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qātilū
قَٰتِلُوا۟
Fight
alladhīna
ٱلَّذِينَ
those who
لَا
(do) not
yu'minūna
يُؤْمِنُونَ
believe
bil-lahi
بِٱللَّهِ
in Allah
walā
وَلَا
and not
bil-yawmi
بِٱلْيَوْمِ
in the Day
l-ākhiri
ٱلْءَاخِرِ
the Last,
walā
وَلَا
and not
yuḥarrimūna
يُحَرِّمُونَ
they make unlawful
مَا
what
ḥarrama
حَرَّمَ
Allah has made unlawful
l-lahu
ٱللَّهُ
Allah has made unlawful
warasūluhu
وَرَسُولُهُۥ
and His Messenger,
walā
وَلَا
and not
yadīnūna
يَدِينُونَ
they acknowledge
dīna
دِينَ
(the) religion
l-ḥaqi
ٱلْحَقِّ
(of) the truth,
mina
مِنَ
from
alladhīna
ٱلَّذِينَ
those who
ūtū
أُوتُوا۟
were given
l-kitāba
ٱلْكِتَٰبَ
the Scripture,
ḥattā
حَتَّىٰ
until
yuʿ'ṭū
يُعْطُوا۟
they pay
l-jiz'yata
ٱلْجِزْيَةَ
the jizyah
ʿan
عَن
willingly,
yadin
يَدٍ
willingly,
wahum
وَهُمْ
while they
ṣāghirūna
صَٰغِرُونَ
(are) subdued.

Qaatilul lazeena laa yu'minoona billaahi wa laa bil yawmil Aakhiri wa laa yuharrimoona maa harramal laahu wa Rasooluhoo wa laa yadeenoona deenal haqqi minal lazeena ootul Kitaaba hattaa yu'tul jizyata ai yadinw wa hum saaghiroon

Sahih International:

Fight those who do not believe in Allah or in the Last Day and who do not consider unlawful what Allah and His Messenger have made unlawful and who do not adopt the religion of truth from those who were given the Scripture - [fight] until they give the jizyah willingly while they are humbled.

1 A. J. Arberry

Fight those who believe not in God and the Last Day and do not forbid what God and His Messenger have forbidden -- such men as practise not the religion of truth, being of those who have been given the Book -- until they pay the tribute out of hand and have been humbled.

2 Abdul Haleem

Fight those of the People of the Book who do not [truly] believe in God and the Last Day, who do not forbid what God and His Messenger have forbidden, who do not obey the rule of justice,until they pay the tax and agree to submit.

3 Abdul Majid Daryabadi

Fight against those who believe not in Allah nor in the Last Day and hold not that forbidden which Allah and His apostle have forbidden and observe not the true religion, of those who have been vouchsafed the Book, until they pay the tribute out of hand and they are subdued.

4 Abdullah Yusuf Ali

Fight those who believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which hath been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, nor acknowledge the religion of Truth, (even if they are) of the People of the Book, until they pay the Jizya with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.

5 Abul Ala Maududi

Those who do not believe in Allah and the Last Day - even though they were given the scriptures, and who do not hold as unlawful that which Allah and His Messenger have declared to be unlawful, and who do not follow the true religion - fight against them until they pay tribute out of their hand and are utterly subdued.

6 Ahmed Ali

Fight those people of the Book who do not believe in God and the Last Day, who do not prohibit what God and His Apostle have forbidden, nor accept divine law, until all of them pay protective tax in submission.

7 Ahmed Raza Khan

Fight against the People given the Book(s) who do not accept faith in Allah and the Last Day, and who do not treat as forbidden what is forbidden by Allah and by His Noble Messenger, and who do not follow the true religion, until they pay the tariff with their own hands with humiliation.

8 Ali Quli Qarai

Fight those who do not have faith in Allah nor [believe] in the Last Day, nor forbid what Allah and His Apostle have forbidden, nor practise the true religion, from among those who were given the Book, until they pay the tribute out of hand, degraded.

9 Ali Ünal

Fight against those from among the People of the Book who (despite being People of the Book) do not believe in God and the Last Day (as they should be believed in), and do not hold as unlawful that which God and His Messenger have decreed to be unlawful, and do not adopt and follow the Religion of truth, until they pay the jizyah (tax of protection and exemption from military service) with a willing hand in a state of submission.

10 Amatul Rahman Omar

Fight against such of the people who despite having been given the Scripture do not (really) believe in Allâh and the Last Day, and who do not hold unlawful what Allâh and His Messenger have declared to be unlawful, and do not subscribe to the true faith, until they pay the Jizyah (- the commutation tax), provided they can afford it, and they are content with their state of subjection (having become incorporated in the Islamic government).

