Al-Baqarah Verse 197
اَلْحَجُّ اَشْهُرٌ مَّعْلُوْمٰتٌ ۚ فَمَنْ فَرَضَ فِيْهِنَّ الْحَجَّ فَلَا رَفَثَ وَلَا فُسُوْقَ وَلَا جِدَالَ فِى الْحَجِّ ۗ وَمَا تَفْعَلُوْا مِنْ خَيْرٍ يَّعْلَمْهُ اللّٰهُ ۗ وَتَزَوَّدُوْا فَاِنَّ خَيْرَ الزَّادِ التَّقْوٰىۖ وَاتَّقُوْنِ يٰٓاُولِى الْاَلْبَابِ ( البقرة: ١٩٧ )
Al-Hajju ashhurum ma'-loomaat; faman farada feeinnal hajja falaa rafasa wa laa fusooqa wa laa jidaala fil Hajj; wa maa taf'aloo min khairiny ya'lamhul laah; wa tazawwadoo fa inna khairaz zaadit taqwaa; wattaqooni yaaa ulil albaab (al-Baq̈arah 2:197)
Hajj is [during] well-known months, so whoever has made Hajj obligatory upon himself therein [by entering the state of ihram], there is [to be for him] no sexual relations and no disobedience and no disputing during Hajj. And whatever good you do – Allah knows it. And take provisions, but indeed, the best provision is fear of Allah. And fear Me, O you of understanding. (Al-Baqarah  : 197)
1 Mufti Taqi Usmani
The Hajj is (to be performed in) the months that are well-known. So whoever undertakes Hajj in them, there should be no obscenity, no sin, no quarrel in the Hajj. Whatever good you do, Allah will know it. Take provisions along, for the merit of (having) provision is to abstain (from begging), and fear Me, O men of understanding!
2 Dr. Mustafa Khattab, the Clear Quran
˹Commitment to˺ pilgrimage is made in appointed months.[[ Although pilgrimage is performed over the course of a few days in the 12th month of the Islamic calendar, the intention to perform pilgrimage can be made during the 10th, 11th, and the first half of the 12th months. ]] Whoever commits to ˹performing˺ pilgrimage, let them stay away from intimate relations, foul language, and arguments during pilgrimage. Whatever good you do, Allah ˹fully˺ knows of it. Take ˹necessary˺ provisions ˹for the journey˺—surely the best provision is righteousness. And be mindful of Me, O people of reason!
3 Ruwwad Translation Center
The pilgrimage is in known months. Whoever commits himself to perform the pilgrimage, there should be no intimacy, foul language, and arguments during pilgrimage. Whatever good you do, Allah is aware of it. And take provisions for the journey, but the best provision is righteousness. So fear Me, O people of understanding.
4 A. J. Arberry
The Pilgrimage is in months well-known; whoso undertakes the duty of Pilgrimage in them shall not go in to his womenfolk nor indulge in ungodliness and disputing in the Pilgrimage. Whatever good you do, God knows it. And take provision; but the best provision is godfearing, so fear you Me, men possessed of minds!
5 Abdul Haleem
The pilgrimage takes place during the prescribed months. There should be no indecent speech, misbehaviour, or quarrelling for anyone undertaking the pilgrimage- whatever good you do, God is well aware of it. Provide well for yourselves: the best provision is to be mindful of God- always be mindful of Me, you who have understanding-
6 Abdul Majid Daryabadi
The season of Pilgrimage is the months known; wherefore whosoever ordaineth unto himself the pilgrimage therein, there is no lewdness nor wickedness nor wrangling during the pilgrimage, and whatsoever of good ye do, Allah shall know it. And take provision for the journey, for verily the best provision is abstainment; and fear Me, O men of understanding!
7 Abdullah Yusuf Ali
For Hajj are the months well known. If any one undertakes that duty therein, Let there be no obscenity, nor wickedness, nor wrangling in the Hajj. And whatever good ye do, (be sure) Allah knoweth it. And take a provision (With you) for the journey, but the best of provisions is right conduct. So fear Me, o ye that are wise.
