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yāayyuhā
يَٰٓأَيُّهَا
O you
alladhīna
ٱلَّذِينَ
who
āmanū
ءَامَنُوا۟
believe[d]!
لَا
Not
yaḥillu
يَحِلُّ
(is) lawful
lakum
لَكُمْ
for you
an
أَن
that
tarithū
تَرِثُوا۟
you inherit
l-nisāa
ٱلنِّسَآءَ
the women
karhan
كَرْهًاۖ
(by) force.
walā
وَلَا
And not
taʿḍulūhunna
تَعْضُلُوهُنَّ
you constraint them
litadhhabū
لِتَذْهَبُوا۟
so that you may take
bibaʿḍi
بِبَعْضِ
a part
مَآ
(of) what
ātaytumūhunna
ءَاتَيْتُمُوهُنَّ
you have given them
illā
إِلَّآ
except
an
أَن
that
yatīna
يَأْتِينَ
they commit
bifāḥishatin
بِفَٰحِشَةٍ
immorality
mubayyinatin
مُّبَيِّنَةٍۚ
open.
waʿāshirūhunna
وَعَاشِرُوهُنَّ
And live with them
bil-maʿrūfi
بِٱلْمَعْرُوفِۚ
in kindness.
fa-in
فَإِن
But if
karih'tumūhunna
كَرِهْتُمُوهُنَّ
you dislike them,
faʿasā
فَعَسَىٰٓ
then perhaps
an
أَن
that
takrahū
تَكْرَهُوا۟
you dislike
shayan
شَيْـًٔا
a thing
wayajʿala
وَيَجْعَلَ
and has placed
l-lahu
ٱللَّهُ
Allah
fīhi
فِيهِ
in it
khayran
خَيْرًا
good.
kathīran
كَثِيرًا
much.

Yaaa aiyuhal lazeena aamanoo laa yahillu lakum an tarisun nisaaa'a karhan wa laa ta'duloohunna litazhaboo biba'di maaa aataitumoohunna illaaa ai yaateena bifaahishatim bubaiyinah; wa 'aashiroo hunna bilma'roof; fa in karihtumoohunna fa'asaaa an takrahoo shai'anw wa yaj'alal laahu feehi khairan kaseeraa

Sahih International:

O you who have believed, it is not lawful for you to inherit women by compulsion. And do not make difficulties for them in order to take [back] part of what you gave them unless they commit a clear immorality. And live with them in kindness. For if you dislike them - perhaps you dislike a thing and Allah makes therein much good.

1 A. J. Arberry

O believers, it is not lawful for you to inherit women against their will; neither debar them, that you may go off with part of what you have given them, except when they commit a flagrant indecency Consort with them honourably; or if you are averse to them, it is possible you may be averse to a thing, and God set in it much good.

2 Abdul Haleem

You who believe, it is not lawful for you to inherit women against their will, nor should you treat your wives harshly, hoping to take back some of the bride-gift you gave them, unless they are guilty of something clearly outrageous. Live with them in accordance with what is fair and kind: if you dislike them, it may well be that you dislike something in which God has put much good.

3 Abdul Majid Daryabadi

O Ye who believe! it is not allowed unto you that ye may heir the women forcibly; nor shut them up that ye may take away from them part of that which ye had given them, except when they be guilty of manifest enormity. And live with them reputably if ye detest them, belike ye detest a thing and yet Allah hath placed therein abundant good.

4 Abdullah Yusuf Ali

O ye who believe! Ye are forbidden to inherit women against their will. Nor should ye treat them with harshness, that ye may Take away part of the dower ye have given them,-except where they have been guilty of open lewdness; on the contrary live with them on a footing of kindness and equity. If ye take a dislike to them it may be that ye dislike a thing, and Allah brings about through it a great deal of good.

5 Abul Ala Maududi

Believers! It is not lawful for you to become heirs to women against their will. It is not lawful that you should put constraint upon them that you may take away anything of what you have given them; (you may not put constraint upon them) unless they are guilty of brazenly immoral conduct. Live with your wives in a good manner. If you dislike them in any manner, it may be that you dislike something in which Allah has placed much good for you.

