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inna
إِنَّ
Indeed,
ʿiddata
عِدَّةَ
(the) number
l-shuhūri
ٱلشُّهُورِ
(of) the months
ʿinda
عِندَ
with
l-lahi
ٱللَّهِ
Allah
ith'nā
ٱثْنَا
(is) twelve
ʿashara
عَشَرَ
(is) twelve
shahran
شَهْرًا
months
فِى
in
kitābi
كِتَٰبِ
(the) ordinance
l-lahi
ٱللَّهِ
Allah
yawma
يَوْمَ
(from the) Day
khalaqa
خَلَقَ
He created
l-samāwāti
ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ
the heavens
wal-arḍa
وَٱلْأَرْضَ
and the earth;
min'hā
مِنْهَآ
of them,
arbaʿatun
أَرْبَعَةٌ
four
ḥurumun
حُرُمٌۚ
(are) sacred.
dhālika
ذَٰلِكَ
That
l-dīnu
ٱلدِّينُ
(is) the religion
l-qayimu
ٱلْقَيِّمُۚ
the upright,
falā
فَلَا
so (do) not
taẓlimū
تَظْلِمُوا۟
wrong
fīhinna
فِيهِنَّ
therein
anfusakum
أَنفُسَكُمْۚ
yourselves.
waqātilū
وَقَٰتِلُوا۟
And fight
l-mush'rikīna
ٱلْمُشْرِكِينَ
the polytheists
kāffatan
كَآفَّةً
all together,
kamā
كَمَا
as
yuqātilūnakum
يُقَٰتِلُونَكُمْ
they fight you
kāffatan
كَآفَّةًۚ
all together.
wa-iʿ'lamū
وَٱعْلَمُوٓا۟
And know
anna
أَنَّ
that
l-laha
ٱللَّهَ
Allah
maʿa
مَعَ
(is) with
l-mutaqīna
ٱلْمُتَّقِينَ
the righteous.

Inna 'iddatash shuhoori 'indal laahis naa 'ashara shahran fee Kitaabil laahi yawma khalaqas samaawaati wal arda minhaaa arba'atun hurum; zaalikad deenul qaiyim; falaa tazlimoo feehinna anfusakum; wa qaatilul mushrikeena kaaaf fattan kamaa yuqaati loonakum kaaaffah; wa'lamooo annal laaha ma'al muttaqeen

Sahih International:

Indeed, the number of months with Allah is twelve [lunar] months in the register of Allah [from] the day He created the heavens and the earth; of these, four are sacred. That is the correct religion, so do not wrong yourselves during them. And fight against the disbelievers collectively as they fight against you collectively. And know that Allah is with the righteous [who fear Him].

1 A. J. Arberry

The number of the months, with God, is twelve in the Book of God, the day that He created the heavens and the earth; four of them are sacred. That is the right religion. So wrong not each other during them. And fight the unbelievers totally even as they fight you totally and know that God is with the godfearing.

2 Abdul Haleem

God decrees that there are twelve months- ordained in God’s Book on the Day when He created the heavens and earth- four months of which are sacred: this is the correct calculation. Do not wrong your souls in these months- though you may fight the idolaters at any time, if they first fight you- remember that God is with those who are mindful of Him.

3 Abdul Majid Daryabadi

Verily the number of months with Allah is twelve months ordained in the writ of Allah on the day whereon He created the heavens and the earth; of these four sacred: that is the right religion. Wherefore wrong not yourselves in respect thereof. And fight the associators, all of them even as they fight all of you; and knew that Allah is with the God-fearing

4 Abdullah Yusuf Ali

The number of months in the sight of Allah is twelve (in a year)- so ordained by Him the day He created the heavens and the earth; of them four are sacred; that is the straight usage. So wrong not yourselves therein, and fight the Pagans all together as they fight you all together. But know that Allah is with those who restrain themselves.

5 Abul Ala Maududi

Surely the reckoning of months, in the sight of Allah, is twelve months, laid down in Allah's decree on the day when He created the heavens and the earth; and out of these months four are sacred. That is the true ordainment. Do not, therefore, wrong yourselves, with respect to these months. And fight all together against those who associate others with Allah in His Divinity in the manner that they fight against you all together, and know well that Allah is with the God-fearing.

6 Ahmed Ali

The number of months with God is twelve in accordance with God's law since the day He created the heavens and the earth. Of these four are holy. This is the straight reckoning. So do not exceed yourselves during them; but fight the idolaters to the end as they fight you in like manner; and remember, God is with those Who preserve themselves from evil and do the right.