8 Abul Ala Maududi
The months for Hajj are well known to all; whoever makes up his mind to perform Hajj during these fixed months, let him totally abstain from all sorts of sexual indulgence, wickedness and wrangling during the Hajj and remember that Allah knows whatever good you do. Take necessary provisions for Hajj, and piety is the best of all provisions: so refrain from disobeying Me, O men of understanding!
9 Ahmed Ali
Known are the months of pilgrimage. If one resolves to perform the pilgrimage in these months, let him not indulge in concupiscence, sin or quarrel. And the good you do shall be known to God. Provide for the journey, and the best of provisions is piety. O men of understanding, obey Me.
10 Ahmed Raza Khan
The Hajj is during the well-known months; and for one who intends to perform the Hajj in it – neither is there to be mention of cohabitation in the presence of women, nor any sin, nor a fight with anyone till the completion of Hajj; and whatever good you do, Allah knows it; and take provision along with you for the best provision is piety; and keep fearing Me, O men of understanding!
11 Ali Quli Qarai
The hajj [season] is in months well-known; so whoever decides on hajj [pilgrimage] therein, [should know that] there is to be no sexual contact, vicious talk, or disputing during the hajj. And whatever good you do, Allah knows it. And take provision, for indeed the best provision is Godwariness. So be wary of Me, O you who possess intellects!
12 Ali Ünal
The Hajj is in the months well-known. Whoever undertakes the duty of Hajj in them, there is no sensual indulgence, nor wicked conduct, nor disputing during the Hajj. Whatever good you do (all that you are commanded and more than that, especially to help others), God knows it. Take your provisions for the Hajj (and do not be a burden upon others). In truth, the best provision is righteousness and piety, so be provided with righteousness and piety to guard against My punishment, O people of discernment!
13 Amatul Rahman Omar
The months of performing the Hajj are well Known; so whoever undertakes to perform the Hajj in them (should remember that) there is (to be) no obscenity, nor abusing, nor any wrangling during the (time of) Hajj. And whatever good you do Allâh knows it. And take provisions for yourselves. Surely, the good of taking provision is guarding (yourselves) against the evil (of committing sin and begging). Take Me alone as (your) shield, O people of pure and clear wisdom!
14 English Literal
The pilgrimage (are in) known months, so who made the pilgrimage a the duty/specified on himself in them (the four known months), so no obscenity/indecency (intercourse) , and no debauchery , and no arguing/disputing in the pilgrimage, and what you make/do from goodness/generosity , God knows (of) it, and be provided (prepared), so that (the) provision`s best (is) the fear and obedience, and fear and obey Me, you (owners) of the pure minds/hearts .
15 Faridul Haque
The Hajj is during the well-known months; and for one who intends to perform the Hajj in it - neither is there to be mention of cohabitation in the presence of women, nor any sin, nor a fight with anyone till the completion of Hajj; and whatever good you do, Allah knows it; and take provision along with you for the best provision is piety; and keep fearing Me, O men of understanding!
16 Hamid S. Aziz
The pilgrimage is (in) well-known months: whoever then makes it incumbent on himself (let him have neither) commerce with women, nor fornication, nor a quarrel on the pilgrimage; and whatsoever of good you do, Allah knows it; then provide yourself for your journey; but the best provision is piety. Fear you Me you who possess understanding.
17 Hilali & Khan
The Hajj (pilgrimage) is (in) the well-known (lunar year) months (i.e. the 10th month, the 11th month and the first ten days of the 12th month of the Islamic calendar, i.e. two months and ten days). So whosoever intends to perform Hajj therein by assuming Ihram), then he should not have sexual relations (with his wife), nor commit sin, nor dispute unjustly during the Hajj. And whatever good you do, (be sure) Allah knows it. And take a provision (with you) for the journey, but the best provision is At-Taqwa (piety, righteousness, etc.). So fear Me, O men of understanding!
18 Maulana Mohammad Ali
The months of the pilgrimage are well known; so whoever determines to perform pilgrimage therein there shall be no immodest speech, nor abusing, nor altercation in the pilgrimage. And whatever good you do, Allah knows it. And make provision for yourselves, the best provision being to keep one´s duty. And keep your duty to me, O men of understanding.
