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wa-idhā
وَإِذَا
And when
kunta
كُنتَ
you are
fīhim
فِيهِمْ
among them
fa-aqamta
فَأَقَمْتَ
and you lead
lahumu
لَهُمُ
for them
l-ṣalata
ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ
the prayer,
faltaqum
فَلْتَقُمْ
then let stand
ṭāifatun
طَآئِفَةٌ
a group
min'hum
مِّنْهُم
of them
maʿaka
مَّعَكَ
with you
walyakhudhū
وَلْيَأْخُذُوٓا۟
and let them take
asliḥatahum
أَسْلِحَتَهُمْ
their arms.
fa-idhā
فَإِذَا
Then when
sajadū
سَجَدُوا۟
they have prostrated,
falyakūnū
فَلْيَكُونُوا۟
then let them be
min
مِن
from
warāikum
وَرَآئِكُمْ
behind you
waltati
وَلْتَأْتِ
and let come (forward)
ṭāifatun
طَآئِفَةٌ
a group-
ukh'rā
أُخْرَىٰ
other,
lam
لَمْ
(which has) not
yuṣallū
يُصَلُّوا۟
prayed,
falyuṣallū
فَلْيُصَلُّوا۟
and let them pray
maʿaka
مَعَكَ
with you
walyakhudhū
وَلْيَأْخُذُوا۟
and let them take
ḥidh'rahum
حِذْرَهُمْ
their precautions
wa-asliḥatahum
وَأَسْلِحَتَهُمْۗ
and their arms.
wadda
وَدَّ
Wished
alladhīna
ٱلَّذِينَ
those who
kafarū
كَفَرُوا۟
disbelieved
law
لَوْ
if
taghfulūna
تَغْفُلُونَ
you neglect
ʿan
عَنْ
[about]
asliḥatikum
أَسْلِحَتِكُمْ
your arms
wa-amtiʿatikum
وَأَمْتِعَتِكُمْ
and your baggage
fayamīlūna
فَيَمِيلُونَ
so (that) they (can) assault
ʿalaykum
عَلَيْكُم
[upon] you
maylatan
مَّيْلَةً
(in) an attack.
wāḥidatan
وَٰحِدَةًۚ
single.
walā
وَلَا
But (there is) no
junāḥa
جُنَاحَ
blame
ʿalaykum
عَلَيْكُمْ
[upon] you
in
إِن
if
kāna
كَانَ
was
bikum
بِكُمْ
with you
adhan
أَذًى
any trouble
min
مِّن
from
maṭarin
مَّطَرٍ
rain
aw
أَوْ
or
kuntum
كُنتُم
you are
marḍā
مَّرْضَىٰٓ
sick
an
أَن
that
taḍaʿū
تَضَعُوٓا۟
you lay down
asliḥatakum
أَسْلِحَتَكُمْۖ
your arms,
wakhudhū
وَخُذُوا۟
but take
ḥidh'rakum
حِذْرَكُمْۗ
your precautions.
inna
إِنَّ
Indeed,
l-laha
ٱللَّهَ
Allah
aʿadda
أَعَدَّ
has prepared
lil'kāfirīna
لِلْكَٰفِرِينَ
for the disbelievers
ʿadhāban
عَذَابًا
a punishment
muhīnan
مُّهِينًا
humiliating.

Wa izaa kunta feehim fa aqamta lahumus Salaata faltaqum taaa'ifatum minhum ma'aka walyaakhuzooo aslihatahum fa izaa sajadoo fal yakoonoo minw waraaa'ikum waltaati taaa'ifatun ukhraa lam yusalloo falyusallo ma'aka walyaakhuzoo hizrahum wa aslihatahum; waddal lazeena kafaroo law taghfuloona 'anaslihatikum wa amti'atikum fa yameeloona 'alaikum mailatanw waahidah; wa laa junaaha 'alaikum in kaana bikum azam mimmatarin aw kuntum mmardaaa an tada'ooo aslihatakum wa khuzoo hizrakum; innal laaha a'adda lilkaafireena 'azaabam muheenaa

Sahih International:

And when you are among them and lead them in prayer, let a group of them stand [in prayer] with you and let them carry their arms. And when they have prostrated, let them be [in position] behind you and have the other group come forward which has not [yet] prayed and let them pray with you, taking precaution and carrying their arms. Those who disbelieve wish that you would neglect your weapons and your baggage so they could come down upon you in one [single] attack. But there is no blame upon you, if you are troubled by rain or are ill, for putting down your arms, but take precaution. Indeed, Allah has prepared for the disbelievers a humiliating punishment.