11 English Literal

Fight/kill those who do not believe with God and nor the Day the Last/Resurrection Day, and do not forbid/prohibit what God and His messenger forbid/prohibited, and do not take/adopt a religion the correct/right religion from those who were given/brought The Book , until they give/hand over the fee paid by non-Moslems living in a Moslem society (paid instead of Zakat by Moslems) from a hand, and (while) they are subservient/humiliated .

12 Faridul Haque

Fight against the People given the Book(s) who do not accept faith in Allah and the Last Day, and who do not treat as forbidden what is forbidden by Allah and by His Noble Messenger, and who do not follow the true religion, until they pay the tariff with their own hands with humiliation.

13 Hamid S. Aziz

Fight those from amongst those to whom the Book has been brought, but who believe not in Allah and in the Last Day, and who forbid not what Allah and His Messenger have forbidden, and who do not practice the Religion of Truth, until they are brought low and pay the Jizya (tribute, compensation, tax) readily.

14 Hilali & Khan

Fight against those who (1) believe not in Allah, (2) nor in the Last Day, (3) nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger (4) and those who acknowledge not the religion of truth (i.e. Islam) among the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.

15 Maulana Mohammad Ali

O you who believe, the idolaters are surely unclean, so they shall not approach the Sacred Mosque after this year of theirs. And if you fear poverty, then Allah will enrich you out of His grace, if He please. Surely Allah is Knowing, Wise.

16 Mohammad Habib Shakir

Fight those who do not believe in Allah, nor in the latter day, nor do they prohibit what Allah and His Apostle have prohibited, nor follow the religion of truth, out of those who have been given the Book, until they pay the tax in acknowledgment of superiority and they are in a state of subjection.

17 Mohammed Marmaduke William Pickthall

Fight against such of those who have been given the Scripture as believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, and forbid not that which Allah hath forbidden by His messenger, and follow not the Religion of Truth, until they pay the tribute readily, being brought low.

18 Muhammad Sarwar

Fight against those People of the Book who have no faith in God or the Day of Judgment, who do not consider unlawful what God and His Messenger have made unlawful, and who do not believe in the true religion, until they humbly pay tax with their own hands.

19 Qaribullah & Darwish

Fight those who neither believe in Allah nor the Last Day, who do not forbid what Allah and His Messenger have forbidden, and do not embrace the religion of the truth, being among those who have been given the Book (Bible and the Torah), until they pay tribute out of hand and have been humiliated.

20 Safi-ur-Rahman al-Mubarakpuri

Fight against those who believe not in Allah, nor in the Last Day, nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, and those who acknowledge not the religion of truth among the People of the Scripture, until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.

21 Wahiduddin Khan

Fight those from among the People of the Book who believe neither in God, nor in the Last Day, nor hold as unlawful what God and His Messenger have declared to be unlawful, nor follow the true religion, until they pay the tax willingly and agree to submit.

22 Talal Itani

Fight those who do not believe in God, nor in the Last Day, nor forbid what God and His Messenger have forbidden, nor abide by the religion of truth—from among those who received the Scripture—until they pay the due tax, willingly or unwillingly.

23 Tafsir jalalayn

Fight those who do not believe in God, nor in the Last Day, for, otherwise, they would have believed in the Prophet (s), and who do not forbid what God and His Messenger have forbidden, such as wine, nor do they practise the religion of truth, the firm one, the one that abrogated other religions, namely, the religion of Islam -- from among of those who (min, `from', explains [the previous] alladhna, `those who') have been given the Scripture, namely, the Jews and the Christians, until they pay the jizya tribute, the annual tax imposed them, readily (`an yadin is a circumstantial qualifier, meaning, `compliantly', or `by their own hands', not delegating it [to others to pay]), being subdued, [being made] submissive and compliant to the authority of Islam.

24 Tafseer Ibn Kathir

قَاتِلُواْ الَّذِينَ لَا يُوْمِنُونَ بِاللّهِ وَلَا بِالْيَوْمِ الاخِرِ وَلَا يُحَرِّمُونَ مَا حَرَّمَ اللّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَلَا يَدِينُونَ دِينَ الْحَقِّ مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْكِتَابَ

Fight against those who believe not in Allah, nor in the Last Day, nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, and those who acknowledge not the religion of truth among the People of the Scripture, until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.