19 Mohammad Habib Shakir
The pilgrimage is (performed in) the well-known months; so whoever determines the performance of the pilgrimage therein, there shall be no intercourse nor fornication nor quarrelling amongst one another; and whatever good you do, Allah knows it; and make provision, for surely the provision is the guarding of oneself, and be careful (of your duty) to Me, O men of understanding.
20 Mohammed Marmaduke William Pickthall
The pilgrimage is (in) the well-known months, and whoever is minded to perform the pilgrimage therein (let him remember that) there is (to be) no lewdness nor abuse nor angry conversation on the pilgrimage. And whatsoever good ye do Allah knoweth it. So make provision for yourselves (Hereafter); for the best provision is to ward off evil. Therefore keep your duty unto Me, O men of understanding.
21 Muhammad Sarwar
The months of the hajj (pilgrimage) season are well known. Whoever undertakes to complete the hajj rituals, must know that, after commencing the acts of Hajj, he is not allowed to have carnal relations or to lie or to swear by the Name of God. God knows all your good deeds. Supply yourselves for the journey. The best supply is piety. People of understanding have fear of Me.
22 Qaribullah & Darwish
The pilgrimage is in the appointed months. (For) whosoever undertakes the pilgrimage there is no approaching (women), neither transgression nor disputing in the pilgrimage. Allah is Aware of whatever good you do. Provide well for yourselves, the best provision is piety. Fear Me, O owners of minds.
23 Safi-ur-Rahman al-Mubarakpuri
The Hajj (pilgrimage) is (in) the well-known months. So whosoever intends to perform Hajj therein (by assuming Ihram), then he should not have sexual relations (with his wife), nor commit sin, nor dispute unjustly during the Hajj. And whatever good you do, Allah knows it. And take provisions for the journey, but the best provision is At-Taqwa (piety, righteousness). So fear Me, O men of understanding!
24 Wahiduddin Khan
The pilgrimage is in the appointed months. Whoever intends to perform it during them must abstain from indecent speech, from all wicked conduct, and from quarrelling while on the pilgrimage. Whatever good you may do, God is aware of it. Make provision for yourselves -- but surely, the best of all provision is God-consciousness. Always be mindful of Me, you that are endowed with understanding.
25 Talal Itani
The Hajj is during specific months. Whoever decides to perform the Hajj—there shall be no sexual relations, nor misconduct, nor quarrelling during the Hajj. And whatever good you do, God knows it. And take provisions, but the best provision is righteousness. And be mindful of Me, O people of understanding.
26 Tafsir jalalayn
The Pilgrimage, the time for it, is in months well-known; Shawwl, Dh'l-Qa'da and ten nights, some say all, of Dh'l Hijja; whoever undertakes, upon himself, the duty of Pilgrimage during them, by entering into the state of pilgrimage inviolability, then no lewdness, [no] sexual intercourse for them, nor wickedness, [nor] acts of disobedience, or disputing, [or] quarrelling, in the Pilgrimage (a variant reading [for fa-l rafathun wa-l fusqun wa-l jidla] has the accusative for all three nouns [sc. fa-l rafatha wa-l fusqa wa-l jidla]; prohibition is meant in all three cases). Whatever good you do, by way of voluntary almsgiving, God knows it, and will reward you for it. And take provision, to suffice you your journey; this was revealed regarding the people of Yemen, who use to make the Pilgrimage and not take any provisions with them, thus, becoming a burden for others. But the best provision is piety [taqw, `piety', literally `guarding'] with which you are able to guard against asking others [for things]; and fear you Me, O people of pith!, [O] possessors of intellect.
27 Tafseer Ibn Kathir
When does Ihram for Hajj start
الْحَجُّ أَشْهُرٌ مَّعْلُومَاتٌ
The Hajj is (in) the well-known months.
This Ayah indicates that Ihram for Hajj only occurs during the months of Hajj. This was reported from Ibn Abbas, Jabir, Ata, Tawus and Mujahid.
