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ḥurrimat
حُرِّمَتْ
Are made unlawful
ʿalaykumu
عَلَيْكُمُ
on you
l-maytatu
ٱلْمَيْتَةُ
the dead animals,
wal-damu
وَٱلدَّمُ
and the blood,
walaḥmu
وَلَحْمُ
and flesh
l-khinzīri
ٱلْخِنزِيرِ
(of) the swine,
wamā
وَمَآ
and what
uhilla
أُهِلَّ
has been dedicated
lighayri
لِغَيْرِ
to other than
l-lahi
ٱللَّهِ
Allah,
bihi
بِهِۦ
[on it],
wal-mun'khaniqatu
وَٱلْمُنْخَنِقَةُ
and that which is strangled (to death),
wal-mawqūdhatu
وَٱلْمَوْقُوذَةُ
and that which is hit fatally,
wal-mutaradiyatu
وَٱلْمُتَرَدِّيَةُ
and that which has a fatal fall,
wal-naṭīḥatu
وَٱلنَّطِيحَةُ
and that which is gored by horns,
wamā
وَمَآ
and what
akala
أَكَلَ
ate (it)
l-sabuʿu
ٱلسَّبُعُ
the wild animal
illā
إِلَّا
except
مَا
what
dhakkaytum
ذَكَّيْتُمْ
you slaughtered,
wamā
وَمَا
and what
dhubiḥa
ذُبِحَ
is sacrificed
ʿalā
عَلَى
on
l-nuṣubi
ٱلنُّصُبِ
the stone altars,
wa-an
وَأَن
and that
tastaqsimū
تَسْتَقْسِمُوا۟
you seek division
bil-azlāmi
بِٱلْأَزْلَٰمِۚ
by divining arrows -
dhālikum
ذَٰلِكُمْ
that
fis'qun
فِسْقٌۗ
(is) grave disobedience.
l-yawma
ٱلْيَوْمَ
This day
ya-isa
يَئِسَ
(have) despaired
alladhīna
ٱلَّذِينَ
those who
kafarū
كَفَرُوا۟
disbelieved
min
مِن
of
dīnikum
دِينِكُمْ
your religion,
falā
فَلَا
so (do) not
takhshawhum
تَخْشَوْهُمْ
fear them,
wa-ikh'shawni
وَٱخْشَوْنِۚ
but fear Me.
l-yawma
ٱلْيَوْمَ
This day
akmaltu
أَكْمَلْتُ
I have perfected
lakum
لَكُمْ
for you
dīnakum
دِينَكُمْ
your religion
wa-atmamtu
وَأَتْمَمْتُ
and I have completed
ʿalaykum
عَلَيْكُمْ
upon you
niʿ'matī
نِعْمَتِى
My Favor
waraḍītu
وَرَضِيتُ
and I have approved
lakumu
لَكُمُ
for you
l-is'lāma
ٱلْإِسْلَٰمَ
[the] Islam
dīnan
دِينًاۚ
(as) a religion.
famani
فَمَنِ
But whoever
uḍ'ṭurra
ٱضْطُرَّ
(is) forced
فِى
by
makhmaṣatin
مَخْمَصَةٍ
hunger
ghayra
غَيْرَ
(and) not
mutajānifin
مُتَجَانِفٍ
inclining
li-ith'min
لِّإِثْمٍۙ
to sin,
fa-inna
فَإِنَّ
then indeed,
l-laha
ٱللَّهَ
Allah
ghafūrun
غَفُورٌ
(is) Oft-Forgiving,
raḥīmun
رَّحِيمٌ
Most Merciful.

Hurrimat 'alaikumul maitatu waddamu wa lahmul khinzeeri wa maaa uhilla lighiril laahi bihee walmun khani qatu wal mawqoozatu wal mutarad diyatu wanna teehatu wa maaa akalas sabu'u illaa maa zakkaitum wa maa zubiha 'alan nusubi wa an tastaqsimoo bil azlaam; zaalikum fisq; alyawma ya'isal lazeena kafaroo min deenikum falaa takhshawhum wakh shawn; alyawma akmaltu lakum deenakum wa atmamtu 'alaikum ni'matee wa radeetu lakumul Islaama deenaa; famanidturra fee makhmasatin ghaira mutajaanifil li ismin fa innallaaha Ghafoorur Raheem

Sahih International:

Prohibited to you are dead animals, blood, the flesh of swine, and that which has been dedicated to other than Allah, and [those animals] killed by strangling or by a violent blow or by a head-long fall or by the goring of horns, and those from which a wild animal has eaten, except what you [are able to] slaughter [before its death], and those which are sacrificed on stone altars, and [prohibited is] that you seek decision through divining arrows. That is grave disobedience. This day those who disbelieve have despaired of [defeating] your religion; so fear them not, but fear Me. This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed My favor upon you and have approved for you Islam as religion. But whoever is forced by severe hunger with no inclination to sin - then indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.

1 A. J. Arberry

Forbidden to you are carrion, blood, the flesh of swine, what has been hallowed to other than God, the beast strangled; the beast beaten down, the beast fallen to death, the beast gored, and that devoured by beasts of prey - excepting that you have sacrificed duly -- as also things sacrificed to idols, and partition by the divining arrows; that is ungodliness. Today the unbelievers have despaired of your religion; therefore fear them not, but fear you Me. Today I have perfected your religion for you, and I have completed My blessing upon you, and I have approved Islam for your religion. But whosoever is constrained in emptiness and not inclining purposely to sin -- God is All-forgiving, All-compassionate.