7 Ahmed Raza Khan

Indeed the number of months before Allah is twelve – in the Book of Allah – since the day He created the heavens and the earth, of which four are sacred; this the straight religion; so do not wrong yourselves in those months; and constantly fight against the polytheists as they constantly fight against you; and know well that Allah is with the pious.

8 Ali Quli Qarai

Indeed the number of months with Allah is twelve months in Allah’s Book, the day when He created the heavens and the earth. Of these, four are sacred. That is the upright religion. So do not wrong yourselves during them. Fight all the polytheists, just as they fight you all, and know that Allah is with the Godwary.

9 Ali Ünal

The number of the months, in God’s sight, is twelve as determined and decreed by God on the day when He created the heavens and the earth (and set them moving in the present conditions). Four of them are sacred (in that fighting is forbidden during them). This is the upright, ever-true Religion (the order that God has established for the operation of the universe and life of humanity). Do not, therefore, wrong yourselves with respect to these months. Nevertheless, fight all together against those who associate partners with God just as they fight against you all together; and know well that God is with the God-revering, pious who keep their duties to Him.

10 Amatul Rahman Omar

Verily, the number of months with Allâh is twelve months (in a year) according to the law of Allâh since the day He created the heavens and the earth. Of these four (months) are sacred (- Rajab, Muharram, Dhul-Qa`dah and Dhul-Hijjah). That is the established law. Do not do injustice to yourselves (by waging wars) during these (sacred months). And fight the polytheists all together (in your defence) just as they fight you all together. And know that Allâh is indeed with those who become secure against evil.

11 English Literal

That the months` number/count at God (are) twelve in God`s scripture , (on) the day He created the skies/space and the earth/Planet Earth, from it four (are) sacred, that (is) the religion the straight , so do not cause injustice to/oppress your selves in them, and fight/kill the sharers/takers of partners (with God) all, as/like they fight/kill you all, and know that God (is) with the fearing and obeying.

12 Faridul Haque

Indeed the number of months before Allah is twelve - in the Book of Allah - since the day He created the heavens and the earth, of which four are sacred; this the straight religion; so do not wrong yourselves in those months; and constantly fight against the polytheists as they constantly fight against you; and know well that Allah is with the pious.

13 Hamid S. Aziz

Verily, the number of months with Allah is twelve months in Allah´s Book, ordained on the day when He created the heavens and the earth. Of these four are sacred. That is the right religion, so wrong not yourselves in them. But fight the idolaters one and all, as (or when) they fight you one and all, and know that Allah is with those who fear (restrain themselves).

14 Hilali & Khan

Verily, the number of months with Allah is twelve months (in a year), so was it ordained by Allah on the Day when He created the heavens and the earth; of them four are Sacred, (i.e. the 1st, the 7th, the 11th and the 12th months of the Islamic calendar). That is the right religion, so wrong not yourselves therein, and fight against the Mushrikun (polytheists, pagans, idolaters, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah) collectively, as they fight against you collectively. But know that Allah is with those who are Al-Muttaqun (the pious - see V. 2:2).

15 Maulana Mohammad Ali

On the day when it will be heated in the Fire of hell, then their foreheads and their sides and their backs will be branded with it: This is what you hoarded up for yourselves, so taste what you used to hoard.

16 Mohammad Habib Shakir

Surely the number of months with Allah is twelve months in Allah's ordinance since the day when He created the heavens and the earth, of these four being sacred; that is the right reckoning; therefore be not unjust to yourselves regarding them, and fight the polytheists all together as they fight you all together; and know that Allah is with those who guard (against evil).

17 Mohammed Marmaduke William Pickthall

Lo! the number of the months with Allah is twelve months by Allah's ordinance in the day that He created the heavens and the earth. Four of them are sacred: that is the right religion. So wrong not yourselves in them. And wage war on all of the idolaters as they are waging war on all of you. And know that Allah is with those who keep their duty (unto Him).

18 Muhammad Sarwar

According to the Book of God, from the day He created the heavens and the earth, the number of months are twelve, four of which are sacred. (This is part of the law) of the religion. Do not commit injustice against your souls during the sacred months but fight all the pagans just as they fight against all of you. Know that God is with the pious ones.

19 Qaribullah & Darwish

The number of the months, with Allah, is twelve in the Book of Allah, the day when He created the heavens and the earth; of these, four are sacred. That is the right religion. Therefore, do not wrong yourselves in them and fight against the unbelievers all together as they themselves fight against you all together; know that Allah is with the cautious.