1 A. J. Arberry

When thou art amongst them, and performest for them the prayer, let a party of them stand with thee, and let them take their weapons. When they bow themselves, let them be behind you; and let another party who have not prayed come and pray with thee, taking their precautions and their weapons. The unbelievers wish that you should be heedless of your weapons and your baggage, then they would wheel on you all at once. There is no fault in you, if rain molests you, or you are sick, to lay aside your weapons; but take your precautions. God has prepared for the unbelievers a humbling chastisement.

2 Abdul Haleem

When you [Prophet] are with the believers, leading them in prayer, let a group of them stand up in prayer with you, taking their weapons with them, and when they have finished their prostration, let them take up their positions at the back. Then let the other group, who have not yet prayed, pray with you, also on their guard and armed with their weapons: the disbelievers would dearly like you to be heedless of your weapons and baggage, in order for them to take you in a single assault. You will not be blamed if you lay aside your arms when you are overtaken by heavy rain or illness, but be on your guard. Indeed, God has prepared a humiliating punishment for the disbelievers.

3 Abdul Majid Daryabadi

And when thou art amidst them and hast set up the prayer for them, then let a party of them stand with thee and let them retain their arms; then when they have prostrated themselves, let them go behind you, and let anot her party who have not yet prayed, come and pray with thee; and let them also take their caution and their arms. Pain would those who disbelieve that ye neglected your arms and your baggage, so that they might swoop down upon you at one swoop. And there shall be no fault in you, if there be an injury to you from rain or ye are ailing, that ye lay down your arms and yet take your caution. Verily Allah hath gotten ready for the infidels a torment ignominious.

4 Abdullah Yusuf Ali

When thou (O Messenger) art with them, and standest to lead them in prayer, Let one party of them stand up (in prayer) with thee, Taking their arms with them; When they finish their prostrations, let them Take their position in the rear. And let the other party come up which hath not yet prayed - and let them pray with thee, Taking all precaution, and bearing arms; the Unbelievers wish, if ye were negligent of your arms and your baggage, to assault you in a single rush. But there is no blame on you if ye put away your arms because of the inconvenience of rain or because ye are ill; but take (every) precaution for yourselves. For the Unbelievers Allah hath prepared a humiliating punishment.

5 Abul Ala Maududi

(O Messenger!) If you are among the believers and rise (in the state of war) to lead the Prayer for them, let a party of them stand with you to worship, keeping their arms. When they have performed their prostration, let them go behind you, and let another party who have not prayed, pray with you, remaining on guard and keeping their arms, for the unbelievers love to see you heedless of your arms and your baggage so that they might swoop upon you in a surprise attack. But there shall be no blame upon you if you were to lay aside your arms if you are either troubled by rain or are sick; but remain on guard. Surely Allah has prepared a humiliating chastisement for the unbelievers.

6 Ahmed Ali

When you are among them, and have to lead the service of prayer, let one group stand up with you, but let them keep their arms. After they have paid their homage they should go to the rear, and let the group which has not done so yet offer their service of prayer with you, remaining cautious and armed, The infidels wish to find you neglectful of your arms and provisions, to attack you unawares. It will not be a sin if you put aside your arms when you are troubled by rain, or you are ill; but take full precautions. God has reserved for infidels a despicable punishment

7 Ahmed Raza Khan

And when you (O dear Prophet Mohammed – peace and blessings be upon him) are among them and lead them in prayer, only a group of them should be with you, and they must keep their weapons with them; so when they have performed their prostrations they should move away behind you; and the other group that had not prayed, must come and offer prayers in your leadership, keeping their guard and weapons with them; the disbelievers wish that you neglect your arms and your means so they may overpower you with a single attack; it is no sin for you to lay aside your arms due to rain or if you are sick; and keep your guard; undoubtedly Allah has kept prepared a disgraceful punishment for the disbelievers.

