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ARBNDEENIDTRUR
وَأَتِمُّوا۟
And complete
ٱلْحَجَّ
the Hajj
وَٱلْعُمْرَةَ
and the Umrah
لِلَّهِۚ
for Allah.
فَإِنْ
And if
أُحْصِرْتُمْ
you are held back
فَمَا
then (offer) whatever
ٱسْتَيْسَرَ
(can be) obtained with ease
مِنَ
of
ٱلْهَدْىِۖ
the sacrificial animal.
وَلَا
And (do) not
تَحْلِقُوا۟
shave
رُءُوسَكُمْ
your heads
حَتَّىٰ
until
يَبْلُغَ
reaches
ٱلْهَدْىُ
the sacrificial animal
مَحِلَّهُۥۚ
(to) its destination.
فَمَن
Then whoever
كَانَ
is
مِنكُم
among you
مَّرِيضًا
ill
أَوْ
or
بِهِۦٓ
he (has)
أَذًى
an ailment
مِّن
of
رَّأْسِهِۦ
his head
فَفِدْيَةٌ
then a ransom
مِّن
of
صِيَامٍ
fasting
أَوْ
or
صَدَقَةٍ
charity
أَوْ
or
نُسُكٍۚ
sacrifice.
فَإِذَآ
Then when
أَمِنتُمْ
you are secure
فَمَن
Then whoever
تَمَتَّعَ
took advantage
بِٱلْعُمْرَةِ
of the Umrah
إِلَى
followed
ٱلْحَجِّ
(by) the Hajj,
فَمَا
then (offer) whatever
ٱسْتَيْسَرَ
(can be) obtained with ease
مِنَ
of
ٱلْهَدْىِۚ
the sacrificial animal.
فَمَن
Then whoever
لَّمْ
(can) not
يَجِدْ
find -
فَصِيَامُ
then a fast
ثَلَٰثَةِ
(of) three
أَيَّامٍ
days
فِى
during
ٱلْحَجِّ
(by) the Hajj
وَسَبْعَةٍ
and seven (days)
إِذَا
when
رَجَعْتُمْۗ
you return.
تِلْكَ
This
عَشَرَةٌ
(is) ten (days)
كَامِلَةٌۗ
in all.
ذَٰلِكَ
That
لِمَن
(is) for (the one) whose,
لَّمْ
(can) not
يَكُنْ
is
أَهْلُهُۥ
his family
حَاضِرِى
present
ٱلْمَسْجِدِ
(near) Al-Masjid
ٱلْحَرَامِۚ
Al-Haraam.
وَٱتَّقُوا۟
And fear
ٱللَّهَ
Allah
وَٱعْلَمُوٓا۟
and know
أَنَّ
that
ٱللَّهَ
Allah
شَدِيدُ
(is) severe
ٱلْعِقَابِ
(in) retribution.

Wa atimmul Hajja wal Umarata lillaah; fain uhsirtum famas taisara minal hadyi walaa tahliqoo ru'oosakum hatta yablughal hadyu mahillah; faman kaana minkum mareedan aw biheee azam mir raasihee fafidyatum min Siyaamin aw sadaqatin aw nusuk; fa izaaa amintum faman tamatta'a bil 'Umrati ilal Hajji famastaisara minal hady; famal lam yajid fa Siyaamu salaasti ayyaamin fil Hajji wa sab'atin izaa raja'tum; tilka 'asharatun kaamilah; zaalika limal lam yakun ahluhoo haadiril Masjidil Haraam; wattaqul laaha wa'lamoo annal laaha shadeedul'iqaab

Sahih International:

And complete the Hajj and 'umrah for Allah. But if you are prevented, then [offer] what can be obtained with ease of sacrificial animals. And do not shave your heads until the sacrificial animal has reached its place of slaughter. And whoever among you is ill or has an ailment of the head [making shaving necessary must offer] a ransom of fasting [three days] or charity or sacrifice. And when you are secure, then whoever performs 'umrah [during the Hajj months] followed by Hajj [offers] what can be obtained with ease of sacrificial animals. And whoever cannot find [or afford such an animal] - then a fast of three days during Hajj and of seven when you have returned [home]. Those are ten complete [days]. This is for those whose family is not in the area of al-Masjid al-Haram. And fear Allah and know that Allah is severe in penalty.