The proof for this is Allah's statement that Hajj occurs during known, specific months, which indicates that Hajj is not allowed before that, just as the prayer has a fixed time (before which one's prayer is not accepted).
Ash-Shafii recorded that Ibn Abbas said,
"No person should assume Ihram for Hajj before the months of the Hajj, for Allah said;
الْحَجُّ أَشْهُرٌ مَّعْلُومَاتٌ
(The Hajj is (in) the well-known months).
Ibn Khuzaymah reported that Ibn Abbas said,
"No Ihram for Hajj should be assumed, except during the months of Hajj, for among the Sunnah of Hajj is that one assume Ihram for it during the Hajj months."
This is an authentic narration and the Companion's statement that such and such is among the Sunnah is considered as a Hadith of the Prophet, according to the majority of the scholars. This is especially the case when it is Ibn Abbas who issued this statement, as he is the Tarjuman (translator, interpreter, explainer) of the Qur'an.
There is a Hadith about this subject too.
Ibn Marduwyah related that Jabir narrated that the Prophet said;
لَاا يَنْبَغِي لاِاَحَدٍ أَنْ يُحْرِمَ بِالْحَجِّ إِلاَّ فِي أَشْهُرِ الْحَج
No one should assume Ihram for Hajj, but during the months of Hajj.
The chain of narrators for this Hadith is reasonable.
Ash-Shafii and Al-Bayhaqi recorded this Hadith from Ibn Jurayj who related that Abu Az-Zubayr said that he heard Jabir bin Abdullah being asked,
"Does one assume Ihram for Hajj before the months of the Hajj?"
He said, "No."
This narration is more reliable than the narration that we mentioned from the Prophet.
In short, this statement is the opinion of the Companion, supported by Ibn Abbas statement that it is a part of the Sunnah not to assume Ihram for Hajj before the months of the Hajj.
Allah knows best.
The Months of Hajj
the well-known months.
Al-Bukhari said that Ibn Umar said that;
these are Shawwal, Dhul-Qadah and the first ten days of Dhul-Hijjah.
This narration for which Al-Bukhari did not mention the chain of narrators, was collected by a continuous chain of narrators that Ibn Jarir rendered authentic, leading to Ibn Umar, who said;
الْحَجُّ أَشْهُرٌ مَّعْلُومَاتٌ
(The Hajj (pilgrimage) is (in) the well-known (lunar year) months),
"which are Shawwal,Dhul-Qadah and the (first) ten days of Dhul-Hijjah."
Its chain is Sahih.
Al-Hakim also recorded it in his Mustadrak, and he said, "It meets the criteria of the Two Sheikhs."
This statement is also reported from Umar, Ali, Ibn Mas`ud, Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr, Ibn Abbas, Ata, Tawus, Mujahid, Ibrahim An-Nakhai, Imam Ash-Sha`bi, Al-Hasan, Ibn Sirin, Makhul, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak bin Muzahim, Ar-Rabi bin Anas and Muqatil bin Hayyan.
This opinion was preferred by Ibn Jarir who said,
"It is a common practice to call two months and a part of the third month as `months'. This is similar to the Arab's saying, `I visited such and such person this year or this day.' He only visited him during a part of the year and a part of the day.
فَمَن تَعَجَّلَ فِي يَوْمَيْنِ فَلَ إِثْمَ عَلَيْهِ
(But whosoever hastens to leave in two days, there is no sin on him), (2;203).
In this case, one will only be hastening for one and a half days."
Allah then said;
فَمَن فَرَضَ فِيهِنَّ الْحَجَّ
So whosoever intends (Farada) to perform Hajj therein (by assuming Ihram),
meaning that one's assuming the Ihram requires a Hajj, for the person is required to complete the rituals of Hajj after assuming Ihram.
Ibn Jarir said that Al-Awfi said,
"The scholars agree that (Farada) `intends' mentioned in the Ayah means it is a requirement and an obligation."