2 Abdul Haleem

You are forbidden to eat carrion; blood; pig’s meat; any animal over which any name other than God’s has been invoked; any animal strangled, or victim of a violent blow or a fall, or gored or savaged by a beast of prey, unless you still slaughter it [in the correct manner]; or anything sacrificed on idolatrous altars. You are also forbidden to allot shares [of meat] by drawing marked arrows -a heinous practice- today the disbelievers have lost all hope that you will give up your religion. Do not fear them: fear Me. Today I have perfected your religion for you, completed My blessing upon you, and chosen as your religion islam: [total devotion to God]; but if any of you is forced by hunger to eat forbidden food, with no intention of doing wrong, then God is most forgiving and merciful.

3 Abdul Majid Daryabadi

Forbidden unto you are the deadmeat, and blood, and the flesh of the swine, and that over which is invoked the name of other than Allah, and the strangled, and the felled, and the tumbled, and the gored, and that which wild animals have devoured, unless ye have cleansed, and that which hath been slaughtered on the altars, and that ye seek a division by means of the divining arrows: all that is an abomination. To- day those who disbelieve have despaired of your religion; wherefore fear them not, and fear Me. To-day I have perfected for you your religion, and have completed My favour upon you, and am well-pleased with Islam as your religion. Then whosoever is driven to extreme hunger not inclining to sin, verily then Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

4 Abdullah Yusuf Ali

Forbidden to you (for food) are; dead meat, blood, the flesh of swine, and that on which hath been invoked the name of other than Allah; that which hath been killed by strangling, or by a violent blow, or by a headlong fall, or by being gored to death; that which hath been (partly) eaten by a wild animal; unless ye are able to slaughter it (in due form); that which is sacrificed on stone (altars); (forbidden) also is the division (of meat) by raffling with arrows; that is impiety. This day have those who reject faith given up all hope of your religion; yet fear them not but fear Me. This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed My favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion. But if any is forced by hunger, with no inclination to transgression, Allah is indeed Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.

5 Abul Ala Maududi

Forbidden to you are carrion, blood, the flesh of swine, the animal slaughtered in any name other than Allah's, the animal which has either been strangled, killed by blows, has died of a fall, by goring or that devoured by a beast of prey - unless it be that which you yourselves might have slaughtered while it was still alive - and that which was slaughtered at the altars. - You are also forbidden to seek knowledge of your fate by divining arrows. All these are sinful acts. This day the unbelievers have fully despaired of your religion. Do not fear them; but fear Me. This day I have perfected for you your religion, and have bestowed upon you My bounty in full measure, and have been pleased to assign for you Islam as your religion. (Follow, then, the lawful and unlawful bounds enjoined upon you.) As for he who is driven by hunger, without being wilfully inclined to sin, surely Allah is All-Forgiving, All-Compassionate.

6 Ahmed Ali

Forbidden you is carrion and blood, and the flesh of the swine, and whatsoever has been killed in the name of some other than God, and whatever has been strangled, or killed by a blow or a fall, or by goring, or that which has been mauled by wild beasts unless slaughtered while still alive; and that which has been slaughtered at altars is forbidden, and also dividing the meat by casting lots with arrows. All this is sinful. Today the unbelievers have lost every hope of (despoiling) your creed; so do not fear them, fear Me. Today I have perfected your system of belief and bestowed My favours upon you in full, and have chosen submission (al-Islam) as the creed for you. If one of you is driven by hunger (to eat the forbidden) without the evil intent of sinning, then God is forgiving and kind.

7 Ahmed Raza Khan

Forbidden for you are carrion, and blood, and flesh of swine, and that which has been slaughtered while proclaiming the name of any other than Allah, and one killed by strangling, and one killed with blunt weapons, and one which died by falling, and that which was gored by the horns of some animal, and one eaten by a wild beast, except those whom you slaughter; and (also forbidden is) that which is slaughtered at the altar (of idols) and that which is distributed by the throwing of arrows (as an omen); this is an act of sin; this day, the disbelievers are in despair concerning your religion, so do not fear them and fear Me; this day have I perfected your religion for you* and completed My favour upon you, and have chosen Islam as your religion; so whoever is forced by intense hunger and thirst and does not incline towards sin, then indeed Allah is Oft Forgiving, Most Merciful. (*Prophet Mohammed – peace and blessings be upon him – is the Last Prophet.)

8 Ali Quli Qarai

You are prohibited carrion, blood, the flesh of swine, and what has been offered to other than Allah, and the animal strangled or beaten to death, and that which dies by falling or is gored to death, and that which is mangled by a beast of prey—barring that which you may purify —and what is sacrificed on stone altars [to idols], and that you should divide by raffling with arrows. All that is transgression. Today the faithless have despaired of your religion. So do not fear them, but fear Me. Today I have perfected your religion for you, and I have completed My blessing upon you, and I have approved Islam as your religion. But should anyone be compelled by hunger, without inclining to sin, then Allah is indeed all-forgiving, all-merciful.

9 Ali Ünal

Unlawful to you (for food) are carrion, and blood, and the flesh of swine, and that (the animal) which is offered in the name of any other than God, and the animal strangled, and the animal beaten down, and the animal fallen to death, and the animal gored, and that devoured by wild beasts – save that which you make lawful (by slaughtering properly while it was still alive) – and that which has been sacrificed to anything serving the function of idols and at the places consecrated for offerings to other than God. And (also unlawful is) that divided and obtained through divining arrows (and the like, such as lotteries and throwing dice). (Eating of any of) that (just mentioned) is transgression. – This day those who disbelieve have lost all hope of (preventing the establishment of) your religion, so do not hold them in awe, but be in awe of Me. This day I have perfected for you your Religion (with all its rules, commandments and universality), completed My favor upon you, and have been pleased to assign for you Islam as religion. – Then, whoever is constrained by dire necessity (and driven to what is forbidden), without purposely inclining to sin – surely God is All-Forgiving, All-Compassionate.