8 Ali Quli Qarai

When you are among them, leading them in prayers, let a group of them stand with you, carrying their weapons. And when they have done the prostrations, let them withdraw to the rear, then let the other group which has not prayed come and pray with you, taking their precautions and [bearing] their weapons. The faithless are eager that you should be oblivious of your weapons and your baggage, so that they could assault you all at once. But there is no sin upon you, if you are troubled by rain or are sick, to set aside your weapons; but take your precautions. Indeed Allah has prepared for the faithless a humiliating punishment.

9 Ali Ünal

When you (O Messenger) are among the believers (who are on an expedition and in fear that the unbelievers might harm them) and stand (to lead) the Prayer for them, let a party of them stand in Prayer with you and retain their arms with them (while the other party maintain their positions against the enemy). When the first party have done the prostrations (finished the rak‘ah), let them go to the rear of your company (and there hold positions against the enemy), and let the other party who have not prayed come forward and pray with you, being fully prepared against danger and retaining their arms. Those who disbelieve wish that you should be heedless of your weapons and your equipment, so that they might swoop upon you in a single (surprise) attack. But there will be no blame on you if you lay aside your arms (during Prayer) if you are troubled by rain (and the ground impedes your movement), or if you are ill; however, be fully prepared against danger. Surely God has prepared for the unbelievers a shameful, humiliating punishment.

10 Amatul Rahman Omar

And (Prophet!) when you are amongst them (- the Muslims in the battle-field) leading the Prayer for them (in the time of fear,) let a party of them join you in Prayer retaining their arms. When they have performed their prostrations (and their one Rak`at is over) let them take their positions at the rear of the main body (for protection); and let another party who have not yet said Prayer come forward and join Prayer with you, taking their necessary precautions of defence and retaining their arms. Those who have disbelieved would wish you to be heedless of your arms and stores so that they may fall upon you united and all of a sudden. And there is no blame on you if you are suffering inconvenience on account of rain or if you are taken ill, that you lay aside your arms (relieving yourselves), but (even then) you must take your necessary precautions of defence. Verily, Allâh has prepared a humiliating punishment for the disbelievers.

11 English Literal

And if you were in them, so you started for them the prayer, so a group from them should stand with you, and they should take their weapons/arms, so if they prostrated, so they be from behind you, and another group should come (that) they did not pray, so they pray (E) with you, and they should take their caution, and their weapons/arms; those who disbelieved, wished if you ignore/neglect your weapons/arms, and your belongings/effects/goods, so they lean on you one bend, and no offense/guilt (is) on you if mild harm was with you from rain or you were sick/diseased, that you lay your weapons/arms, and take your caution, that God prepared to the disbelievers a degrading/humiliating torture.

12 Faridul Haque

And when you (O dear Prophet Mohammed - peace and blessings be upon him) are among them and lead them in prayer, only a group of them should be with you, and they must keep their weapons with them; so when they have performed their prostrations they should move away behind you; and the other group that had not prayed, must come and offer prayers in your leadership, keeping their guard and weapons with them; the disbelievers wish that you neglect your arms and your means so they may overpower you with a single attack; it is no sin for you to lay aside your arms due to rain or if you are sick; and keep your guard; undoubtedly Allah has kept prepared a disgraceful punishment for the disbelievers.

13 Hamid S. Aziz

And slacken not in pursuit of the enemy; if you suffer they shall surely suffer too, even as you suffer; and you hope from Allah what they cannot hope for! And Allah is Knower, Wise.

14 Hilali & Khan

When you (O Messenger Muhammad SAW) are among them, and lead them in As-Salat (the prayer), let one party of them stand up [in Salat (prayer)] with you taking their arms with them; when they finish their prostrations, let them take their positions in the rear and let the other party come up which has not yet prayed, and let them pray with you taking all the precautions and bearing arms. Those who disbelieve wish, if you were negligent of your arms and your baggage, to attack you in a single rush, but there is no sin on you if you put away your arms because of the inconvenience of rain or because you are ill, but take every precaution for yourselves. Verily, Allah has prepared a humiliating torment for the disbelievers.