Ahmed Ali

Perform the pilgrimage and holy visit ('Umra, to Makkah) in the service of God. But if you are prevented, send an offering which you can afford as sacrifice, and do not shave your heads until the offering has reached the place of sacrifice. But if you are sick or have ailment of the scalp (preventing the shaving of hair), then offer expiation by fasting or else giving alms or a sacrificial offering. When you have security, then those of you who wish to perform the holy visit along with the pilgrimage, should make a sacrifice according to their means. But he who has nothing, should fast for three days during the pilgrimage and seven on return, completing ten. This applies to him whose family does not live near the Holy Mosque. Have fear of God, and remember that God is severe in punishment.

Ahmed Raza Khan

And perform Hajj (greater pilgrimage) and Umrah (lesser pilgrimage) for Allah; and if you are prevented, send sacrifice whatever is available; and do not shave your heads until the sacrifice reaches its destination; so whoever among you is sick or has an ailment in the head, must pay a compensation by fasting or charity or sacrifice; then when you are in peace – and whoever takes the advantage of combining the Hajj and Umrah, it is compulsory for him to sacrifice whatever is available; and whoever cannot afford it, must fast for three days while on the pilgrimage, and seven when you have returned to your homes; these are ten in all; this decree is for him who is not a resident of Mecca; and keep fearing Allah and know well that Allah’s punishment is severe.

Ali Ünal

Complete the Hajj (the Major Pilgrimage) and the ‘Umrah (the Minor Pilgrimage) for God, and if you are impeded (after you have already put on the Pilgrimage attire), then send (to Makkah) a sacrificial offering you can afford. Do not shave your heads (to mark the end of the state of consecration for the Pilgrimage) until the offering has reached its destination and is sacrificed. However, if any of you is ill (so that he is obliged to leave the state of consecration) or has an ailment of the head, he must make redemption by fasting, or giving alms, or offering a sacrifice. When you are secure (when the Pilgrimage is not impeded, or the impediment is removed), then whoever takes advantage of the ‘Umrah before the Hajj, must give a sacrificial offering he can afford. For whoever cannot afford the offering, a fast for three days during the Hajj, and for seven days when you return home, that is, ten days in all. This is for those whose families do not live in the environs of the Sacred Mosque. Act in due reverence for God and piety (avoiding disobedience to Him and obeying His ordinances), and know that God is severe in retribution.

Amatul Rahman Omar

Accomplish the Hajj (- the Greater Pilgrimage to Makkah) and the `Umrah (- the minor pilgrimage) for the sake of Allâh. But if you are kept back, then (offer) whatever sacrifice is easily available, and do not shave your heads (as is prescribed for the Pilgrims) till the offering reaches its destination (in time, or place). And whosoever of you is sick and has an ailment of his head (necessitating shaving before time) then he should make an expiation either by fasting or alms-giving or by making a sacrifice. When you are in peaceful conditions then he, who would avail himself of the `Umrah (- a visit to the Ka`bah or a minor Hajj) together with the Hajj (- the Greater Pilgrimage and thus performs Tammattu`) should make whatever offering is easily available; and whosoever finds none (for an offering) should fast for three days during (the days of) the pilgrimage and (for) seven (days) when he returns (home) - these are ten complete (days of fasting in all). This is for him whose family does not reside near the Masjid al-Harâm (- the Holy Mosque at Makkah). Take Allâh as a shield, and know that Allâh is Severe in retribution (if you neglect your duties).

A. J. Arberry

Fulfil the Pilgrimage and the Visitation unto God; but if you are prevented, then such offering as may be feasible. And shave not your heads, till the offering reaches its place of sacrifice. If any of you is sick, or injured in his head, then redemption by fast, or freewill offering, or ritual sacrifice. When you are secure, then whosoever enjoys the Visitation until the Pilgrimage, let his offering be such as may be feasible; or if he finds none, then a fast of three days in the Pilgrimage, and of seven when you return, that is ten completely; that is for him whose family are not present at the Holy Mosque. And fear God, and know that God is terrible in retribution.