10 Amatul Rahman Omar

You are forbidden (to take for food) an animal which dies of itself (a carrion), and the blood (poured forth), also the flesh of swine, and that which is immolated in the name of anyone other than Allâh, and that which has been strangled, and that which has been beaten to death, and that which has been killed by a fall, and that which has been gored to death, and that of which a wild beast has eaten, except what you have duly slaughtered (before its expiry). And (also forbidden to you is) that which has been slaughtered at altars (set up for false deities), and (you are also not permitted) that you seek to know your lot by the divining arrows. These are all acts of disobedience. This day have those who disbelieve despaired of (harming) your Faith. So do not hold them in awe but stand in awe of Me. This day have I perfected for you your faith and completed My blessings upon you and have chosen Islam for your religion (so abide by all these limits imposed upon you with regard to taking your food); but he who is forced by extreme hunger without being wilfully inclined to sin then, surely (he will find that) Allâh is Great Protector, Ever Merciful.

11 English Literal

Forbidden on you is the animal whose death was caused by suffocation or strangulation, and the blood, and the pig`s/swine`s flesh/meat, and what was declared/praised the name of whom the sacrifice was made for to other than God with it, and the strangled/choked to death, and the beaten to death/dead due to sickness, and the fallen/destroyed/perished (to death), and the animal whose death was caused by another`s horns , and what the beast or bird of prey ate (from), except what you slaughtered, and what was slaughtered on the slaughter places, and that you seek oath with the featherless arrows , that (is) debauchery ; today those who disbelieved despair from your religion, so do not fear them, and fear Me, today I completed for you your religion, and I completed on you My blessing , and I accepted/approved for you the Islam (as) a religion, so who was forced in hunger, not deviating from righteousness/justice to a sin/crime, so that God was/is forgiving, merciful.

12 Faridul Haque

Forbidden for you are carrion, and blood, and flesh of swine, and that which has been slaughtered while proclaiming the name of any other than Allah, and one killed by strangling, and one killed with blunt weapons, and one which died by falling, and that which was gored by the horns of some animal, and one eaten by a wild beast, except those whom you slaughter; and (also forbidden is) that which is slaughtered at the altar (of idols) and that which is distributed by the throwing of arrows (as an omen); this is an act of sin; this day, the disbelievers are in despair concerning your religion, so do not fear them and fear Me; this day have I perfected your religion for you * and completed My favour upon you, and have chosen Islam as your religion; so whoever is forced by intense hunger and thirst and does not incline towards sin, then indeed Allah is Oft Forgiving, Most Merciful. (* Prophet Mohammed – peace and blessings be upon him – is the Last Prophet.)

13 Hamid S. Aziz

They will ask you what is lawful for them? Say, "Lawful for you are all good things. And what you have trained hunting animals to catch, in the manner directed by Allah; - so eat of what they catch for you, but mention the name of Allah over it, and fear Allah, for verily, Allah is swift in taking account."

14 Hilali & Khan

Forbidden to you (for food) are: Al-Maytatah (the dead animals - cattle-beast not slaughtered), blood, the flesh of swine, and the meat of that which has been slaughtered as a sacrifice for others than Allah, or has been slaughtered for idols, etc., or on which Allah's Name has not been mentioned while slaughtering, and that which has been killed by strangling, or by a violent blow, or by a headlong fall, or by the goring of horns - and that which has been (partly) eaten by a wild animal - unless you are able to slaughter it (before its death) - and that which is sacrificed (slaughtered) on An-Nusub (stone altars). (Forbidden) also is to use arrows seeking luck or decision, (all) that is Fisqun (disobedience of Allah and sin). This day, those who disbelieved have given up all hope of your religion, so fear them not, but fear Me. This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My Favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion. But as for him who is forced by severe hunger, with no inclination to sin (such can eat these above-mentioned meats), then surely, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

15 Maulana Mohammad Ali

O you who believe, violate not the signs of Allah, nor the Sacred Month, nor the offerings, nor the victims with garlands, nor those repairing to the Sacred House seeking the grace and pleasure of their Lord. And when you are free from pilgrimage obligations, then hunt. And let not hatred of a people -- because they hindered you from the Sacred Mosque -- incite you to transgress. And help one another in righteousness and piety, and help not one another in sin and aggression, and keep your duty to Allah. Surely Allah is severe in requiting (evil).

16 Mohammad Habib Shakir

Forbidden to you is that which dies of itself, and blood, and flesh of swine, and that on which any other name than that of Allah has been invoked, and the strangled (animal) and that beaten to death, and that killed by a fall and that killed by being smitten with the horn, and that which wild beasts have eaten, except what you slaughter, and what is sacrificed on stones set up (for idols) and that you divide by the arrows; that is a transgression. This day have those who disbelieve despaired of your religion, so fear them not, and fear Me. This day have I perfected for you your religion and completed My favor on you and chosen for you Islam as a religion; but whoever is compelled by hunger, not inclining willfully to sin, then surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

17 Mohammed Marmaduke William Pickthall

Forbidden unto you (for food) are carrion and blood and swineflesh, and that which hath been dedicated unto any other than Allah, and the strangled, and the dead through beating, and the dead through falling from a height, and that which hath been killed by (the goring of) horns, and the devoured of wild beasts, saving that which ye make lawful (by the death-stroke), and that which hath been immolated unto idols. And (forbidden is it) that ye swear by the divining arrows. This is an abomination. This day are those who disbelieve in despair of (ever harming) your religion; so fear them not, fear Me! This day have I perfected your religion for you and completed My favour unto you, and have chosen for you as religion al-Islam. Whoso is forced by hunger, not by will, to sin: (for him) lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

18 Muhammad Sarwar

It is unlawful for you to consume the following as food: an animal that has not been properly slaughtered, blood, pork, an animal slaughtered and consecrated in the name of someone other than God, an animal killed by strangulation or a violent blow, an animal killed by falling down, an animal which has been gored to death, an animal partly eaten by a wild beast before being properly slaughtered, an animal which has been sacrificed on the stone blocks (which pagans worshipped), and any flesh divided by casting superstitious and gambling arrows (a pagan tradition), which is a sin. Today, the unbelievers have lost hope about your religion. Do not be afraid of them but have fear of Me. On this day I have perfected your religion, completed My favors to you, and have chosen Islam as your religion. If anyone not (normally) inclined to sin is forced by hunger to eat unlawful substances instead of proper food, he may do so to spare his life. God is All-forgiving and All-merciful.

