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yāayyuhā
يَٰٓأَيُّهَا
O you
alladhīna
ٱلَّذِينَ
who
āmanū
ءَامَنُوا۟
believe!
shahādatu
شَهَٰدَةُ
(Take) testimony
baynikum
بَيْنِكُمْ
among you
idhā
إِذَا
when
ḥaḍara
حَضَرَ
approaches
aḥadakumu
أَحَدَكُمُ
one of you
l-mawtu
ٱلْمَوْتُ
[the] death,
ḥīna
حِينَ
(at the) time (of making)
l-waṣiyati
ٱلْوَصِيَّةِ
[the] a will
ith'nāni
ٱثْنَانِ
two
dhawā
ذَوَا
men
ʿadlin
عَدْلٍ
just
minkum
مِّنكُمْ
among you,
aw
أَوْ
or
ākharāni
ءَاخَرَانِ
two others
min
مِنْ
from
ghayrikum
غَيْرِكُمْ
other than you
in
إِنْ
if
antum
أَنتُمْ
you
ḍarabtum
ضَرَبْتُمْ
(are) travel(ing)
فِى
in
l-arḍi
ٱلْأَرْضِ
the earth
fa-aṣābatkum
فَأَصَٰبَتْكُم
then befalls you
muṣībatu
مُّصِيبَةُ
calamity
l-mawti
ٱلْمَوْتِۚ
(of) [the] death.
taḥbisūnahumā
تَحْبِسُونَهُمَا
Detain both of them
min
مِنۢ
from
baʿdi
بَعْدِ
after
l-ṣalati
ٱلصَّلَوٰةِ
the prayer
fayuq'simāni
فَيُقْسِمَانِ
and let them both swear
bil-lahi
بِٱللَّهِ
by Allah
ini
إِنِ
if
ir'tabtum
ٱرْتَبْتُمْ
you doubt,
لَا
"Not
nashtarī
نَشْتَرِى
"we will exchange
bihi
بِهِۦ
it for
thamanan
ثَمَنًا
a price
walaw
وَلَوْ
even if
kāna
كَانَ
he is
dhā
ذَا
(of),
qur'bā
قُرْبَىٰۙ
a near relative,
walā
وَلَا
and not
naktumu
نَكْتُمُ
we will conceal
shahādata
شَهَٰدَةَ
testimony
l-lahi
ٱللَّهِ
(of) Allah.
innā
إِنَّآ
Indeed, we
idhan
إِذًا
then
lamina
لَّمِنَ
(will) surely (be) of
l-āthimīna
ٱلْءَاثِمِينَ
the sinners."

Yaaa aiyuhal lazeena aamanoo shahaadatu bainikum izaa hadara ahadakumul mawtu heenal wasiyyatis naani zawaa 'adlim minkum aw aakharaani min ghairikum in antum darabtum fil ardi fa asaabatkum museebatul mawt; tahbi soonahumaa mim ba'dis Salaati fa yuqsimaani billaahi inirtabtum laa nashtaree bihee samananw wa law kaana zaa qurbaa wa laa naktumu shahaadatal laahi innaaa izal laminal aasimeen

Sahih International:

O you who have believed, testimony [should be taken] among you when death approaches one of you at the time of bequest - [that of] two just men from among you or two others from outside if you are traveling through the land and the disaster of death should strike you. Detain them after the prayer and let them both swear by Allah if you doubt [their testimony, saying], "We will not exchange our oath for a price, even if he should be a near relative, and we will not withhold the testimony of Allah. Indeed, we would then be of the sinful."

1 A. J. Arberry

O believers, the testimony between you when any of you is visited by death, at the bequeathing, shall be two men of equity among you; or two others from another folk, if you are journeying in the land and the affliction of death befalls you. Them you shall detain after the prayer, and they shall swear by God, if you are doubtful, 'We will not sell it for a price, even though it were a near kinsman, nor will we hide the testimony of God, for then we would surely be among the sinful'

2 Abdul Haleem

You who believe, when death approaches any of you, let two just men from among you act as witnesses to the making of a bequest, or two men from another people if you are journeying in the land when death approaches. Keep the two witnesses back after prayer, if you have any doubts, and make them both swear by God, ‘We will not sell our testimony for any price, even if a close relative is involved. We will not hide God’s testimony, for then we should be doing wrong.’

