حُرِّمَتْ عَلَيْكُمْ أُمَّهَاتُكُمْ وَبَنَاتُكُمْ وَأَخَوَاتُكُمْ
(Forbidden to you (for marriage) are;your mothers, your daughters, your sisters...).

At-Tabari recorded that Ibn Abbas said,

"Seven degrees of blood relation and seven degrees of marriage relation are prohibited (for marriage)." He then recited the Ayah,

حُرِّمَتْ عَلَيْكُمْ أُمَّهَاتُكُمْ وَبَنَاتُكُمْ وَأَخَوَاتُكُمْ وَعَمَّاتُكُمْ وَخَالَاتُكُمْ وَبَنَاتُ الَاخِ وَبَنَاتُ الاُخْتِ


Forbidden to you (for marriage) are;

your mothers,

your daughters,

your sisters,

your father's sisters,

your mother's sisters,

your brother's daughters,

your sister's daughters

and these are the types prohibited by blood relation."

Allah's statement,

وَأُمَّهَاتُكُمُ اللَّتِي أَرْضَعْنَكُمْ وَأَخَوَاتُكُم مِّنَ الرَّضَاعَةِ

Your foster mothers who suckled you, your foster milk suckling sisters,

means, just as your mother who bore you is prohibited for you in marriage, so is your mother from suckling prohibited for you.

Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded that Aishah, the Mother of the Faithful, said that the Messenger of Allah said,

إِنَّ الرَّضَاعَةَ تُحَرِّمُ مَا تُحَرِّمُ الْوِلَادَة

Suckling prohibits what birth prohibits.

In another narration reported by Muslim,

يَحْرُمُ مِنَ الرَّضَاعَةِ مَا يَحْرُمُ مِنَ النَّسَب

Suckling establishes prohibited degrees just as blood does.
`Suckling' that Establishes Prohibition for Marriage

Less than five incidents of suckling will not establish prohibition for marriage.

In his Sahih, Muslim recorded that A'ishah said,

"Among the parts of the Qur'an that were revealed, is the statement, `Ten incidents of suckling establishes the prohibition (concerning marriage).'

It was later abrogated with five, and the Messenger of Allah died while this statement was still recited as part of the Qur'an."'

A Hadith that Sahlah bint Suhayl narrated states,

"the Messenger of Allah ordered her to suckle Salim the freed slave of Abu Hudhayfah with five."

We should assert that the suckling mentioned here must occur before the age of two, as we stated when we explained the Ayah in Surah Al-Baqarah,

يُرْضِعْنَ أَوْلَـدَهُنَّ حَوْلَيْنِ كَامِلَيْنِ لِمَنْ أَرَادَ أَن يُتِمَّ الرَّضَاعَةَ

(The mothers) should suckle their children for two whole years, (that is) for those (parents) who desire to complete the term of suckling. (2;233)

The Mother-in-Law and Stepdaughter are Prohibited in Marriage

Allah said next,

وَأُمَّهَاتُ نِسَأيِكُمْ وَرَبَايِبُكُمُ اللَّتِي فِي حُجُورِكُم مِّن نِّسَأيِكُمُ اللَّتِي دَخَلْتُم بِهِنَّ فَإِن لَّمْ تَكُونُواْ دَخَلْتُم بِهِنَّ فَلَ جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ

Your wives' mothers, your stepdaughters under your guardianship, born of your wives unto whom you have gone in - but there is no sin on you if you have not gone in unto them,

As for the mother of the wife, she becomes prohibited for marriage for her son-in-law when the marriage is conducted, whether the son-in-law has sexual relations with her daughter or not.

As for the wife's daughter, she becomes prohibited for her stepfather when he has sexual relations with her mother, after the marriage contract is ratified. If the man divorces the mother before having sexual relations with her, he is allowed to marry her daughter. So Allah said;
وَرَبَايِبُكُمُ اللَّتِي فِي حُجُورِكُم مِّن نِّسَأيِكُمُ اللَّتِي دَخَلْتُم بِهِنَّ فَإِن لَّمْ تَكُونُواْ دَخَلْتُم بِهِنَّ فَلَ جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُم
(Your stepdaughters under your guardianship, born of your wives unto whom you have gone in -- but there is no sin on you if you have not gone in unto them), to marry the stepdaughter.
The Stepdaughter is Prohibited in Marriage Even if She Was Not Under the Guardianship of Her Stepfather

Allah said,

وَرَبَايِبُكُمُ اللَّتِي فِي حُجُورِكُم
your stepdaughters under your guardianship,

The majority of scholars state that the stepdaughter is prohibited in marriage for her stepfather (who consummated his marriage to her mother) whether she was under his guardianship or not.

The Two Sahih recorded that Umm Habibah said,

"O Messenger of Allah! Marry my sister, the daughter of Abu Sufyan (and in one narration `Azzah bint Abu Sufyan)."

He said,

أَوَ تُحِبِّينَ ذلِك

"Do you like that I do that?"

She said, "I would not give you up for anything, but the best of whom I like to share with me in that which is righteously good, is my sister."

فَإِنَّ ذلِكِ لَاإ يَحِلُّ لِي

He said, "That is not allowed for me."

She said, "We were told that you want to marry the daughter of Abu Salamah."