20 Safi-ur-Rahman al-Mubarakpuri

Verily, the number of months with Allah is twelve months (in a year), so was it ordained by Allah on the Day when He created the heavens and the earth; of them four are sacred. That is the right religion, so wrong not yourselves therein, and fight against the Mushrikin idolaters collectively as they fight against you collectively. But know that Allah is with those who have Taqwa.

21 Wahiduddin Khan

On the Day God created heaven and earth, He decreed that the number of months should be twelve in number. Out of these, four are sacred. That is the true religion. Do not wrong your souls in these months. Fight the polytheists all together, as they fight you all together, and know that God is with the righteous.

22 Talal Itani

The number of months, according to God, is twelve months—in the decree of God—since the Day He created the heavens and the earth, of which four are sacred. This is the correct religion. So do not wrong yourselves during them. And fight the polytheists collectively, as they fight you collectively, and know that God is with the righteous.

23 Tafsir jalalayn

Verily the number of months, used to reckon the year, with God is twelve months in the Book of God, the Preserved Tablet (al-lawh al-mahfz), from the day that He created the heavens and the earth; four of them, that is, the months, are sacred, inviolable; Dh'l-Qa`da, Dh'l-Hijja, Muharram and Rajab. That, making of them sacred, is the right, the upright, religion. So do not wrong yourselves during them, during these sacred months, with acts of disobedience, for their burden [of sin] is greater therein; but it is also said to mean [do not wrong yourselves] at any time during all the months [of the year]. And fight the idolaters altogether, all of them, throughout the months, even as they fight you altogether; and know that God is with those who fear Him, supporting and assisting [them].

24 Tafseer Ibn Kathir

The Year consists of Twelve Months

Allah said,

إِنَّ عِدَّةَ الشُّهُورِ عِندَ اللّهِ اثْنَا عَشَرَ شَهْرًا فِي كِتَابِ اللّهِ يَوْمَ خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَات وَالَارْضَ

Verily, the number of months with Allah is twelve months (in a year), so was it ordained by Allah on the Day when He created the heavens and the earth;

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Bakrah said that the Prophet said in a speech during his Hajj,

أَلَا إِنَّ الزَّمَانَ قَدِ اسْتَدَارَ كَهَيْيَتِهِ يَوْمَ خَلَقَ اللهُ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالاَْرْضَ السَّنَةُ اثْنَا عَشَرَ شَهْرًا مِنْهَا أَرْبَعُةٌ حُرُمٌ ثَلَثَةٌ مُتَوَالِيَاتٌ ذُو الْقَعْدَةِ وَذُو الْحِجَّةِ وَالْمُحَرَّمُ وَرَجَبُ مُضَرَ الَّذِي بَيْنَ جُمَادَى وَشَعْبَان

The division of time has turned to its original form which was current when Allah created the heavens and the earth. The year is of twelve months, out of which four months are sacred;Three are in succession Dhul-Qa`dah, Dhul-Hijjah and Muharram, and (the fourth is) Rajab of (the tribe of) Mudar which comes between Jumada (Ath-Thaniyah) and Sha`ban."

The Prophet then asked,

أَيُّ يَوْمٍ هَذَا



What is the day today?

We said, "Allah and His Messenger know better.

He kept quiet until we thought that he might give that day another name.

أَلَيْسَ يَوْمَ النَّحْرِ

He said;Isn't it the day of Nahr?

We replied, "Yes."

أَيُّ شَهْرٍ هَذَا



He further asked, Which month is this?

We again said, "Allah and His Messenger know better," and he kept quiet and made us think that he might give it another name.

أَلَيْسَ ذَا الحِجَّةِ


Then he said, (Isn't it the month of Dhul-Hijjah?

We replied, "Yes."

أَيُّ بَلَدٍ هَذَا



He asked, What town is this?

We said, "Allah and His Messenger know better," and he kept quiet until we thought that he might change its name.

أَلَيْسَتِ الْبَلْدَةَ



He asked, Isn't this the (Sacred) Town?

We said, "Yes."

He said,

فَإِنَّ دِمَاءَكُمْ وَأَمْوَالَكُمْ وَأَحْسِبُهُ قَالَ وَأَعْرَاضَكُمْ عَلَيْكُمْ حَرَامٌ كَحُرْمَةِ يَوْمِكُمْ هَذَا فِي شَهْرِكُمْ هَذَا فِي بَلَدِكُمْ هَذَا


Verily! Your blood, property and honor are sacred to one another like the sanctity of this day of yours, in this month of yours and in this city of yours.