15 Maulana Mohammad Ali

And when you journey in the earth, there is no blame on you if you shorten the prayer, if you fear that those who disbelieve will give you trouble. Surely the disbelievers are an open enemy to you.

16 Mohammad Habib Shakir

And when you are among them and keep up the prayer for them, let a party of them stand up with you, and let them take their arms; then when they have prostrated themselves let them go to your rear, and let another party who have not prayed come forward and pray with you, and let them take their precautions and their arms; (for) those who disbelieve desire that you may be careless of your arms and your luggage, so that they may then turn upon you with a sudden united attack, and there is no blame on you, if you are annoyed with rain or if you are sick, that you lay down your arms, and take your precautions; surely Allah has prepared a disgraceful chastisement for the unbelievers.

17 Mohammed Marmaduke William Pickthall

And when thou (O Muhammad) art among them and arrangest (their) worship for them, let only a party of them stand with thee (to worship) and let them take their arms. Then when they have performed their prostrations let them fall to the rear and let another party come that hath not worshipped and let them worship with thee, and let them take their precaution and their arms. Those who disbelieve long for you to neglect your arms and your baggage that they may attack you once for all. It is no sin for you to lay aside your arms, if rain impedeth you or ye are sick. But take your precaution. Lo! Allah prepareth for the disbelievers shameful punishment.

18 Muhammad Sarwar

(Muhammad), if you are among them (your followers during a battle) and you call them for prayer, let a group of them carry their arms during prayer. After they have made their prostrations, let them go back to watch the enemy and let the other group who has not yet prayed, join you, carrying their arms with due precaution. The unbelievers would love to find you neglecting your arms and property and would attack you suddenly. If rain or illness make you suffer, you may place your arms aside during prayer but still observe due precaution. God has prepared a humiliating torment for the unbelievers.

19 Qaribullah & Darwish

When you are with them, and establish the prayer, let a party of them stand with you, and let them take their weapons. After making their prostrations, let them be behind you, and let another party who have not prayed come and pray with you, taking their precautions and their weapons. Those who disbelieve wish that you should be inattentive of your weapons and your baggage, so that they might swoop upon you with one assault. But there is no fault in you if you are harmed by rain, or you are sick to lay aside your weapons, but take your precautions. Allah has prepared a humiliating punishment for the unbelievers.

20 Safi-ur-Rahman al-Mubarakpuri

When you (O Messenger Muhammad) are among them, and lead them in Salah, let one party of them stand up [in prayer] with you, taking their arms with them; when they finish their prostrations, let them take their positions in the rear and let the other party come up which have not yet prayed, and let them pray with you, taking all the precautions and bearing arms. Those who disbelieve wish, if you were negligent of your arms and your baggage, to attack you in a single rush, but there is no sin on you if you put away your arms because of the inconvenience of rain or because you are ill, but take every precaution for yourselves. Verily, Allah has prepared a humiliating torment for the disbelievers.

21 Wahiduddin Khan

When you are among the believers and lead them in prayer, let only part of them stand up along with you, armed with their weapons. After they have prostrated themselves, let them withdraw to the rear to stand guard and then let another party, who have not yet prayed, come forward and pray with you. And let them also be on their guard, armed with their weapons. Those who deny the truth want you to be negligent of your arms and your baggage, so that they may fall upon you suddenly. It is no offence for you to lay aside your arms when overtaken by heavy rain or illness, and always take every precaution for defence. God has prepared a humiliating punishment for those who deny the truth.

22 Talal Itani

When you are among them, and you stand to lead them in prayer, let a group of them stand with you, and let them hold their weapons. Then, when they have done their prostrations, let them withdraw to the rear, and let another group, that have not prayed yet, come forward and pray with you; and let them take their precautions and their weapons. Those who disbelieve would like you to neglect your weapons and your equipment, so they can attack you in a single assault. You commit no error, if you are hampered by rain or are sick, by putting down your weapons; but take precautions. Indeed, God has prepared for the disbelievers a demeaning punishment.