6 Ahmed Ali

O believers, you are not allowed to take perforce the women (of dead relatives) into your heritage, or tyrannise over them in order to deprive them of what you have given them, unless they are guilty of open adultery. Live with them with tolerance and justice even if you do not care for them. For it may well be you may not like a thing, yet God may have endued it with much goodness.

7 Ahmed Raza Khan

O People who Believe! It is not lawful for you to forcibly become the women’s heirs; and do not restrain women with the intention of taking away a part of bridal money you gave them, unless they openly commit the shameful; and deal kindly with them; and if you do not like them, so it is possible that you dislike a thing in which Allah has placed abundant good.

8 Ali Quli Qarai

O you who have faith! It is not lawful for you to inherit women forcibly, and do not press them to take away part of what you have given them, unless they commit a gross indecency. Consort with them in an honourable manner; and should you dislike them, maybe you dislike something while Allah invests it with an abundant good.

9 Ali Ünal

O you who believe! It is not lawful for you to become inheritors, against their will, of women (of your deceased kinsmen, marrying them against their will, without paying their bridal-due, or forcing them to marry others in return for their bridal-due as though they were a part of heritable property); nor should you constrain your wives in order to take away anything of what you have given them (as bridal-due or bridal gift), unless they be guilty of indecency in an obvious manner (such as to justify divorce). Consort with them in a good manner, for if you are not pleased with them, it may well be that you dislike something but God has set in it much good.

10 Amatul Rahman Omar

O you who believe! it is not lawful for you to treat women (of your deceased relatives) as inherited property by force, nor should you detain them that you may take away part of that which you have given them, except that they commit flagrant indecency. But consort with them in peace. Then if you have a dislike for them, it may be that you dislike a thing but Allâh has placed a good deal of good in it.

11 English Literal

You, you those who believed, (it) is not permitted/allowed for you that you (P) inherit the women compellingly/forcefully , and do not limit/confine/oppress them (F) to go/take away with some (of) what you gave them (F), except that they (F) come/do/commit with an enormous/atrocious deed evident, and mix/associate/befriend them (F) with the kindness , so if you (P) hated them (F), so maybe/perhaps that you hate a thing and God makes in it much good .52

12 Faridul Haque

O People who Believe! It is not lawful for you to forcibly become the women’s heirs; and do not restrain women with the intention of taking away a part of bridal money you gave them, unless they openly commit the shameful; and deal kindly with them; and if you do not like them, so it is possible that you dislike a thing in which Allah has placed abundant good.

13 Hamid S. Aziz

How can you take it when one of you has gone in unto the other, and they have taken from you a solemn contract?

14 Hilali & Khan

O you who believe! You are forbidden to inherit women against their will, and you should not treat them with harshness, that you may take away part of the Mahr you have given them, unless they commit open illegal sexual intercourse. And live with them honourably. If you dislike them, it may be that you dislike a thing and Allah brings through it a great deal of good.

15 Maulana Mohammad Ali

And repentance is not for those who go on doing evil deeds, until when death comes to one of them he says: Now I repent; nor (for) those who die while they are disbelievers. For such We have prepared a painful chastisement.

16 Mohammad Habib Shakir

O you who believe! it is not lawful for you that you should take women as heritage against (their) will, and do not straiten them in order that you may take part of what you have given them, unless they are guilty of manifest indecency, and treat them kindly; then if you hate them, it may be that you dislike a thing while Allah has placed abundant good in it.

17 Mohammed Marmaduke William Pickthall

O ye who believe! It is not lawful for you forcibly to inherit the women (of your deceased kinsmen), nor (that) ye should put constraint upon them that ye may take away a part of that which ye have given them, unless they be guilty of flagrant lewdness. But consort with them in kindness, for if ye hate them it may happen that ye hate a thing wherein Allah hath placed much good.