19 Qaribullah & Darwish

You are forbidden (to consume) the dead, blood and the flesh of swine; also flesh dedicated to any other than Allah, the flesh of strangled (animals) and of those beaten, that which is killed by falling, gored to death, mangled by beasts of prey, unless you find it (still alive) and slaughter it; also of animals sacrificed on stones (to idols). (You are forbidden) to seek division by the arrows, that is debauchery. Those who disbelieve have this day despaired of your religion. Do not fear them, but fear Me. This day I have perfected your religion for you and completed My favor to you. I have approved Islam to be your religion. (As for) he who does not intend to commit a sin but is constrained by hunger to eat of what is forbidden, then surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

20 Safi-ur-Rahman al-Mubarakpuri

Forbidden to you (for food) are: Al-Maytah (the dead animals), blood, the flesh of swine, and that which has been slaughtered as a sacrifice for other than Allah, and that which has been killed by strangling, or by a violent blow, or by a headlong fall, or by the goring of horns ـand that which has been (partly) eaten by a wild animal ـunless you are able to slaughter it (before its death) - and that which is sacrificed (slaughtered) on An-Nusub (stone altars). (Forbidden) also is to make decisions with Al-Azlam (arrows) (all) that is Fisq (disobedience and sin). This day, those who disbelieved have given up all hope of your religion; so fear them not, but fear Me. This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favor upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion. But as for him who is forced by severe hunger, with no inclination to sin (such can eat these above mentioned animals), then surely, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

21 Wahiduddin Khan

You are forbidden carrion, blood and pork; and any flesh over which the name of any other than God is invoked; and any creature which has been strangled, or killed by a blow or in a fall, or has been gored to death or half-eaten by a wild animal, saving that which you make lawful [by slaughtering properly while it was still alive] and what has been slaughtered at an altar. You are forbidden to make the division of [meat] by means of divining arrows: that is sinful conduct. Those who deny the truth have this day despaired of ever harming your religion. So do not fear them. Fear Me. Today I have completed your religion for you and completed My blessing upon you. I have chosen for you Islam as your religion. But if anyone is forced by hunger to eat something which is forbidden, not intending to commit a sin, he will find God forgiving and merciful.

22 Talal Itani

Prohibited for you are carrion, blood, the flesh of swine, and animals dedicated to other than God; also the flesh of animals strangled, killed violently, killed by a fall, gored to death, mangled by wild animals—except what you rescue, and animals sacrificed on altars; and the practice of drawing lots. For it is immoral. Today, those who disbelieve have despaired of your religion, so do not fear them, but fear Me. Today I have perfected your religion for you, and have completed My favor upon you, and have approved Islam as a religion for you. But whoever is compelled by hunger, with no intent of wrongdoing—God is Forgiving and Merciful.

23 Tafsir jalalayn

Forbidden to you is carrion, that is, the consumption of it, and blood, that is, what has been spilt, as mentioned in [srat] al-An`m [Q. 6;145], and the flesh of swine, and what has been hallowed to other than God, in that it was sacrificed in the name of something other than Him, and the beast strangled, to death, and the beast beaten down, to death, and the beast fallen, from a height to its death, and the beast gored, to death by another, and what beasts of prey have devoured, of such animals -- except for what you have sacrificed duly, catching it while it still breathes life and then sacrificing it -- and what has been sacrificed in, the name of, idols (nusub is the plural of nusb) and that you apportion, that is, that you demand an oath or a ruling, through the divining of arrows (azlm; the plural of zalam or zulam, which is a qidh, `a small arrow', without feathers or a head). There were seven of these [arrows], [marked] with flags, and they were retained by the keeper of the Ka`ba. They would use them for abitrations and when they commanded them they obeyed, and if they prohibited them they would desist; that is wickedness, a rebellion against obedience. And on the Day of `Arafa in the year of the Farewell Pilgrimage, the following was revealed; Today the disbelievers have despaired of your religion, of you apostatising from it, having hoped for it [earlier], for now they perceived its strength; therefore do not fear them, but fear Me. Today I have perfected your religion for you, that is, its rulings and obligations (after this [verse] nothing about [what is] lawful or unlawful was revealed) and I have completed My favour upon you, by perfecting it [your religion], but it is also said by [effecting] their safe entry into Mecca; and I have approved, chosen, Islam for you as religion. But whoever is constrained by emptiness, by hunger, to consume some of what has been forbidden him and consumes it, not inclining purposely to sin, to an act of disobedience -- then God is Forgiving, to him for what he has consumed, Merciful, to him by permitting it to him, in contrast to the one who [purposely] inclines to sin, that is, the one actively engaged in it, such as a waylayer or a criminal, for whom [such] consumption is forbidden.

24 Tafseer Ibn Kathir

The Animals that are Unlawful to Eat

Allah says;

حُرِّمَتْ عَلَيْكُمُ الْمَيْتَةُ

Forbidden to you (for food) are;Al-Maytah (the dead animals), blood,

Allah informs His servants that He forbids consuming the mentioned types of foods, such as the Maytah, which is the animal that dies before being properly slaughtered or hunted. Allah forbids this type of food due to the harm it causes, because of the blood that becomes clogged in the veins of the dead animal. Therefore, the Maytah is harmful, religiously and physically, and this is why Allah has prohibited it.