Abdul Majid Daryabadi

And fulfil the pilgrimage and 'Umra for Allah. And if ye be besieged, offer whatsoever offering be easy, and shave not Your heads, until the offering reacheth its destination. Then whosoever of you sick or hath hurt in his head, for him is a ransom by fasting or alms or a rite. Then when ye are secure, whosoever combinoth 'Umra with the pilgrimage, for him is whatsoever offering be easy. And whosoever cannot afford then for him is a fast of three days during the pilgrimage and of seven when ye return these are ten days complete. That is for him whose family dwell not near the Sacred Mosque. And fear Allah, and know that verily Allah is severe in chastising.

Faridul Haque

And perform Hajj (greater pilgrimage) and Umrah (lesser pilgrimage) for Allah; and if you are prevented, send sacrifice whatever is available; and do not shave your heads until the sacrifice reaches its destination; so whoever among you is sick or has an ailment in the head, must pay a compensation by fasting or charity or sacrifice; then when you are in peace - and whoever takes the advantage of combining the Hajj and Umrah, it is compulsory for him to sacrifice whatever is available; and whoever cannot afford it, must fast for three days while on the pilgrimage, and seven when you have returned to your homes; these are ten in all; this decree is for him who is not a resident of Mecca; and keep fearing Allah and know well that Allah’s punishment is severe.

Hamid S. Aziz

And fulfil the pilgrimage and the visitation to Allah; but if you be prevented (or besieged), then what is easiest for you by way of gift. But shave not your heads until your gift shall reach its destination; and he amongst you who is sick or has a hurt upon his head, then the redemption is by fasting or by alms or by an offering. But when you are safe again, then let him who would enjoy the visitation until the pilgrimage what is easiest (what he can afford) as a gift. And he who cannot afford it, then let him fast three days on the pilgrimage and seven when you return; these make ten days complete. That is, for him whose family are not present in the Sacred Mosque; and fear Allah and know that Allah is strict in punishment.

Hilali & Khan

And perform properly (i.e. all the ceremonies according to the ways of Prophet Muhammad SAW), the Hajj and 'Umrah (i.e. the pilgrimage to Makkah) for Allah. But if you are prevented (from completing them), sacrifice a Hady (animal, i.e. a sheep, a cow, or a camel, etc.) such as you can afford, and do not shave your heads until the Hady reaches the place of sacrifice. And whosoever of you is ill or has an ailment in his scalp (necessitating shaving), he must pay a Fidyah (ransom) of either observing Saum (fasts) (three days) or giving Sadaqah (charity - feeding six poor persons) or offering sacrifice (one sheep). Then if you are in safety and whosoever performs the 'Umrah in the months of Hajj, before (performing) the Hajj, (i.e. Hajj-at-Tamattu' and Al-Qiran), he must slaughter a Hady such as he can afford, but if he cannot afford it, he should observe Saum (fasts) three days during the Hajj and seven days after his return (to his home), making ten days in all. This is for him whose family is not present at Al-Masjid-al-Haram (i.e. non-resident of Makkah). And fear Allah much and know that Allah is Severe in punishment.

Talal Itani

And carry out the Hajj and the Umrah for God. But if you are prevented, then whatever is feasible of offerings. And do not shave your heads until the offering has reached its destination. Whoever of you is sick, or has an injury of the head, then redemption of fasting, or charity, or worship. When you are secure: whoever continues the Umrah until the Hajj, then whatever is feasible of offering. But if he lacks the means, then fasting for three days during the Hajj and seven when you have returned, making ten in all. This is for he whose household is not present at the Sacred Mosque. And remain conscious of God, and know that God is stern in retribution.