Ali bin Abu Talhah said that Ibn Abbas said;
فَمَن فَرَضَ فِيهِنَّ الْحَجَّ
(So whosoever intends to perform Hajj therein (by assuming Ihram)), refers to those who assume Ihram for Hajj and Umrah."
"'Intends', means, assumes the Ihram."
Similar statements were attributed to Ibrahim, Ad-Dahhak and others.
Prohibition of Rafath (Sexual Intercourse) during Hajj
He should not have Rafath,
This Ayah means that those who assume the Ihram for Hajj or Umrah are required to avoid the Rafath, meaning, sexual intercourse.
Allah's statement here is similar to His statement;
أُحِلَّ لَكُمْ لَيْلَةَ الصِّيَامِ الرَّفَثُ إِلَى نِسَأيِكُمْ
It is made lawful for you to have Rafath (sexual relations) with your wives on the night of the fast. (2;187)
Whatever might lead to sexual intercourse, such as embracing, kissing and talking to women about similar subjects, is not allowed.
Ibn Jarir reported that Nafi narrated that Abdullah bin Umar said,
"Rafath means sexual intercourse or mentioning this subject with the tongue, by either men or women."
Ata bin Abu Rabah said that,
Rafath means sexual intercourse and foul speech.
This is also the opinion of Amr bin Dinar.
Ata also said that they used to even prevent talking (or hinting) about this subject.
Tawus said that Rafath includes one's saying,
"When I end the Ihram I will have sex with you."
This is also the same explanation offered by Abu Al-Aliyah regarding Rafath.
Ali bin Abu Talhah said that Ibn Abbas said,
"Rafath means having sex with the wife, kissing, fondling and saying foul words to her, and similar acts."
Ibn Abbas and Ibn Umar said that;
Rafath means to have sex with women.
This is also the opinion of Sa`id bin Jubayr, Ikrimah, Mujahid, Ibrahim An-Nakhai, Abu Al-Aliyah who narrated it from Ata and Makhul, Ata Al-Khurasani, Ata' bin Yasar, Atiyah, Ibrahim, Ar-Rabi, Az-Zuhri, As-Suddi, Malik bin Anas, Muqatil bin Hayyan, Abdul-Karim bin Malik, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and Ad-Dahhak, and others.
The Prohibition of Fusuq during Hajj
nor commit sin,
Miqsam and several other scholars related that Ibn Abbas said,
"It is disobedience."
This is also the opinion of Ata, Mujahid, Tawus, Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Muhammad bin Ka`b, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ibrahim An-Nakhai, Az-Zuhri, Ar-Rabi bin Anas, Ata bin Yasar, Ata Al-Khurasani and Muqatil bin Hayyan.
Ibn Wahb reported that Nafi` narrated that Abdullah bin Umar said,
"Fusuq (or sin mentioned in the Ayah (2;197)) refers to committing what Allah has forbidden in the Sacred Area."
Several others said that;
Fusuq means cursing others, they based this on the authentic Hadith;
سِبَابُ الْمُسْلِمِ فُسُوقٌ وَقِتَالُهُ كُفْر
Cursing the Muslim is Fusuq, while fighting him is Kufr.
Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said;
Fusuq here means slaughtering animals for the idols, as Allah said;
أَوْ فِسْقًا أُهِلَّ لِغَيْرِ اللَّهِ بِهِ
or impious (Fisq) meat (of an animal) which is slaughtered as a sacrifice for others than Allah. (6;145)
Ad-Dahhak said that;
Fusuq is insulting one another with bad nicknames.
Those who said that the Fusuq means all types of disobedience are correct. Allah has also prohibited committing injustice during the months of Hajj in specific, although injustice is prohibited throughout the year. This is why Allah said;
مِنْهَأ أَرْبَعَةٌ حُرُمٌ ذلِكَ الدِّينُ الْقَيِّمُ فَلَ تَظْلِمُواْ فِيهِنَّ أَنفُسَكُمْ
of them four are sacred. That is the right religion, so wrong not yourselves therein. (9;36)
Allah said about the Sacred Area;
وَمَن يُرِدْ فِيهِ بِإِلْحَادٍ بِظُلْمٍ نُّذِقْهُ مِنْ عَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ
and whoever inclines to evil actions therein or to do wrong, him We shall cause to taste from a painful torment. (22;25)
It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that Abu Hurayrah narrated that Allah's Messenger said;
مَنْ حَجَّ هَذَا الْبَيْتَ فَلَمْ يَرْفُثْ وَلَمْ يَفْسُقْ خَرَجَ مِنْ ذُنُوبِهِ كَيَوْمَ وَلَدَتْهُ أُمُّه
Whoever performed Hajj to this (Sacred) House and did not commit Rafath or Fusuq, will return sinless, just as the day his mother gave birth to him.