23 Tafsir jalalayn

When you, O Muhammad (s), are, present, among them, while you [all] fear an enemy, and you stand to lead them in prayer (this type of address is customary in the Qur'n), let a party of them stand with you, while another party stand back, and let them, the party standing with you, take their weapons, with them. Then when they have performed their prostrations, that is, [when] they have prayed, let them, the other party, be behind you, on guard until you complete the prayers; thereupon, let this party go on guard, and let another party who have not prayed come and pray with you, taking their precautions and their weapons, with them until you have completed the prayers. The Prophet (s) did this once at Batn Nakhla, as reported by the two Shaykhs [Bukhr and Muslim]. The disbelievers wish, when you have stood up to pray, that you should be heedless of your weapons and your baggage that they may descend upon you all at once, by making an assault against you and capturing you, and herein is the reasoning behind keeping weapons on oneself. You are not at fault, if rain bothers you, or if you are sick, to lay aside your weapons, and not carry them; this implies that when there is no such excuse, it is compulsory to carry them, and this is one of two opinions held by al-Shfi` [on this matter]; the other [opinion] is that this [precaution] constitutes a sunna, and this is the more preferable opinion. But take your precautions, against the enemy and be on your guard as best you can; God has prepared for the disbelievers a humiliating chastisement.

24 Tafseer Ibn Kathir

The Description of The Fear Prayer

Allah says;

وَإِذَا كُنتَ فِيهِمْ فَأَقَمْتَ لَهُمُ الصَّلَةَ فَلْتَقُمْ طَأيِفَةٌ مِّنْهُم مَّعَكَ وَلْيَأْخُذُواْ أَسْلِحَتَهُمْ فَإِذَا سَجَدُواْ فَلْيَكُونُواْ مِن وَرَايِكُمْ وَلْتَأْتِ طَأيِفَةٌ أُخْرَى لَمْ يُصَلُّواْ فَلْيُصَلُّواْ مَعَكَ وَلْيَأْخُذُواْ حِذْرَهُمْ وَأَسْلِحَتَهُمْ وَدَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ لَوْ تَغْفُلُونَ عَنْ أَسْلِحَتِكُمْ وَأَمْتِعَتِكُمْ فَيَمِيلُونَ عَلَيْكُم مَّيْلَةً وَاحِدَةً

When you (O Messenger Muhammad) are among them, and lead them in Salah, let one party of them stand up (in prayer) with you, taking their arms with them; when they finish their prostrations, let them take their positions in the rear and let the other party come up which have not yet prayed, and let them pray with you, taking all the precautions and bearing arms. Those who disbelieve wish, if you were negligent of your arms and your baggage, to attack you in a single rush,

The Fear prayer has different forms, for the enemy is sometimes in the direction of the Qiblah and sometimes in another direction.

The Fear prayer consists sometimes of four Rak`ahs, three Rak`ahs, as for Maghrib, and sometimes two Rak`ah like Fajr and prayer during travel.

The Fear prayer is sometimes prayed in congregation, but when the battle is raging, congregational prayer may not be possible. In this case, they pray each by himself, facing the Qiblah or otherwise, riding or on foot. In this situation, they are allowed to walk and fight, all the while performing the acts of the prayer.

Some scholars said that in the latter case, they pray only one Rak`ah, for Ibn Abbas narrated,

"By the words of your Prophet, Allah has ordained the prayer of four Rak`ah while residing, two Rak`ah during travel, and one Rak`ah during fear."

Muslim, Abu Dawud, An-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah recorded it.

This is also the view of Ahmad bin Hanbal.

Al-Mundhiri said,

"This is the saying of Ata, Jabir, Al-Hasan, Mujahid, Al-Hakam, Qatadah and Hammad; and Tawus and Ad-Dahhak also preferred it."

Abu Asim Al-Abadi mentioned that Muhammad bin Nasr Al-Marwazi said,

the Fajr prayer also becomes one Rak`ah during fear.

This is also the opinion of Ibn Hazm.