3 Abdul Majid Daryabadi

O ye who believe! the testimony amongst you, when death presenteth itself to you, at the making of a bequest shall be that of two equitable persons from amongst you, or two others from amongst those not of you, if ye be journeying in the earth and the affliction of death afflicteth you. O Ye shall detain the twain after the prayer, if ye be in doubt, and they shall swear by Allah affirming: we shall not barter it for a price, even though he be a kinsman, and we shall not hide the testimony of Allah, for then verily we shall be of the sinners.

4 Abdullah Yusuf Ali

O ye who believe! When death approaches any of you, (take) witnesses among yourselves when making bequests,- two just men of your own (brotherhood) or others from outside if ye are journeying through the earth, and the chance of death befalls you (thus). If ye doubt (their truth), detain them both after prayer, and let them both swear by Allah; "We wish not in this for any worldly gain, even though the (beneficiary) be our near relation; we shall hide not the evidence before Allah; if we do, then behold! the sin be upon us!"

5 Abul Ala Maududi

Believers! When death approaches you, let two men of equity among you act as witnesses when you make your bequest; or let two of those from others than yourselves act as witnesses if you are on a journey when the affliction of death befalls you. Then if any doubt occurs you shall detain both of them (in the mosque) after the Prayer, and they shall swear by Allah: 'We shall neither sell our testimony in return for any gain even though it concerns any near of kin nor shall we conceal our testimony which we owe to Allah, for then we should become among sinners.'.

6 Ahmed Ali

O you who believe, let two honest men among you be witness when you dictate your last will and testament as (the hour of) death draws near; and if death approaches while you are on a journey, two men other than yours. Detain them after the service of prayer, and if you doubt their word make them swear by God that: "We shall not take a bribe even though it be offered by a near relative, nor hide the testimony of God, for then we shall surely be sinful."

7 Ahmed Raza Khan

O People who Believe! The witnesses between you when death approaches any one of you, at the time of making a will, should be two reliable men from among you, or two from another tribe in case you are travelling in the land and the event of death approaches you; engage them after the prayers, and if you doubt, they must swear by Allah that, “We shall not exchange our oaths for any price even if he is a near relative, nor will we hide the testimony of Allah – if we do, then surely we are of the sinners.”

8 Ali Quli Qarai

O you who have faith! The witness between you, when death approaches any of you, while making a bequest, shall be two fair men from among yourselves—or two from among others, if you are journeying in the land and the affliction of death visits you. You shall detain the two of them after the prayer, and, if you have any doubt, they shall vow by Allah, ‘We will not sell it for any gain, even if it were a relative, nor will we conceal the testimony of Allah, for then we would indeed be among the sinners.’

9 Ali Ünal

O you who believe! Let there be witnesses among you when death approaches you, at the time of making bequests – two straightforward and trustworthy persons from among your own people (the Muslim community), or two other persons from among people other than your own (from among the People of the Book) if you are on a journey (and there are no Muslims) when the affliction of death befalls you. Then if any doubt arises (concerning their testimony), have the two of them stay (in the mosque) after the Prayer, and they shall swear by God: "We will not sell our testimony for any price, even if it concerns one near of kin, nor will we conceal the testimony of God (namely, the truth), for then we would surely be among the sinful.

10 Amatul Rahman Omar

O you who believe! when death comes to one of you (and you wish to make your will) let there be present among you, at the time of making the will, two just persons from among you or two others from among the outsiders, in case you are journeying in the country and the calamity of death overtakes you. In case you doubt (their honesty in giving evidence), you shall detain both (the witnesses) after Prayer, then let them both swear by Allâh (and bear witness) saying, `We will accept for this (-our oath) no price; (we will bear true evidence) even though he (in whose favour or against we bear evidence) be near of kin, nor will we hide the testimony (enjoined to be borne uprightly) by Allâh, for if we do so, we shall certainly be among the sinners.´

11 English Literal

You, you those who believed testimony between you if the death attended any of you (at the) time of the bequest/will (bring) two of justice from you or two others from other than you, if you, you moved/mixed in the Earth/land, so the death`s/liflessness`s disaster struck you , you prevent/withhold them (B) from after the prayers, so they (B) swear/make oath with God: "If you become doubtful/suspicious we do not buy volunteer (ourselves) with it a price, and even if (he or she was) of the relations/near, and we do not hide/conceal God`s witness/certification , that we are then from (E) the sinners/criminals."