English Literal

And complete the pilgrimage and the visiting of God`s House in other than the four forbidden sacred months to God, so if you were restricted/surrounded , so what became easy/possible , from the offerings , and do not shave your heads until the offering reaches its place/destination, so who was from you sick/diseased, or with him mild harm from his head so a ransom/redemption from fasting , or charity, or rituals or methods of worship/offerings , so if you became safe/secure, so who enjoyed with the visiting of God`s House in other than the four forbidden/sacred months, to the pilgrimage, so what became easy/possible from the offering, so who does not find, so fasting three days in the pilgrimage, and seven(days) if you returned, that is ten complete (days), that (is) to whom his family was not present/attending, (at) the Mosque the Forbidden/Sacred, and fear and obey God, and know that God (is) strong (severe in) the punishment.

Abul Ala Maududi

When you make up your mind to perform Hajj and `Umrah, accomplish these to please Allah. But if you are hemmed in somewhere, then offer to Allah whatever sacrifice you can afford. And do not shave your heads until the sacrifice reaches its place. But whoever among you is sick or has an ailment of the head and has his head shaved shall atone for this either by fasting or by alms-giving or by offering a sacrifice However, when you are secure (and you reach Makkah before the Hajj season begins), whoever takes advantage of this opportunity to perform `Umrah shall offer the sacrifice that he can afford. But if he cannot afford a sacrifice, he shall fast three days during the Hajj season and seven days after reaching home, that is, ten days in all. This concession is only for those whose homes are not near the Masjid Haram, refrain from transgressing these Commandments of Allah and know it well that Allah is very severe in punishment.

Maulana Mohammad Ali

And accomplish the pilgrimage and the visit for Allah. But if you are prevented, (send) whatever offering is easy to obtain; and shave not your heads until the offering reaches its destination. Then whoever among you is sick or has an ailment of the head, he (may effect) a compensation by fasting or alms or sacrificing. And when you are secure, whoever profits by combining the visit with the pilgrimage (should take) whatever offering is easy to obtain. But he who cannot find (an offering) should fast for three days during the pilgrimage and for seven days when you return. These are ten (days) complete. This is for him whose family is not present in the Sacred Mosque. And keep your duty to Allah and know that Allah is severe in requiting (evil).

Safi-ur-Rahman al-Mubarakpuri

And complete Hajj and `Umrah for Allah. But if you are prevented, then sacrifice a Hady that you can afford, and do not shave your heads until the Hady reaches the place of sacrifice. And whosoever of you is ill or has an ailment on his scalp (necessitating shaving), he must pay a Fidyah (ransom) of either fasting or giving Sadaqah or a sacrifice. Then if you are in safety and whosoever performs the `Umrah (in the months of Hajj), before (performing) the Hajj, he must slaughter a Hady such as he can afford, but if he cannot (afford it), he should fast for three days during Hajj and seven days after his return, making ten days in all. This is for him whose family is not present at Al-Masjid Al-Haram (i.e., non-resident of Makkah). And fear Allah much and know that Allah is severe in punishment.

Mohammed Marmaduke William Pickthall

Perform the pilgrimage and the visit (to Makka) for Allah. And if ye are prevented, then send such gifts as can be obtained with ease, and shave not your heads until the gifts have reached their destination. And whoever among you is sick or hath an ailment of the head must pay a ransom of fasting or almsgiving or offering. And if ye are in safety, then whosoever contenteth himself with the visit for the pilgrimage (shall give) such gifts as can be had with ease. And whosoever cannot find (such gifts), then a fast of three days while on the pilgrimage, and of seven when ye have returned; that is, ten in all. That is for him whoso folk are not present at the Inviolable Place of Worship. Observe your duty to Allah, and know that Allah is severe in punishment.

Ali Quli Qarai

Complete the hajj and the ‘umrah for Allah’s sake, and if you are prevented, then [make] such [sacrificial] offering as is feasible. And do not shave your heads until the offering reaches its [assigned] place. But should any of you be sick, or have a hurt in his head, let the atonement be by fasting, or charity, or sacrifice. And when you have security—for those who enjoy [release from the restrictions] by virtue of their ‘umrah until the hajj—let the offering be such as is feasible. As for someone who cannot afford [the offering], let him fast three days during the hajj and seven when you return; that is [a period of] ten complete [days]. That is for someone whose family does not dwell by the Holy Mosque. And be wary of Allah, and know that Allah is severe in retribution.