وَسَتَلْقَوْنَ رَبَّكُمْ فَيَسْأَلُكُمْ عَنْ أَعْمَالِكُمْ


Verily, you will meet your Lord and He will question you about your actions.

أَلَا لَا تَرْجِعُوا بَعْدِي ضُلَّلاً يَضْرِبُ بَعْضُكُمْ رِقَابَ بَعْضٍ أَلَا


Behold! Do not revert to misguidance after me by striking the necks of one another.

هَلْ بَلَّغْتُ




Have I conveyed?

أَلَا لِيُبَلِّغِ الشَّاهِدُ مِنْكُمُ الْغَايِبَ فَلَعَلَّ مَنْ يُبَلِّغُهُ يَكُونُ أَوْعَى لَهُ مِنْ بَعْضِ مَنْ سَمِعَه

It is incumbent upon those who are present to inform those who are absent, because those who are absent might comprehend (what I have said) better than some who are present.

Al-Bukhari and Muslim collected this Hadith.

In a small book collected by Shaykh Alam ad-Din As-Sakhawi, entitled, Al-Mashhur fi Asma' Al-Ayam wash-Shuhur, he mentioned that;
Muharram is so named because it is a sacred month. To me, it was so named to emphasize its sacredness. This is because the Arabs would switch it around. One year they would say it was a sacred month, the following year they would say that it was not.

The author said, "...and
Safar is so named because they used to leave their homes during that month for fighting and traveling. When saying `Safir' a place, it means to leave it...
Rabi Al-Awwal is called that because they used to do Irtiba in it, that is to maintain one's property... and
Rabi Al-Akhir, was so named for the same reasons.
Jumada is called that because the water would dry up (Jamud) then....They say Jumada Al-Uwla and Al-Awwal, or Jumada Al-Akhar or Al-Akhirah.
Rajab comes from Tarjib, meaning to honor.
Shaban because the tribes would separate and return to their homes.
Ramadan was so named because of the severity of the Ramda' - that is - the heat, and they say that the branch Ramadat when it is thirsty...And the saying that it is a Name of Allah is a mistake, for there is no proof or support for that..."
The Sacred Months

Allah said,

مِنْهَا أَرْبَعَةٌ حُرُمٌ

of them four are sacred.

The Arabs used to consider these months sacred during the time of Jahiliyyah, except for a group of them called Al-Basl, who held eight months of the year to be sacred as way of exaggeration in religion.

The Prophet said,

ثَلَثَةٌ مُتَوَالِيَاتٌ ذُو الْقَعْدَةِ وَذُو الْحِجَّةِ وَالْمُحَرَّمُ وَرَجَبُ مُضَرَ الَّذِي بَيْنَ جُمَادَى وَشَعْبَان

Three are in succession; Dhul-Qa`dah, Dhul-Hijjah and Muharram, and (the fourth is) Rajab (of (the tribe of) Mudar which comes between Jumada (Ath-Thani)) and Shaban.

The Prophet said "Rajab of Mudar" to attest to the custom of Mudar, in saying that Rajab is the month that is between Jumada and Shaban, not as the tribe of Rabiah thought, that it is between Shaban and Shawwal, which is Ramadan in the present calendar.

The four Sacred Months were made four, three in succession and one alone, so that the Hajj and Umrah are performed with ease.
Dhul-Qadah, the month before the Hajj month, was made sacred because they refrained from fighting during that month.
Dhul-Hijjah, the next month, was made sacred because it is the month of Hajj, during which they performed Hajj rituals.
Muharram, which comes next, was made sacred so that they are able to go back to their areas in safety (after performing Hajj).
Rajab, in the middle of the lunar year, was made sacred so that those coming from the farthest areas of Arabia are able to perform Umrah and visit the House and then go back to their areas safely.

Allah said next,

ذَلِكَ الدِّينُ الْقَيِّمُ

That is the right religion,

that is the Straight Law, requiring implementing Allah's order concerning the months that He made sacred and their true count as it was originally written by Allah.

Allah said,

فَلَ تَظْلِمُواْ فِيهِنَّ أَنفُسَكُمْ

so wrong not yourselves therein,

during these Sacred Months, for sin in them is worse than sin in other months.