12 Faridul Haque

O People who Believe! The witnesses between you when death approaches any one of you, at the time of making a will, should be two reliable men from among you, or two from another tribe in case you are travelling in the land and the event of death approaches you; engage them after the prayers, and if you doubt, they must swear by Allah that, “We shall not exchange our oaths for any price even if he is a near relative, nor will we hide the testimony of Allah - if we do, then surely we are of the sinners.”

13 Hamid S. Aziz

But if it later found that they too have deserved the imputation of sin, then let two others stand up in their place with those who think them deserving of the imputation, the nearest two in kin, and they shall both swear by Allah, "Indeed, our testimony is truer than the testimony of those other two, and we have not transgressed, for then we should surely be of the unjust."

14 Hilali & Khan

O you who believe! When death approaches any of you, and you make a bequest, then take the testimony of two just men of your own folk or two others from outside, if you are travelling through the land and the calamity of death befalls you. Detain them both after As-Salat (the prayer), (then) if you are in doubt (about their truthfulness), let them both swear by Allah (saying): "We wish not for any worldly gain in this, even though he (the beneficiary) be our near relative. We shall not hide Testimony of Allah, for then indeed we should be of the sinful."

15 Maulana Mohammad Ali

O you who believe, take care of your souls -- he who errs cannot harm you when you are on the right way. To Allah you will all return, so He will inform you of what you did.

16 Mohammad Habib Shakir

O you who believe! call to witness between you when death draws nigh to one of you, at the time of making the will, two just persons from among you, or two others from among others than you, if you are travelling in the land and the calamity of death befalls you; the two (witnesses) you should detain after the prayer; then if you doubt (them), they shall both swear by Allah, (saying): We will not take for it a price, though there be a relative, and we will not hide the testimony of Allah for then certainly we should be among the sinners.

17 Mohammed Marmaduke William Pickthall

O ye who believe! Let there be witnesses between you when death draweth nigh unto one of you, at the time of bequest - two witnesses, just men from among you, or two others from another tribe, in case ye are campaigning in the land and the calamity of death befall you. Ye shall empanel them both after the prayer, and, if ye doubt, they shall be made to swear by Allah (saying): We will not take a bribe, even though it were (on behalf of) a near kinsman nor will we hide the testimony of Allah, for then indeed we should be of the sinful.

18 Muhammad Sarwar

Believers, when death approaches any one of you, let two just men from your own people (Muslims) or any two other men (People of the Book) if death befalls you on a journey, bear witness to the bequest. If you have any doubts as to their honesty, detain them and let them take an oath after the prayer, each one of them saying, "I swear by God that my testimony is true. I am not selling the Truth for a paltry price even though the beneficiary would be one of my relatives. I do not hide the testimony which is the right of God, for then I would be one of the sinners."

19 Qaribullah & Darwish

Believers, if you are traveling in the land and the affliction of death befalls you, at the bequeathing testimony shall be two just men from among you, or two others from other than you. You shall detain both after the prayer, and they shall swear by Allah if you are doubtful: 'We will not sell it for a price, even though it were a near kinsmen, nor will we hide the testimony of Allah, because then we would surely be among the sinful'

20 Safi-ur-Rahman al-Mubarakpuri

O you who believe! When death approaches any of you, and you make a bequest, then take the testimony of two just men of your own folk or two others from outside, if you are traveling through the land and the calamity of death befalls you. Detain them both after the Salah (the prayer), (then) if you are in doubt (about their truthfulness), let them both swear by Allah (saying): "We wish not for any worldly gain in this, even though he (the beneficiary) be our near relative. We shall not hide the testimony of Allah, for then indeed we should be of the sinful."

21 Wahiduddin Khan

Believers, when death approaches you, let two just men from among you act as witnesses when you make your testaments; or two men from another tribe, if the calamity of death overtakes you while you are travelling in the land. Detain them after prayers, and if you doubt their honesty, let them swear by God, "We will not sell our testimony for any price, even to a kinsman. And we will not conceal the testimony of God. If we did, we would indeed be guilty of sin."

22 Talal Itani

O you who believe! When death approaches one of you, let two reliable persons from among you act as witnesses to the making of a bequest, or two persons from another people if you are travelling in the land and the event of death approaches you. Engage them after the prayer. If you have doubts, let them swear by God: “We will not sell our testimony for any price, even if he was a near relative, and we will not conceal God’s testimony, for then we would be sinners.”