18 Muhammad Sarwar

Believers, it is not lawful for you to inherit women against their will as part of the legacy. Do not create difficulties for your wives in order to force them to give-up part of what you had given to them to set themselves free from the bond of marriage, unless they have clearly committed adultery. Always treat them reasonably. If you dislike them, you could be disliking that which God has filled with abundant good.

19 Qaribullah & Darwish

Believers, it is unlawful for you to inherit women forcefully, neither bar them, in order that you go off with part of what you have given them, except when they commit a clear indecency. Live with them honorably. If you hate them, it may be that you hate something which Allah has set in it much good.

20 Safi-ur-Rahman al-Mubarakpuri

O you who believe! You are not permitted to inherit women against their will, nor to prevent them from marriage in order to get part of (the dowry) what you have given them, unless they commit open Fahishah. And live with them honorably. If you dislike them, it may be that you dislike a thing and Allah brings through it a great deal of good.

21 Wahiduddin Khan

Believers, it is not lawful for you to inherit women against their will, nor should you detain them wrongfully, so that you may take away a part of what you have given them, unless they are guilty of something clearly outrageous. Live with them in accordance with what is fair and kind; if you dislike them, it may be that you dislike something which God might make a source of abundant good.

22 Talal Itani

O you who believe! It is not permitted for you to inherit women against their will. And do not coerce them in order to take away some of what you had given them, unless they commit a proven adultery. And live with them in kindness. If you dislike them, it may be that you dislike something in which God has placed much good.

23 Tafsir jalalayn

O you who believe, it is not lawful for you to inherit women against their will (read either karhan or kurhan, as alternative forms) that is to say, coercing them into this. In pre-Islamic times, they used to inherit women from their kin, and if they so wished they could marry [a woman] without a dowry, or marry her off and take the dowry for themselves, or prevent her [from marriage] until she gave up what she had inherited, or until she died and they could inherit from her. They were thus forbidden such practices; neither debar them, your [former] wives from marrying others by retaining them while you have no desire for them yourselves, only to harm them; so that you may go off with part of what you have given them, of the dowry, except when they commit flagrant (read mubayyina, `making it clear', or mubayyana, `clear') lewdness, such as adultery or rebellion, then you have the right to coerce them until they redeem themselves to you or forfeit [their dowries]. Consort with them in kindness, that is, being decent in speaking [to them], with regard to [their] expenditure and lodging; for if you hate them, then be patient; it may happen that you hate a thing wherein God has set much good, that is to say, perhaps He does this when He provides you with a righteous child through them.

24 Tafseer Ibn Kathir

Meaning of `Inheriting Women Against Their Will

Allah says;

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ امَنُواْ لَا يَحِلُّ لَكُمْ أَن تَرِثُواْ النِّسَاء كَرْهًا

O you who believe! You are not permitted to inherit women against their will,

Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn Abbas said about the Ayah,

"Before, the practice was that when a man dies, his male relatives used to have the right to do whatever they wanted with his wife. If one of them wants, he would marry her, give her in marriage, or prevent her from marriage, for they had more right to her than her own family. Thereafter, this Ayah was revealed about this practice,
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ امَنُواْ لَا يَحِلُّ لَكُمْ أَن تَرِثُواْ النِّسَاء كَرْهًا
(O you who believe! You are not permitted to inherit women against their will)."
Women Should not Be Treated with Harshness

Allah said,

وَلَا تَعْضُلُوهُنَّ لِتَذْهَبُواْ بِبَعْضِ مَا اتَيْتُمُوهُنَّ

nor to prevent them from marriage, in order to take part of what you have given them,

Allah commands;Do not treat the woman harshly so that she gives back all or part of the dowry that she was given, or forfeits one of her rights by means of coercion and oppression.

Allah's statement,

إِلاَّ أَن يَأْتِينَ بِفَاحِشَةٍ مُّبَيِّنَةٍ

unless they commit open Fahishah.

Ibn Mas`ud, Ibn Abbas, Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib, Ash-Sha`bi, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Muhammad bin Sirin, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Mujahid, Ikrimah, Ata Al-Khurasani, Ad-Dahhak, Abu Qilabah, Abu Salih, As-Suddi, Zayd bin Aslam and Sa`id bin Abi Hilal said that;

this refers to illicit sex.