The only exception to this ruling is fish, for fish is allowed, even when dead, by slaughtering or otherwise.

Malik in his Muwatta, also Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah in their Sunan, Ibn Khuzaymah and Ibn Hibban in their Sahihs, all recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah was asked about seawater.

He said,

هُوَ الطَّهُورُ مَاوُهُ الْحِلُّ مَيْتَتُه

Its water is pure and its dead are permissible.

The same ruling applies to locusts, as proven in a Hadith that we will mention later.

Allah's statement,

وَالْدَّمُ

blood...,

This refers to flowing blood, according to Ibn Abbas and Sa`id bin Jubayr, and it is similar to Allah's other statement,
دَمًا مَّسْفُوحًا
(Blood poured forth...). (6;145)

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn Abbas was asked about the spleen and he said,

"Eat it."

They said, "It is blood."

He said, "You are only prohibited blood that was poured forth."

Abu Abdullah, Muhammad bin Idris Ash-Shafii recorded that Ibn Umar said that the Messenger of Allah said,

أُحِلَّ لَنَا مَيْتَتَانِ وَدَمَانِ

فَأَمَّا الْمَيْتَتَانِ فَالسَّمَكُ وَالْجَرَادُ

وَأَمَّا الدَّمَانِ فَالْكَبِدُ وَالِّطَحال

We were allowed two dead animals and two (kinds of) blood.

As for the two dead animals, they are fish and locust.

As for the two bloods, they are liver and spleen.

Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal, Ibn Majah, Ad-Daraqutni and Al-Bayhaqi also recorded this Hadith through Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam, who is a weak narrator.

Allah's statement,

وَلَحْمُ الْخِنْزِيرِ

the flesh of swine...

includes domesticated and wild swine, and also refers to the whole animal, including its fat, for this is what the Arabs mean by Lahm or `flesh'.

Muslim recorded that Buraydah bin Al-Husayb Al-Aslami said that the Messenger of Allah said,

مَنْ لَعِبَ بِالنَّرْدَشِيرِ فَكَأَنَّمَا صَبَغَ يَدَهُ فِي لَحْمِ الْخِنْزِيرِ وَدَمِه

He who plays Nardshir (a game with dice that involves gambling) is just like the one who puts his hand in the flesh and blood of swine.

If this is the case with merely touching the flesh and blood of swine, so what about eating and feeding on it! This Hadith is a proof that Lahm means the entire body of the animal, including its fat.

It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that the Messenger of Allah said,

إِنَّ اللهَ حَرَّمَ بَيْعَ الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْتَةِ وَالْخِنْزِيرِ وَالاَْصْنَام

Allah made the trade of alcohol, dead animals, pigs and idols illegal.

The people asked, "O Allah's Messenger! What about the fat of dead animals, for it was used for greasing the boats and the hides; and people use it for lanterns?"

He said,

لَاا هُوَ حَرَام

No, it is illegal.

In the Sahih of Al-Bukhari, Abu Sufyan narrated that he said to Heraclius, Emperor of Rome,

"He (Muhammad) prohibited us from eating dead animals and blood."

Allah said,

وَمَا أُهِلَّ لِغَيْرِ اللّهِ بِهِ

And that which has been slaughtered as a sacrifice for other than Allah.

Therefore, the animals on which a name other than Allah was mentioned upon slaughtering it, is impermissible, because Allah made it necessary to mention His Glorious Name upon slaughtering the animals, which He created. Whoever does not do so, mentioning other than Allah's Name, such as the name of an idol, a false deity or a monument, when slaughtering, he makes this meat unlawful, according to the consensus.

Allah's statement,

وَالْمُنْخَنِقَةُ

and that which has been killed by strangling...,

either intentionally or by mistake, such as when an animal moves while restrained and dies by strangulation because of its struggling, this animal is also unlawful to eat.

وَالْمَوْقُوذَةُ

or by a violent blow...,

This refers to the animal that is hit with a heavy object until it dies.

Ibn Abbas and several others said;

it is the animal that is hit with a staff until it dies.

Qatadah said,

"The people of Jahiliyyah used to strike the animal with sticks and when it died, they would eat it."

It is recorded in the Sahih that `Adi bin Hatim said,

"I asked, `O Allah's Messenger! I use the Mi`rad for hunting and catch game with it.' He replied,

إِذَا رَمَيْتَ بِالْمِعْرَاضِ فَخَزَق فَكُلْهُ وَإِنْ أصَابَ بَعَرْضِهِ فَإنَّمَا هُوَ وَقِيذٌ فَلَ تَأْكُلْه

If the game is hit by its sharp edge, eat it. But, if it is hit by its broad side, do not eat it, for it has been beaten to death.

Therefore, the Prophet made a distinction between killing the animal with the sharp edge of an arrow or a hunting stick, and rendered it lawful, and what is killed by the broad side of an object, and rendered it unlawful because it was beaten to death.

There is a consensus among the scholars of Fiqh on this subject.

وَالْمُتَرَدِّيَةُ

or by a headlong fall,

the animal that falls headlong from a high place and dies as a result, it is also prohibited.

Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas said that;

an animal that dies by a headlong fall, "Is that which falls from a mountain."

Qatadah said that;

it is the animal that falls in a well.

As-Suddi said that;

it is the animal that falls from a mountain or in a well.

وَالنَّطِيحَةُ

or by the goring of horns,

the animal that dies by being gorged by another animal, it is also prohibited, even if the horn opens a flesh wound and it bleeds to death from its neck.