Likewise, sins in the Sacred City are written multiplied,

وَمَن يُرِدْ فِيهِ بِإِلْحَادٍ بِظُلْمٍ نُّذِقْهُ مِنْ عَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ
and whoever inclines to evil actions therein (in Makkah) or to do wrong, him We shall cause to taste from a painful torment. (22;25)

Similarly, sin in general is worse during the Sacred Months.

Ali bin Abi Talhah narrated that Ibn Abbas said, Allah's statement,
إِنَّ عِدَّةَ الشُّهُورِ عِندَ اللّهِ
(Verily, the number of months with Allah...), is connected to
فَلَ تَظْلِمُواْ فِيهِنَّ أَنفُسَكُمْ
(so wrong not yourselves therein),

"In all (twelve) months. Allah then chose four out of these months and made them sacred, emphasizing their sanctity, making sinning in them greater, in addition to, multiplying rewards of righteous deeds during them."

Qatadah said about Allah's statement,
فَلَ تَظْلِمُواْ فِيهِنَّ أَنفُسَكُمْ
(so wrong not yourselves therein),

"Injustice during the Sacred Months is worse and graver than injustice in other months. Verily, injustice is always wrong, but Allah makes things graver than others as He will."

He also said,

"Allah has chosen some of His creation above others. He chose Messengers from angels and from men. He also chose His Speech above all speech, the Masajid above other areas of the earth, Ramadan and the Sacred Months above all months, Friday above the other days and Laylatul-Qadr (The Night of Decree) above all nights.

Therefore, sanctify what Allah has sanctified, for doing so is the practice of people of understanding and comprehension."
Fighting in the Sacred Months

Allah said,

وَقَاتِلُواْ الْمُشْرِكِينَ كَأفَّةً

and fight against the idolators collectively, (all of you),

كَمَا يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ كَأفَّةً

as they fight against you collectively, (all of them),

وَاعْلَمُواْ أَنَّ اللّهَ مَعَ الْمُتَّقِينَ



But know that Allah is with those who have Taqwa,

and know that initiating battle during the Sacred Months is forbidden.

Allah said in other Ayat,

يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لَا تُحِلُّواْ شَعَأيِرَ اللَّهِ وَلَا الشَّهْرَ الْحَرَامَ

O you who believe! Violate not the sanctity of the symbols of Allah, nor of the sacred month. (5;2)

الشَّهْرُ الْحَرَامُ بِالشَّهْرِ الْحَرَامِ وَالْحُرُمَـتُ قِصَاصٌ فَمَنِ اعْتَدَى عَلَيْكُمْ فَاعْتَدُواْ عَلَيْهِ بِمِثْلِ مَا اعْتَدَى عَلَيْكُمْ

The Sacred Month is for the Sacred Month, and for the prohibited things, there is the law of equality (Qisas). Then whoever transgresses the prohibition against you, you transgress likewise against him. (2;194)

and,

فَإِذَا انسَلَخَ الَاشْهُرُ الْحُرُمُ فَاقْتُلُواْ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

Then when the Sacred Months have passed, kill the idolators... (9;5)

As for Allah's statement,

وَقَاتِلُواْ الْمُشْرِكِينَ كَأفَّةً كَمَا يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ كَأفَّةً

And fight against the idolators collectively as they fight against you collectively,

it includes permission for the believers to fight the idolators in the Sacred Month, if the idolators initiate hostilities therein.

Allah said in other Ayat,

الشَّهْرُ الْحَرَامُ بِالشَّهْرِ الْحَرَامِ وَالْحُرُمَـتُ قِصَاصٌ

The Sacred Month is for the Sacred Month, and for the prohibited things, there is the law of equality (Qisas). (2;194)

and,

وَلَا تُقَـتِلُوهُمْ عِندَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ حَتَّى يُقَـتِلُوكُمْ فِيهِ فَإِن قَـتَلُوكُمْ فَاقْتُلُوهُمْ

And fight not with them at Al-Masjid Al-Haram, unless they (first) fight you there. But if they attack you, then kill them. (2;191)

As for the Messenger of Allah laying siege to At-Ta'if until the Sacred Month started, it was a continuation of the battle against Hawazin and their allies from Thaqif. They started the fighting and gathered their men for the purpose of conducting war. The Messenger of Allah marched to meet them and when they took refuge in At-Ta'if, the Prophet laid siege to them so that they descend from their forts, but they inflicted casualties on Muslims. The siege continued for about forty days, during which a Sacred Month began, and the siege continued for several days in that month. The Messenger broke the siege and went back (to Makkah). So fighting that carries over into it (the Sacred Month) is not the same as initiating warfare during it, Allah knows best