Therefore, when People of the Scriptures disbelieved in Muhammad, they had no beneficial faith in any Messenger or what the Messengers brought. Rather, they followed their religions because this conformed with their ideas, lusts and the ways of their forefathers, not because they are Allah's Law and religion. Had they been true believers in their religions, that faith would have directed them to believe in Muhammad, because all Prophets gave the good news of Muhammad's advent and commanded them to obey and follow him. Yet when he was sent, they disbelieved in him, even though he is the mightiest of all Messengers. Therefore, they do not follow the religion of earlier Prophets because these religions came from Allah, but because these suit their desires and lusts. Therefore, their claimed faith in an earlier Prophet will not benefit them because they disbelieved in the master, the mightiest, the last and most perfect of all Prophets . Hence Allah's statement,

قَاتِلُواْ الَّذِينَ لَا يُوْمِنُونَ بِاللّهِ وَلَا بِالْيَوْمِ الاخِرِ وَلَا يُحَرِّمُونَ مَا حَرَّمَ اللّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَلَا يَدِينُونَ دِينَ الْحَقِّ مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْكِتَابَ

Fight against those who believe not in Allah, nor in the Last Day, nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, and those who acknowledge not the religion of truth among the People of the Scripture,

This honorable Ayah was revealed with the order to fight the People of the Book, after the pagans were defeated, the people entered Allah's religion in large numbers, and the Arabian Peninsula was secured under the Muslims' control. Allah commanded His Messenger to fight the People of the Scriptures, Jews and Christians, on the ninth year of Hijrah, and he prepared his army to fight the Romans and called the people to Jihad announcing his intent and destination.

The Messenger sent his intent to various Arab areas around Al-Madinah to gather forces, and he collected an army of thirty thousand. Some people from Al-Madinah and some hypocrites, in and around it, lagged behind, for that year was a year of drought and intense heat.

The Messenger of Allah marched, heading towards Ash-Sham to fight the Romans until he reached Tabuk, where he set camp for about twenty days next to its water resources. He then prayed to Allah for a decision and went back to Al-Madinah because it was a hard year and the people were weak, as we will mention, Allah willing.
Paying Jizyah is a Sign of Kufr and Disgrace

Allah said,

حَتَّى يُعْطُواْ الْجِزْيَةَ

until they pay the Jizyah,

if they do not choose to embrace Islam,

عَن يَدٍ

with willing submission,

in defeat and subservience,

وَهُمْ صَاغِرُونَ



and feel themselves subdued.

disgraced, humiliated and belittled. Therefore, Muslims are not allowed to honor the people of Dhimmah or elevate them above Muslims, for they are miserable, disgraced and humiliated.

Muslim recorded from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet said,

لَاا تَبْدَءُوا الْيَهُودَ وَالنَّصَارَى بِالسَّلَامِ وَإِذَا لَقِيتُمْ أَحَدَهُمْ فِي طَرِيقٍ فَاضْطَرُّوهُ إِلَى أَضْيَقِه

Do not initiate the Salam to the Jews and Christians, and if you meet any of them in a road, force them to its narrowest alley.

This is why the Leader of the faithful Umar bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, demanded his well-known conditions be met by the Christians, these conditions that ensured their continued humiliation, degradation and disgrace.

The scholars of Hadith narrated from Abdur-Rahman bin Ghanm Al-Ashari that he said,

"I recorded for Umar bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, the terms of the treaty of peace he conducted with the Christians of Ash-Sham;

`In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.

This is a document to the servant of Allah Umar, the Leader of the faithful, from the Christians of such and such city.

When you (Muslims) came to us we requested safety for ourselves, children, property and followers of our religion.

We made a condition on ourselves that we will neither erect in our areas a monastery, church, or a sanctuary for a monk, nor restore any place of worship that needs restoration nor use any of them for the purpose of enmity against Muslims.

We will not prevent any Muslim from resting in our churches whether they come by day or night, and we will open the doors (of our houses of worship) for the wayfarer and passerby.

Those Muslims who come as guests, will enjoy boarding and food for three days.

We will not allow a spy against Muslims into our churches and homes or hide deceit (or betrayal) against Muslims.

We will not teach our children the Qur'an, publicize practices of Shirk, invite anyone to Shirk or prevent any of our fellows from embracing Islam, if they choose to do so.

We will respect Muslims, move from the places we sit in if they choose to sit in them.

We will not imitate their clothing, caps, turbans, sandals, hairstyles, speech, nicknames and title names, or ride on saddles, hang swords on the shoulders, collect weapons of any kind or carry these weapons.

We will not encrypt our stamps in Arabic, or sell liquor.

We will have the front of our hair cut, wear our customary clothes wherever we are, wear belts around our waist, refrain from erecting crosses on the outside of our churches and demonstrating them and our books in public in Muslim fairways and markets.

We will not sound the bells in our churches, except discretely, or raise our voices while reciting our holy books inside our churches in the presence of Muslims, nor raise our voices (with prayer) at our funerals, or light torches in funeral processions in the fairways of Muslims, or their markets.

We will not bury our dead next to Muslim dead, or buy servants who were captured by Muslims.

We will be guides for Muslims and refrain from breaching their privacy in their homes.'

When I gave this document to Umar, he added to it,

We will not beat any Muslim.

These are the conditions that we set against ourselves and followers of our religion in return for safety and protection. If we break any of these promises that we set for your benefit against ourselves, then our Dhimmah (promise of protection) is broken and you are allowed to do with us what you are allowed of people of defiance and rebellion."'