Allah's statement,

وَمَا أَكَلَ السَّبُعُ

and that which has been (partly) eaten by a wild animal,

refers to the animal that was attacked by a lion, leopard, tiger, wolf or dog, then the wild beast eats a part of it and it dies because of that. This type is also prohibited, even if the animal bled to death from its neck. There is also a consensus on this ruling.

During the time of Jahiliyyah, the people used to eat the sheep, camel, or cow that were partly eaten by a wild animal. Allah prohibited this practice for the believers.

Allah's statement,

إِلاَّ مَا ذَكَّيْتُمْ

unless you are able to slaughter it,

before it dies, due to the causes mentioned above. This part of the Ayah is connected to,

وَالْمُنْخَنِقَةُ وَالْمَوْقُوذَةُ وَالْمُتَرَدِّيَةُ وَالنَّطِيحَةُ وَمَا أَكَلَ السَّبُعُ

and that which has been killed by strangling, or by a violent blow, or by a headlong fall, or by the goring of horns - and that which has been (partly) eaten by a wild animal.

Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas commented on Allah's statement,
إِلاَّ مَا ذَكَّيْتُمْ
(unless you are able to slaughter it),

"Unless you are able to slaughter the animal in the cases mentioned in the Ayah while it is still alive, then eat it, for it was properly slaughtered."

Similar was reported from Sa`id bin Jubayr, Al-Hasan Al-Basri and As-Suddi.

Ibn Jarir recorded that Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, said,

"If you are able to slaughter the animal that has been hit by a violent blow, or by a headlong fall, or by the gorging of horns while it still moves a foot or a leg, then eat from its meat."

Similar was reported from Tawus, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ubayd bin Umayr, Ad-Dahhak and several others, that;

if the animal that is being slaughtered still moves, thus demonstrating that it is still alive while slaughtering, then it is lawful.

The Two Sahihs recorded that Rafi` bin Khadij said,

"I asked, `O Allah's Messenger! We fear that we may meet our enemy tomorrow and we have no knives, could we slaughter the animals with reeds?'

The Prophet said,

مَا أَنْهَرَ الدَّمَ وَذُكِرَ اسْمُ اللهِ عَلَيْهِ فَكُلُوهُ لَيْسَ السِّنَّ وَالظُّفُرَ وَسَأُحَدِّثُكُمْ عَنْ ذلِكَ أَمَّا السِّنُّ فَعَظْمٌ وَأَمَّا الظُّفُرُ فَمُدَى الْحَبَشَة

You can use what makes blood flow and you can eat what is slaughtered with the Name of Allah. But do not use teeth or claws (in slaughtering). I will tell you why, as for teeth, they are bones, and claws are used by Ethiopians for slaughtering."

Allah said next,

وَمَا ذُبِحَ عَلَى النُّصُبِ

and that which is sacrificed on An-Nusub.
Nusub were stone altars that were erected around the Ka`bah, as Mujahid and Ibn Jurayj stated.

Ibn Jurayj said,

"There were three hundred and sixty Nusub (around the Ka`bah) that the Arabs used to slaughter in front of, during the time of Jahiliyyah. They used to sprinkle the animals that came to the Ka`bah with the blood of slaughtered animals, whose meat they cut to pieces and placed on the altars."

Allah forbade this practice for the believers. He also forbade them from eating the meat of animals that were slaughtered in the vicinity of the Nusub, even if Allah's Name was mentioned on these animals when they were slaughtered, because it is a type of Shirk that Allah and His Messenger have forbidden.
The Prohibition of Using Al-Azlam for Decision Making

Allah said,

وَأَن تَسْتَقْسِمُواْ بِالَازْلَامِ

(Forbidden) also is to make decisions with Al-Azlam,

The Ayah commands, "O believers! You are forbidden to use Al-Azlam (arrows) for decision making," which was a practice of the Arabs during the time of Jahiliyyah.

They would use three arrows, one with the word `Do' written on it, another that says `Do not', while the third does not say anything. Some of them would write on the first arrow, `My Lord commanded me,' and, `My Lord forbade me,' on the second arrow and they would not write anything on the third arrow. If the blank arrow was picked, the person would keep trying until the arrow that says do or do not was picked, and the person would implement the command that he picked.

Ibn Abbas said that;

the Azlam were arrows that they used to seek decisions through.

Muhammad bin Ishaq and others said that;

the major idol of the tribe of Quraysh was Hubal, which was erected on the tip of a well inside the Ka`bah, where gifts were presented and where the treasure of the Ka`bah was kept. There, they also had seven arrows that they would use to seek a decision concerning matters of dispute. Whatever the chosen arrow would tell them, they would abide by it!

Al-Bukhari recorded that;

when the Prophet entered Al-Ka`bah (after Makkah was conquered), he found pictures of Ibrahim and Ismail in it holding the Azlam in their hands. The Prophet commented,

قَاتَلَهُمُ اللهُ لَقَدْ عَلِمُوا أَنَّهُمَا لَمْ يَسْتَقْسِمَا بِهَا أَبَدًا

May Allah fight them (the idolaters)! They know that they never used the Azlam to make decisions.

Mujahid commented on Allah's statement,
وَأَن تَسْتَقْسِمُواْ بِالَازْلَامِ
((Forbidden) also is to make decisions with Al-Azlam),

"These were arrows that the Arabs used, and dice that the Persians and Romans used in gambling."

This statement by Mujahid, that these arrows were used in gambling, is doubtful unless we say that they used the arrows for gambling sometimes and for decisions other times, and Allah knows best.