The Prohibition of arguing during Hajj
وَلَا جِدَالَ فِي الْحَجِّ
nor should there be Jidal during Hajj,
meaning, disputes and arguments.
Ibn Jarir related that Abdullah bin Mas`ud said that;
what Allah said;
وَلَا جِدَالَ فِي الْحَجِّ
(...nor dispute unjustly during the Hajj) means to argue with your companion (or fellow) until you make him angry.
This is similar to the the opinion that Miqsam and Ad-Dahhak related to Ibn Abbas.
This is also the same meaning reported from Abu Al-Aliyah, Ata, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Ikrimah, Jabir bin Zayd, Ata Al-Khurasani, Makhul, As-Suddi, Muqatil bin Hayyan, Amr bin Dinar, Ad-Dahhak, Ar-Rabi bin Anas, Ibrahim An-Nakhai, Ata bin Yasar, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and Az-Zuhri.
The Encouragement for Righteous Deeds and to bring Provisions for Hajj
وَمَا تَفْعَلُواْ مِنْ خَيْرٍ يَعْلَمْهُ اللّهُ
And whatever good you do, Allah knows it.
After Allah prohibited evil in deed and tongue, He encouraged righteous, good deeds, stating that He is knowledgeable of the good that they do, and He will reward them with the best awards on the Day of Resurrection.
Allah said next;
وَتَزَوَّدُواْ فَإِنَّ خَيْرَ الزَّادِ التَّقْوَى
And take provisions (with you) for the journey, but the best provision is At-Taqwa (piety, righteousness).
Al-Bukhari and Abu Dawud reported that Ibn Abbas said,
"The people of Yemen used to go to Hajj without taking enough supplies with them. They used to say, `We are those who have Tawakkul (reliance on Allah).'
Allah revealed this Ayah;
وَتَزَوَّدُواْ فَإِنَّ خَيْرَ الزَّادِ التَّقْوَى
(And take provisions (with you) for the journey, but the best provision is At-Taqwa (piety, righteousness)).
Ibn Jarir and Ibn Marduwyah narrated that Ibn Umar said,
"When people assumed Ihram, they would throw away whatever provisions they had and would acquire other types of provisions. Allah revealed;
وَتَزَوَّدُواْ فَإِنَّ خَيْرَ الزَّادِ التَّقْوَى
(And take a provisions (with you) for the journey, but the best provision is At-Taqwa (piety, righteousness)).
Allah forbade them from this practice and required them to take flour and Sawiq (a type of food usually eaten with dates) with them."
The Provisions of the Hereafter
فَإِنَّ خَيْرَ الزَّادِ التَّقْوَى
but the best provision is At-Taqwa (piety, righteousness).
When Allah required mankind to supply themselves with what sustains them for the journeys of this life, He directed them to the necessary provisions for the Hereafter;Taqwa.
Allah said in another Ayah;
وَرِيشًا وَلِبَاسُ التَّقْوَى ذَلِكَ خَيْرٌ
and as an adornment; and the raiment of Taqwa, that is better. (7;26)
Allah mentioned the material covering and then He mentioned the spiritual covering, which includes humbleness, obedience and Taqwa. He also stated that the latter provision is better and more beneficial than the former.
وَاتَّقُونِ يَا أُوْلِي الَالْبَابِ
So fear Me, O men of understanding!
meaning;`Fear My torment, punishment, and affliction for those who defy Me and do not adhere to My commands, O people of reason and understanding.