Meaning that if the wife commits adultery, you are allowed to take back the dowry you gave her. You are also allowed to annoy her, until she gives back the dowry in return for a Khula.

In Surah Al-Baqarah, Allah said,

وَلَا يَحِلُّ لَكُمْ أَن تَأْخُذُواْ مِمَّأ ءَاتَيْتُمُوهُنَّ شَيْيًا إِلاَّ أَن يَخَافَأ أَلاَّ يُقِيمَا حُدُودَ اللَّهِ

And it is not lawful for you (men) to take back (from your wives) any of what you have given them, except when both parties fear that they would be unable to keep the limits ordained by Allah. (2;229)

Ibn Abbas, Ikrimah and Ad-Dahhak said that;
Fahishah refers to disobedience and defiance.

Ibn Jarir chose the view that;

it is general, encompasses all these meanings, adultery, disobedience, defiance, rudeness, and so forth.

Meaning that he is allowed to annoy his wife when she does any of these acts until she forfeits all or part of her rights and he then separates from her, and this (view) is good, and Allah knows best.
Live With Women Honorably

Allah said,

وَعَاشِرُوهُنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ

And live with them honorably,

by saying kind words to them, treating them kindly and making your appearance appealing for them, as much as you can, just as you like the same from them.

Allah said in another Ayah,

وَلَهُنَّ مِثْلُ الَّذِى عَلَيْهِنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ

And they have rights similar over them to what is reasonable. (2;228)

The Messenger of Allah said,

خَيْرُكُمْ خَيْرُكُمْ لاَِهْلِهِ وَأَنَا خَيْرُكُمْ لاَِهْلِي

The best among you is he who is the best with his family. Verily, I am the best one among you with my family.

It was the practice of the Messenger of Allah to be kind, cheerful, playful with his wives, compassionate, spending on them and laughing with them. The Messenger used to race with Aishah, the Mother of the Faithful, as a means of kindness to her.

Aishah said, "The Messenger of Allah raced with me and I won the race. This occurred before I gained weight, and afterwards I raced with him again, and he won that race. He said,

هذِهِ بِتِلْك

This (victory) is for that (victory)."

When the Prophet was at the home of one of his wives, sometimes all of his wives would meet there and eat together, and they would then go back to their homes. He and his wife would sleep in the same bed, he would remove his upper garment, sleeping in only his lower garment. The Prophet used to talk to the wife whose night it was, after praying Isha' and before he went to sleep.

Allah said,

لَّقَدْ كَانَ لَكُمْ فِى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ

Indeed in the Messenger of Allah you have a good example to follow. (33;21)

Allah said,

فَإِن كَرِهْتُمُوهُنَّ فَعَسَى أَن تَكْرَهُواْ شَيْيًا وَيَجْعَلَ اللّهُ فِيهِ خَيْرًا كَثِيرًا



If you dislike them, it may be that you dislike a thing and Allah brings through it a great deal of good.

Allah says that your patience, which is demonstrated by keeping wives whom you dislike, carries good rewards for you in this life and the Hereafter.

Ibn Abbas commented on this Ayah,

"That the husband may feel compassion towards his wife and Allah gives him a child with her, and this child carries tremendous goodness."

An authentic Hadith states,

لَاا يَفْرَكْ مُوْمِنٌ مُوْمِنَةً إِنْ سَخِطَ مِنْهَا خُلُقًا رَضِيَ مِنْهَا اخَر

No believing man should hate his believing wife. If he dislikes a part of her conduct, he would surely like another.
The Prohibition of Taking Back the Dowry

Allah said,

وَإِنْ أَرَدتُّمُ اسْتِبْدَالَ زَوْجٍ مَّكَانَ زَوْجٍ وَاتَيْتُمْ إِحْدَاهُنَّ قِنطَارًا فَلَ تَأْخُذُواْ مِنْهُ شَيْيًا أَتَأْخُذُونَهُ بُهْتَاناً وَإِثْماً مُّبِيناً