We should also state that Allah mentioned Azlam and gambling in His statement before the end of the Surah (5;90-91),

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ امَنُواْ إِنَّمَا الْخَمْرُ وَالْمَيْسِرُ وَالَانصَابُ وَالَازْلَامُ رِجْسٌ مِّنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطَانِ فَاجْتَنِبُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ


إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَن يُوقِعَ بَيْنَكُمُ الْعَدَاوَةَ وَالْبَغْضَاء فِي الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ وَيَصُدَّكُمْ عَن ذِكْرِ اللّهِ وَعَنِ الصَّلَةِ فَهَلْ أَنتُم مُّنتَهُونَ


O you who believe! Intoxicants (all kinds of alcoholic drinks), and gambling, and Al-Ansab, and Al-Azlam are an abomination of Shaytan's handiwork. So avoid that in order that you may be successful. Shaytan wants only to excite enmity and hatred between you with intoxicants (alcoholic drinks) and gambling, and hinder you from the remembrance of Allah and from the Salah (the prayer). So, will you not then abstain!

In this Ayah, Allah said,

وَأَن تَسْتَقْسِمُواْ بِالَازْلَامِ

ذَلِكُمْ فِسْقٌ

(Forbidden) also is to make decisions with Al-Azlam, (all) that is Fisq.

meaning, all these practices constitute disobedience, sin, misguidance, ignorance and, above all, Shirk. Allah has commanded the believers to seek decisions from Him when they want to do something, by first worshipping Him and then asking Him for the best decision concerning the matter they seek.

Imam Ahmad, Al-Bukhari and the collectors of Sunan recorded that Jabir bin Abdullah said,

"The Prophet used to teach us how to make Istikharah (asking Allah to guide one to the right action), in all matters, as he taught us the Surahs of the Qur'an. He said,

إِذَا هَمَّ أَحَدُكُمْ بِالاَْمْرِ فَلْيَرْكَعْ رَكْعَتَيْنِ مِنْ غَيْرِ الْفَرِيضَةِ ثُمَّ لْيَقُلْ


If anyone of you thinks of doing any matter, he should offer a two Rak'ah prayer, other than the compulsory, and say (after the prayer)

اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْتَخِيرُكَ بِعِلْمِكَ وَأَسْتَقْدِرُكَ بِقُدْرَتِكَ وَأَسْأَلُكَ مِنْ فَضْلِكَ الْعَظِيمِ فَإِنَّكَ تَقْدِرُ وَلَا أَقْدِرُ وَتَعْلَمُ وَلَا أَعْلَمُ وَأَنْتَ عَلَّمُ الْغُيُوبِ


`O Allah! I ask guidance from Your knowledge, from Your ability and I ask for Your great bounty, for You are capable and I am not, You know and I do not, and You know the Unseen.

اللَّهُمَّ إِنْ كُنْتَ تَعْلَمُ أَنَّ هَذَا الاَْمُرَ ويسميه باسمه خَيْرٌ لِي فِي دِينِي وَدُنْيَايَ وَمَعَاشِي وعَاقِبَةِ أَمْرِي أَوْ قَالَ عَاجِلِ أَمْرِي وَاجِلِهِ فَاقْدُرْهُ لِي وَيَسِّرْهُ لِي ثُمَّ بَارِكْ لِي فِيهِ


O Allah! If You know that this matter (and one should mention the matter or deed here) is good for my religion, my livelihood and the Hereafter (or he said, `for my present and later needs') then ordain it for me, make it easy for me to have, and then bless it for me.

اللَّهُمَّ وَإِنْ كُنْتَ تَعْلَمُ أَنَّهُ شَرٌّ لِي فِي دِينِي وَدُنْيَايَ وَمَعَاشِي وَعَاقِبَةِ أَمْرِي فَاصْرِفْنِي عَنْهُ وَاصْرِفْهُ عَنِّي وَاقْدُرْ لِيَ الْخَيْرَ حَيْثُ كَانَ ثُمَّ رَضِّنِي بِه

O Allah! And if You know that this is harmful to me in my religion and livelihood and for the Hereafter then keep it away from me and let me be away from it. And ordain whatever is good for me, and make me satisfied with it.'

This is the wording collected by Ahmad, and At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih Gharib."
Shaytan and the Disbelievers Do Not Hope that Muslims Will Ever Follow Them

Allah said,

الْيَوْمَ يَيِسَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مِن دِينِكُمْ

This day, those who disbelieved have given up all hope of your religion;

Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas said that the Ayah means,

"They gave up hope that Muslims would revert to their religion."

This is similar to the saying of Ata bin Abi Rabah, As-Suddi and Muqatil bin Hayyan.

This meaning is supported by a Hadith recorded in the Sahih that states,

إِنَّ الشَّيْطَانَ قَدْ يَيِسَ أَنْ يَعْبُدَهُ الْمُصَلُّونَ فِي جَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِ وَلكِنْ بِالتَّحْرِيشِ بَيْنَهُم

Verily, Shaytan has given up hope that those who pray in the Arabian Peninsula, will worship him. But he will still stir trouble among them.

It is also possible that;

the Ayah negates the possibility that the disbelievers and Shaytan will ever be like Muslims, since Muslims have various qualities that contradict Shirk and its people. This is why Allah commanded His believing servants to observe patience, to be steadfast in defying and contradicting the disbelievers, and to fear none but Allah.

Allah said,

فَلَ تَخْشَوْهُمْ وَاخْشَوْنِ

So fear them not, but fear Me.

meaning, `do not fear them when you contradict them. Rather, fear Me and I will give you victory over them, I will eradicate them, and make you prevail over them, I will please your hearts and raise you above them in this life and the Hereafter.'
Islam Has Been Perfected For Muslims

Allah said,

الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الاِسْلَمَ دِينًا

This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favor upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion.

This, indeed, is the biggest favor from Allah to this Ummah, for He has completed their religion for them, and they, thus, do not need any other religion or any other Prophet except Muhammad. This is why Allah made Muhammad the Final Prophet and sent him to all humans and Jinn. Therefore, the permissible is what he allows, the impermissible is what he prohibits, the Law is what he legislates and everything that he conveys is true and authentic and does not contain lies or contradictions.