بِنْتَ أُمِّ سَلَمَة

He asked, "The daughter of Umm Salamah"

She said, "Yes."

إِنَّهَا لَوْ لَمْ تَكُنْ رَبِيبَتِي فِي حِجْرِي مَا حَلَّتْ لِي إِنَّهَا لَبِنْتُ أَخِي مِنَ الرَّضَاعَةِ أَرْضَعَتْنِي وَأَبَا سَلَمَةَ ثُوَيْبَةُ فَلَ تَعْرِضْنَ عَلَيَّ بَنَاتِكُنَّ وَلَا أَخَوَاتِكُن

He said, "Even if she was not my stepdaughter and under my guardianship, she is still not allowed for me because she is my niece from suckling, for Thuwaybah suckled me and Abu Salamah. Therefore, do not offer me to marry your daughters or sisters."

In another narration from Al-Bukhari,

إِنِّي لَوْ لَمْ أَتَزَوَّجْ أُمَّ سَلَمَةَ مَا حَلَّتْ لِي

Had I not married Umm Salamah, her daughter would not have been allowed for me anyway.

Consequently, the Messenger stated that his marriage to Umm Salamah was the real reason behind that prohibition.
Meaning of `gone in unto them

The Ayah continues,

اللَّتِي دَخَلْتُم بِهِنَّ

Your wives unto whom you have gone in,

According to Ibn Abbas and several others,

meaning, had sexual relations with them.
Prohibiting the Daughter-in-Law for Marriage

Allah said,

وَحَلَيِلُ أَبْنَايِكُمُ الَّذِينَ مِنْ أَصْلَبِكُمْ

The wives of your sons who (spring) from your own loins,

Therefore, you are prohibited to marry the wives of your own sons, but not the wives of your adopted sons, as adoption was common practice in Jahiliyyah.

Allah said,

فَلَمَّا قَضَى زَيْدٌ مِّنْهَا وَطَراً زَوَّجْنَـكَهَا لِكَىْ لَا يَكُونَ عَلَى الْمُوْمِنِينَ حَرَجٌ فِى أَزْوَاجِ أَدْعِيَأيِهِمْ

So when Zayd had accomplished his desire from her (i.e. divorced her), We gave her to you in marriage, so that (in future) there may be no difficulty to the believers in respect of (the marriage of) the wives of their adopted sons when the latter have no desire to keep them (i.e. they had divorced them). (33;37)

Ibn Jurayj said,

"I asked Ata about Allah's statement,
وَحَلَيِلُ أَبْنَايِكُمُ الَّذِينَ مِنْ أَصْلَبِكُمْ
(The wives of your sons who (spring) from your own loins),

He said, `We were told that when the Prophet married the ex-wife of Zayd (who was the Prophet's adopted son before Islam prohibited this practice), the idolators in Makkah criticized him. Allah sent down the Ayat;

وَحَلَـيِلُ أَبْنَأيِكُمُ الَّذِينَ مِنْ أَصْلَـبِكُمْ

The wives of your sons who (spring) from your own loins,

وَمَا جَعَلَ أَدْعِيَأءَكُمْ أَبْنَأءَكُمْ

nor has He made your adopted sons your real sons. (33;4)

and,

مَّا كَانَ مُحَمَّدٌ أَبَأ أَحَدٍ مّن رِّجَالِكُمْ

Muhammad is not the father of any of your men. (33;40)"'

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Al-Hasan bin Muhammad said,

"These Ayat are encompassing,
وَحَلَيِلُ أَبْنَايِكُمُ
(the wives of your sons), and
وَأُمَّهَاتُ نِسَأيِكُمْ
(your wives' mothers).

This is also the explanation of Tawus, Ibrahim, Az-Zuhri and Makhul.

It means that these two Ayat encompass these types of women, whether the marriage was consummated or not, and there is a consensus on this ruling.
A Doubt and Rebuttal

Why is the wife of one's son from suckling prohibited for him for marriage - that is, if she is no longer married to his son from suckling - as the majority of scholars state, although they are not related by blood!

The answer is the Prophet's statement,

يَحْرُمُ مِنَ الرَّضَاعِ مَا يَحْرُمُ مِنَ النَّسَب

Suckling prohibits what blood relations prohibit.
The Prohibition of Taking Two Sisters as Rival Wives

Allah said,

وَأَن تَجْمَعُواْ بَيْنَ الاُخْتَيْنِ إَلاَّ مَا قَدْ سَلَفَ
and two sisters in wedlock at the same time, except for what has already passed;

The Ayah commands;you are prohibited to take two sisters as rival wives, or rival female-servants, except for what had happened to you during the time of Jahiliyyah, which We have forgiven and erased. Therefore, no one is allowed to take or keep two sisters as rival wives, according to the consensus of the scholars of the Companions, their followers, and the Imams of old and present.

They all stated that taking two sisters as rival wives is prohibited, and that whoever embraces Islam while married to two sisters at the same time is given the choice to keep one of them and divorce the other.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Ad-Dahhak bin Fayruz said that his father said,

"I embraced Islam while married to two sisters at the same time and the Prophet commanded me to divorce one of them."

إِنَّ اللّهَ كَانَ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا



verily, Allah is Oft- Forgiving, Most Merciful