23 Tafsir jalalayn

O you who believe, let testimony between you, when death, that is, [one of] its causes, draws near to one of you, at the time of a bequest, be that of two men of justice among you (ithnni dhaw `adlin minkum, `two men of justice among you', is the predicate expressed with the sense of an imperative, in other words, `let [two men] bear witness ... [etc.]'; the genitive annexation of shahda, `testimony', and bayn, `between', is meant to allow for a range [of alternatives]; hn, `at the time of', is a substitute for idh, `when', or an adverbial qualifier of time for [the verb] hadara, `draws near'); or of two others from another folk, that is, [from] other than your own religious community, if you are travelling in the land and the affliction of death befalls you. Then you shall empanel them, you shall detain them (tahbisnahum, `you shall empanel them', is an adjectival qualification of kharn, `two others') after the, mid-afternoon, prayer and, if you are in doubt, [if] you are uncertain about it [their testimony], they shall swear by God, both of them saying; `We will not sell it, [our testimony] in [swearing by] God, for any price, [for] any compensation that we might take in exchange for it from this world, neither by swearing by Him [falsely], nor by testifying falsely for the sake of that [price]; even if he, the person before whom it is being sworn or the one for whose sake testimony is being given, be a near kinsman, a close relative of ours, nor will we hide testimony to God, which He has commanded us [to give], for then, if we were to hide it, we would surely be among the sinful'.

24 Tafseer Ibn Kathir

Testimony of Two Just Witnesses for the Final Will and Testament

This honorable Ayah contains a glorious ruling from Allah.

Allah's statement,

يِا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ امَنُواْ شَهَادَةُ بَيْنِكُمْ إِذَا حَضَرَ أَحَدَكُمُ الْمَوْتُ حِينَ الْوَصِيَّةِ اثْنَانِ

O you who believe! When death approaches any of you, and you make a bequest, then take the testimony of two...

meaning that there should be two witnesses in such cases,

ذَوَا عَدْلٍ

just men...

thus, describing them as just,

مِّنكُمْ

of your own folk, (Muslims).

أَوْ اخَرَانِ مِنْ غَيْرِكُمْ

or two others from outside,

non-Muslims, meaning the People of the Book, according to Ibn Abbas as Ibn Abi Hatim recorded.

Allah said next,

إِنْ أَنتُمْ ضَرَبْتُمْ فِي الَارْضِ

if you are traveling through the land, (on a journey),

فَأَصَابَتْكُم مُّصِيبَةُ الْمَوْتِ

and the calamity of death befalls you.

These are two conditions that permit using non-Muslims from among the Dhimmis for witnesses when there are no Muslims present;

When one is traveling and needs to write a will, as Sharih Al-Qadi said. Ibn Jarir recorded that Sharih said,

"The witness of the Jews and Christians is not allowed except while traveling, and even then only to witness the dictation of the will."

Allah's statement,

تَحْبِسُونَهُمَا مِن بَعْدِ الصَّلَةِ

Detain them both after the Salah (the prayer),

According to Al-Awfi who reported it from Ibn Abbas,

refers to the `Asr prayer.

This is the same explanation reported from Sa`id bin Jubayr, Ibrahim An-Nakhai, Qatadah, Ikrimah and Muhammad bin Sirin.

As for Az-Zuhri, he said that;

they are detained after Muslim prayer (i.e., in congregation).

Therefore, these two witnesses will be detained after a congregational prayer,

فَيُقْسِمَانِ بِاللّهِ إِنِ ارْتَبْتُمْ

let them both swear by Allah if you are in doubt.

meaning, if you are in doubt that they might have committed treachery or theft, then they should swear by Allah,

لَا نَشْتَرِي بِهِ

We wish not in this,

According to Muqatil bin Hayyan,

in our vows.

ثَمَنًا

for any worldly gain,

of this soon to end life.

وَلَوْ كَانَ ذَا قُرْبَى

even though he be our near relative.

meaning, if the beneficiary be our near relative, we will still not compromise on the truth.

وَلَا نَكْتُمُ شَهَادَةَ اللّهِ

We shall not hide the testimony of Allah,

thus stating that the testimony is Allah's, as a way of respecting it and valuing its significance.

إِنَّا إِذًا لَّمِنَ الاثِمِينَ



for then indeed we should be of the sinful."