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latajidanna
لَتَجِدَنَّ
Surely you will find
ashadda
أَشَدَّ
strongest
l-nāsi
ٱلنَّاسِ
(of) the people
ʿadāwatan
عَدَٰوَةً
(in) enmity
lilladhīna
لِّلَّذِينَ
to those who
āmanū
ءَامَنُوا۟
believe,
l-yahūda
ٱلْيَهُودَ
the Jews
wa-alladhīna
وَٱلَّذِينَ
and those who
ashrakū
أَشْرَكُوا۟ۖ
(are) polytheists;
walatajidanna
وَلَتَجِدَنَّ
and surely you will find
aqrabahum
أَقْرَبَهُم
nearest of them
mawaddatan
مَّوَدَّةً
(in) affection
lilladhīna
لِّلَّذِينَ
to those who
āmanū
ءَامَنُوا۟
believe,
alladhīna
ٱلَّذِينَ
those who
qālū
قَالُوٓا۟
say,
innā
إِنَّا
"We
naṣārā
نَصَٰرَىٰۚ
(are) Christians."
dhālika
ذَٰلِكَ
That (is)
bi-anna
بِأَنَّ
because
min'hum
مِنْهُمْ
among them
qissīsīna
قِسِّيسِينَ
(are) priests
waruh'bānan
وَرُهْبَانًا
and monks,
wa-annahum
وَأَنَّهُمْ
and that they
لَا
(are) not
yastakbirūna
يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ
arrogant.

Latajidanna ashad dan naasi 'adaawatal lillazeena aamanul Yahooda wallazeena ashrakoo wa latajidanna aqrabahum mawaddatal lil lazeena aamanul lazeena qaalooo innaa Nasaaraa; zaalika bi anna mminhum qiseeseena wa ruhbaananw wa annahum laa yastakbiroon

Sahih International:

You will surely find the most intense of the people in animosity toward the believers [to be] the Jews and those who associate others with Allah; and you will find the nearest of them in affection to the believers those who say, "We are Christians." That is because among them are priests and monks and because they are not arrogant.

1 A. J. Arberry

Thou wilt surely find the most hostile of men to the believers are the Jews and the idolaters; and thou wilt surely find the nearest of them in love to the believers are those who say 'We are Christians'; that, because some of them are priests and monks, and they wax not proud;

2 Abdul Haleem

You [Prophet] are sure to find that the most hostile to the believers are the Jews and those who associate other deities with God; you are sure to find that the closest in affection towards the believers are those who say, ‘We are Christians,’ for there are among them people devoted to learning and ascetics. These people are not given to arrogance,

3 Abdul Majid Daryabadi

Surely thou wilt find the Jews and those who associate the bitterest of mankind in enmity toward those who believe. And surely thou wilt find the highest in affection to those who believe those who say: we are Nazarenes. That is, because among them are divines and monks and because they are not stiff-necked.

4 Abdullah Yusuf Ali

Strongest among men in enmity to the believers wilt thou find the Jews and Pagans; and nearest among them in love to the believers wilt thou find those who say, "We are Christians"; because amongst these are men devoted to learning and men who have renounced the world, and they are not arrogant.

5 Abul Ala Maududi

Of all men you will find the Jews and those who associate others with Allah in His divinity to be the most hostile to those who believe; and you will surely find that of ail people they who say: 'We are Christians', are closest to feeling affection for those who believe. This is because there are worshipful priests and monks among them, and because they are not arrogant.

6 Ahmed Ali

You will find the Jews and idolaters most excessive in hatred of those who believe; and the closest in love to the faithful are the people who say: "We are the followers of Christ," because there are priests and monks among them, and they are not arrogant.

7 Ahmed Raza Khan

You will certainly find the Jews and the polytheists as the greatest enemies of the Muslims; and you will find the closest in friendship to the Muslims those who said, “We are Christians”; that is because scholars and monks are among them, and they are not proud.

8 Ali Quli Qarai

Surely You will find the most hostile of all people towards the faithful to be the Jews and the polytheists, and surely you will find the nearest of them in affection to the faithful to be those who say ‘We are Christians.’ That is because there are priests and monks among them, and because they are not arrogant.

9 Ali Ünal

You will most certainly find that, of the people (of unbelief), the most violent in enmity toward the believers (the Muslims) are the Jews and those who associate partners with God. And you will most certainly find that the nearest of them in affection to the believers (the Muslims) are those who say: "We are Christians." This is because there are among them (the Christians) hermits (who devote themselves to worshipping God, especially at night) and monks (who struggle with their carnal selves, ever fearful of God’s punishment), and because they are not arrogant.

10 Amatul Rahman Omar

You shall certainly find the Jews and those who associate partners with Allâh the most vehement of the people in enmity against those who believe, and you shall certainly find those who say, `We are Christians,´ the nearest in friendship towards those who believe. That is so because there are savants and monks amongst them and because they are not haughty.

11 English Literal

You will find (E) the strongest people (with) animosity to those who believed (are) the Jews, and those who shared/made partners (with God), and you will find (E) their nearest/closest love/friendship , to those who believed, (are) those who said: "That we are Christian ." That (is) with that from them (are) priests/clergymen and monks, and that they are not being arrogant.

12 Faridul Haque

You will certainly find the Jews and the polytheists as the greatest enemies of the Muslims; and you will find the closest in friendship to the Muslims those who said, “We are Christians”; that is because scholars and monks are among them, and they are not proud.

13 Hamid S. Aziz

And when they hear what has been revealed to the Messenger, you will see their eyes overflow with tears at what they recognize as Truth; and they will say, "O our Lord! We believe, so record us amongst the witnesses.