Ishaq bin Rahwayh said,

"When a battle is raging, one Rak`ah during which you nod your head is sufficient for you. If you are unable, then one prostration is sufficient, because the prostration is remembrance of Allah."
The Reason behind Revealing this Ayah

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Ayyash Az-Zuraqi said,

"We were with the Messenger of Allah in the area of Usfan (a well known place near Makkah), when the idolators met us under the command of Khalid bin Al-Walid, and they were between us and the Qiblah. The Messenger of Allah led us in Zuhr prayer, and the idolators said, `They were busy with something during which we had a chance to attack them.'

They then said, `Next, there will come a prayer (`Asr) that is dearer to them than their children and themselves.'

However, Jibril came down with these Ayat between the prayers of Zuhr and `Asr,
وَإِذَا كُنتَ فِيهِمْ فَأَقَمْتَ لَهُمُ الصَّلَةَ
(When you (O Messenger Muhammad) are among them, and lead them in Salah (prayer)).

When the time for prayer came, the Messenger of Allah commanded Muslims to hold their weapons and he made us stand in two lines behind him. When he bowed, we all bowed behind him. When he raised his head, we all raised our heads.

The Prophet then prostrated with the line that was behind him while the rest stood in guard. When they finished with the prostration and stood up, the rest sat and performed prostration, while those who performed it stood up in guard after the two lines exchanged position.

The Prophet then bowed and they all bowed after him, then raised their heads after he raised his head. Then the Prophet performed prostration with the line that was behind him, while the rest stood in guard. When those who made prostration sat, the rest prostrated.

The Prophet then performed the Taslim and ended the prayer.

The Messenger of Allah performed this prayer twice, once in Usfan and once in the land of Banu Sulaym."'

This is the narration recorded by Abu Dawud and An-Nasa'i, and it has an authentic chain of narration and many other texts to support it.

Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn Abbas said,

"Once the Prophet led the Fear prayer and the people stood behind him. He said Allahu-Akbar and the people said the same. He bowed and some of them bowed. Then he prostrated and they also prostrated. Then he stood for the second Rak`ah and those who had prayed the first Rak`ah left and guarded their brothers. The second party joined him and performed bowing and prostration with him. All the people were in prayer, but they were guarding one another during the prayer."

Imam Ahmad recorded that Jabir bin Abdullah said that;

the Messenger of Allah led them in the Fear prayer. A group of them stood before him and a group behind him. The Prophet led those who were behind him with one Rak`ah and two prostrations. They then moved to the position of those who did not pray, while the others stood in their place, and the Messenger of Allah performed one Rak`ah and two prostrations and then said the Salam. Therefore, the Prophet prayed two Rak`ah while they prayed one.

An-Nasa'i recorded this Hadith, while Muslim collected other wordings for it.

Collectors of the Sahih, Sunan and Musnad collections recorded this in a Hadith from Jabir.

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Salim said that;

his father said,
وَإِذَا كُنتَ فِيهِمْ فَأَقَمْتَ لَهُمُ الصَّلَةَ
(When you (O Messenger Muhammad) are among them, and lead them in Salah (prayer)) refers to the Fear prayer.

The Messenger of Allah led one group and prayed one Rak`ah, while the second group faced the enemy. Then the second group that faced the enemy came and Allah's Messenger led them, praying one Rak`ah, and then said the Salam. Each of the two groups then stood up and prayed one more Rak`ah each (while the other group stood in guard)."

The Group collected this Hadith with Ma`mar in its chain of narrators.

This Hadith also has many other chains of narration from several Companions, and Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr Ibn Marduwyah collected these various narrations, as did Ibn Jarir.

As for the command to hold the weapons during the Fear prayer,

a group of scholars said that it is obligatory according to the Ayah. What testifies to this is that Allah said;

وَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِن كَانَ بِكُمْ أَذًى مِّن مَّطَرٍ أَوْ كُنتُم مَّرْضَى أَن تَضَعُواْ أَسْلِحَتَكُمْ وَخُذُواْ حِذْرَكُمْ

But there is no sin on you if you put away your arms because of the inconvenience of rain or because you are ill, but take every precaution for yourselves,

meaning, so that when necessary, you will be able to get to your weapons easily.

إِنَّ اللّهَ أَعَدَّ لِلْكَافِرِينَ عَذَابًا مُّهِينًا



Verily, Allah has prepared a humiliating torment for the disbelievers