Allah said;
وَتَمَّتْ كَلِمَتُ رَبِّكَ صِدْقًا وَعَدْلاً
(And the Word of your Lord has been fulfilled in truth and in justice), (6;115) meaning, it is true in what it conveys and just in what it commands and forbids. When Allah completed the religion for Muslims, His favor became complete for them as well.

Allah said,

الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الاِسْلَمَ دِينًا

This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favor upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion.

meaning, accept Islam for yourselves, for it is the religion that Allah likes and which He chose for you, and it is that with which He sent the best of the honorable Messengers and the most glorious of His Books.

Ibn Jarir recorded that Harun bin Antarah said that his father said,

"When the Ayah,
الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ
(This day, I have perfected your religion for you...) was revealed, during the great day of Hajj (the Day of Arafah, the ninth day of Dhul-Hijjah) Umar cried.

The Prophet said, `What makes you cry?'

He said, `What made me cry is that our religion is being perfected for us. Now it is perfect, nothing is perfect, but it is bound to deteriorate.'

The Prophet said,
صَدَقْت
(You have said the truth)."

What supports the meaning of this Hadith is the authentic Hadith,

إِنَّ الاِْسْلَمَ بَدَأَ غَرِيبًا وَسَيَعُودُ غَرِيبًا فَطُوبَى لِلْغُرَبَاء

Islam was strange in its beginning and will return strange once more. Therefore, Tuba for the strangers.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Tariq bin Shihab said,

"A Jewish man said to Umar bin Al-Khattab, `O Leader of the Believers! There is a verse in your Book, which is read by all of you (Muslims), and had it been revealed to us, we would have taken that day (on which it was revealed) as a day of celebration.'

Umar bin Al-Khattab asked, `Which is that verse!'

The Jew replied,
الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي
(This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favor upon you...).

Umar replied, `By Allah! I know when and where this verse was revealed to Allah's Messenger. It was the evening on the Day of Arafah on a Friday."'

Al-Bukhari recorded this Hadith through Al-Hasan bin As-Sabbah from Jafar bin `Awn. Muslim, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa'i also recorded this Hadith.

In the narration collected by Al-Bukhari in the book of Tafsir, through Tariq, he said,

"The Jews said to Umar, `By Allah! There is a verse that is read by all of you (Muslims), and had it been revealed to us, we would have taken that day (on which it was revealed) as a day of celebration.'

Umar said, `By Allah! I know when and where this verse was revealed and where the Messenger of Allah was at that time. It was the day of Arafah, and I was at Arafah, by Allah."

Sufyan (one of the narrators) doubted if Friday was mentioned in this narration. Sufyan's confusion was either because he was unsure if his teacher included this statement in the Hadith or not. Otherwise, if it was because he doubted that the particular day during the Farewell Hajj was a Friday, it would be a mistake that could not and should not have come from someone like Sufyan Ath-Thawri.

The fact that it was a Friday, is agreed on by the scholars of Sirah and Fiqh. There are numerous Hadiths that support this fact that are definitely authentic and of the Mutawatir type. This Hadith was also reported from Umar through various chains of narration.
Permitting the Dead Animals in Conditions of Necessity

Allah said,

فَمَنِ اضْطُرَّ فِي مَخْمَصَةٍ غَيْرَ مُتَجَانِفٍ لاِِّثْمٍ فَإِنَّ اللّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ



But as for him who is forced by severe hunger, with no inclination to sin (such can eat these above mentioned animals), then surely, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

Therefore, when one is forced to take any of the impermissible things that Allah mentioned to meet a necessity, he is allowed and Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful with him. Allah is well aware of His servant's needs during dire straits, and He will forgive and pardon His servant in this case.

In the Musnad and the Sahih of Ibn Hibban, it is recorded that Ibn Umar said that Messenger of Allah said,

إنَّ اللهَ يُحِبُّ أَنْ تُوْتَى رُخْصَتُهُ كَمَا يَكْرَهُ أَنْ تُوْتَى مَعْصِيَتُه

Allah likes that His Rukhsah (allowance) be used, just as He dislikes that disobedience to Him is committed.

We should mention here that it is not necessary for one to wait three days before eating the meat of dead animals, as many unlettered Muslims mistakenly think. Rather, one can eat such meat when the dire need arises.

Imam Ahmad recorded that;

Abu Waqid Al-Laythi said that the Companions asked, "O Messenger of Allah! We live in a land where famine often strikes us. Therefore, when are we allowed to eat the meat of dead animals?"

The Prophet replied,

إِذَا لَمْ تَصْطَبِحُوا وَلَمْ تَغْتَبِقُوا وَلَمْ تَخْتَفِيُوا بَقْلً فَشَأْنُكُمْ بِهَا

When you neither find food for lunch and dinner nor have any produce to eat, then eat from it.

Only Imam Ahmad collected this narration and its chain meets the criteria of the Two Sahihs.

Allah said,
غَيْرَ مُتَجَانِفٍ لاِِّثْمٍ
(with no inclination to sin),

meaning, one does not incline to commit what Allah has prohibited. Allah has allowed one when necessity arises to eat from what He otherwise prohibits, under the condition that his heart does not incline to eat what Allah prohibited.

Allah said in Surah Al-Baqarah,

فَمَنِ اضْطُرَّ غَيْرَ بَاغٍ وَلَا عَادٍ فَل إِثْمَ عَلَيْهِ إِنَّ اللّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

But if one is forced by necessity without willful disobedience nor transgressing due limits, then there is no sin on him. Truly, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (2;173)

Some scholars used this Ayah as evidence that those who travel for the purpose of committing an act of disobedience are not allowed to use any of the legal concessions of travel, because these concessions are not earned through sin, and Allah knows best