14 Hilali & Khan

Verily, you will find the strongest among men in enmity to the believers (Muslims) the Jews and those who are Al-Mushrikun (see V. 2:105), and you will find the nearest in love to the believers (Muslims) those who say: "We are Christians." That is because amongst them are priests and monks, and they are not proud.

15 Maulana Mohammad Ali

And if they believed in Allah and the Prophet and that which is revealed to him, they would not take them for friends, but most of them are transgressors.

16 Mohammad Habib Shakir

Certainly you will find the most violent of people in enmity for those who believe (to be) the Jews and those who are polytheists, and you will certainly find the nearest in friendship to those who believe (to be) those who say: We are Christians; this is because there are priests and monks among them and because they do not behave proudly.

17 Mohammed Marmaduke William Pickthall

Thou wilt find the most vehement of mankind in hostility to those who believe (to be) the Jews and the idolaters. And thou wilt find the nearest of them in affection to those who believe (to be) those who say: Lo! We are Christians. That is because there are among them priests and monks, and because they are not proud.

18 Muhammad Sarwar

You find Jews and pagans among the worst of the enemies of the believers. (Of the non-believers) nearest to them (the believers) in affection you find those who say, "We are Christians," for among them are the priests and monks who are not proud.

19 Qaribullah & Darwish

You will find that the most people in enmity to the believers are the Jews and idolaters, and that the nearest in affection to the believers are those who say: 'We are Nazarenes' That is because amongst them there are priests and monks; and because they are not proud.

20 Safi-ur-Rahman al-Mubarakpuri

Verily, you will find the strongest among men in enmity to the believers the Jews and those who commit Shirk, and you will find the nearest in love to the believers those who say: "We are Christians." That is because among them are priests and monks, and they are not proud.

21 Wahiduddin Khan

You will find that the bitterest in their enmity to the faithful are the Jews and the polytheists; the nearest in affection to them are those who say, "We are Christians." That is because there are priests and monks among them; and because they are free from pride.

22 Talal Itani

You will find that the people most hostile towards the believers are the Jews and the polytheists. And you will find that the nearest in affection towards the believers are those who say, “We are Christians.” That is because among them are priests and monks, and they are not arrogant.

23 Tafsir jalalayn

You, O Muhammad (s), will truly find the most hostile of people to those who believe to be the Jews and the idolaters, of Mecca, because of the intensity of their disbelief, ignorance and utter preoccupation with following whims; and you will truly find the nearest of them in love to those who believe to be those who say `Verily, we are Christians'; that, nearness of theirs in love to the believers is, because some of them are priests, scholars, and monks, devout worshippers, and because they are not disdainful, of following the truth, as the Jews and the Meccans are.

24 Tafseer Ibn Kathir

The Reason Behind Revealing these Ayat

Sa`id bin Jubayr, As-Suddi and others said that;

these Ayat were revealed concerning a delegation that An-Najashi (King of Ethiopia) sent to the Prophet in order to hear his words and observe his qualities.

When the delegation met with the Prophet and he recited the Qur'an to them, they embraced Islam, cried and were humbled. Then they returned to An-Najashi and told him what happened.

Ata bin Abi Rabah commented,

"They were Ethiopians who embraced Islam when the Muslims who migrated to Ethiopia resided among them."

Qatadah said,

"They were some followers of the religion of `Isa, son of Maryam, who when they saw Muslims and heard the Qur'an, they became Muslims without hesitation."

Ibn Jarir said that;

these Ayat were revealed concerning some people who fit this description, whether they were from Ethiopia or otherwise.

Allah said,

لَتَجِدَنَّ أَشَدَّ النَّاسِ عَدَاوَةً لِّلَّذِينَ امَنُواْ الْيَهُودَ وَالَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُواْ

Verily, you will find the strongest among men in enmity to the believers the Jews and those who commit Shirk,

This describes the Jews, since their disbelief is that of rebellion, defiance, opposing the truth, belittling other, people and degrading the scholars. This is why the Jews - may Allah's continued curses descend on them until the Day of Resurrection - killed many of their Prophets and tried to kill the Messenger of Allah several times, as well as, performing magic spells against him and poisoning him. They also incited their likes among the polytheists against the Prophet.

Allah's statement,

وَلَتَجِدَنَّ أَقْرَبَهُمْ مَّوَدَّةً لِّلَّذِينَ امَنُواْ الَّذِينَ قَالُوَاْ إِنَّا نَصَارَى

and you will find the nearest in love to the believers those who say;"We are Christians."

refers to those who call themselves Christians, who follow the religion of the Messiah and the teachings of his Injil. These people are generally more tolerant of Islam and its people, because of the mercy and kindness that their hearts acquired through part of the Messiah's religion. In another Ayah, Allah said;

وَجَعَلْنَا فِى قُلُوبِ الَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوهُ رَأْفَةً وَرَحْمَةً وَرَهْبَانِيَّةً

And We ordained in the hearts of those who followed him, compassion, mercy, and monasticism... (57;27)

In their book is the saying; "He who strikes you on the right cheek, then turn the left cheek for him."

And fighting was prohibited in their creed, and this is why Allah said,

ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّ مِنْهُمْ قِسِّيسِينَ وَرُهْبَانًا وَأَنَّهُمْ لَا يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ



That is because among them are Qissisin (priests) and Ruhban (monks), and they are not proud.

This means that among them are Qissisin (priests).

The word Ruhban refers to one dedicated to worship.

Allah said,

ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّ مِنْهُمْ قِسِّيسِينَ وَرُهْبَانًا وَأَنَّهُمْ لَا يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ

That is because among them are priests and monks, and they are not proud.

This describes them with knowledge, worship and humbleness, along with following the truth and fairness