Qaribullah & Darwish

Fulfill the pilgrimage and make the visitation for Allah. If you are prevented, then whatever offering that may be easy. And do not shave your heads until the offerings have reached their destination. But if any of you is ill or suffers from an ailment of the head (scalp), he must pay a ransom either by fasting or by the giving of charity, or by offering a sacrifice. When you are safe, then whosoever enjoys the visitation until the pilgrimage, let his offering be that which may be easy, but if he lacks the means, let him fast three days during the pilgrimage and seven when he has returned, that is, ten days in all. That is for him whose family is not present at the Holy Mosque. And fear Allah and know that He is firm in inflicting punishment.

Muhammad Sarwar

Complete the hajj and umrah (two parts of the rituals of pilgrimage to Makka) in obedience to God. If you are prevented from completing the duty of hajj, offer whatever sacrifice is possible and do not shave your heads before the sacrificial animal is delivered to the prescribed place. If one of you is ill or is suffering because of some ailment in your head, you must redeem the shaving of the head by fasting, or paying money, or offering a sheep as a sacrifice. When all is well with you and you want to complete the umrah in the hajj season, offer whatever sacrifice is possible. If you do not find an animal, you have to fast for three days during the days of the pilgrimage rituals and seven days at home to complete the required ten fasting days. This rule is for those who live beyond (a distance of twelve miles from) the Sacred Mosque in Mecca. Have fear of God and know that He is stern in His retribution.

Mohammad Habib Shakir

And accomplish the pilgrimage and the visit for Allah, but if, you are prevented, (send) whatever offering is easy to obtain, and do not shave your heads until the offering reaches its destination; but whoever among you is sick or has an ailment of the head, he (should effect) a compensation by fasting or alms or sacrificing, then when you are secure, whoever profits by combining the visit with the pilgrimage (should take) what offering is easy to obtain; but he who cannot find (any offering) should fast for three days during the pilgrimage and for seven days when you return; these (make) ten (days) complete; this is for him whose family is not present in the Sacred Mosque, and be careful (of your duty) to Allah, and know that Allah is severe in requiting (evil).

Wahiduddin Khan

Perform the Hajj and the minor pilgrimage [umrah] for the sake of God. If you are prevented from doing so, then make whatever offering you can afford and do not shave your heads until the offering has reached the place of sacrifice. But if any of you is ill, or has an ailment of the head, he should compensate by fasting or almsgiving or sacrifice. In times of peace, if any of you combines the minor pilgrimage with the Hajj, he should make whatever offering he can afford, but if he lacks the means, then let him fast three days during the pilgrimage and for seven days after his return; that is, ten days in all. That is incumbent upon anyone whose family does not live near the Sacred Mosque. Fear God and know that God is severe in punishment.

Abdullah Yusuf Ali

And complete the Hajj or 'umra in the service of Allah. But if ye are prevented (From completing it), send an offering for sacrifice, such as ye may find, and do not shave your heads until the offering reaches the place of sacrifice. And if any of you is ill, or has an ailment in his scalp, (Necessitating shaving), (He should) in compensation either fast, or feed the poor, or offer sacrifice; and when ye are in peaceful conditions (again), if any one wishes to continue the 'umra on to the hajj, He must make an offering, such as he can afford, but if he cannot afford it, He should fast three days during the hajj and seven days on his return, Making ten days in all. This is for those whose household is not in (the precincts of) the Sacred Mosque. And fear Allah, and know that Allah Is strict in punishment.

Tafsir jalalayn

Fulfil the Pilgrimage and the Visitation to God, by completing them according to their due; but if you are prevented, from fulfilling them by an enemy, then [give] such offering as may be feasible, for you -- a sheep -- and do not shave your heads, that is, do not release yourselves from the state of pilgrimage inviolability, until the offering, mentioned, reaches its place, its place of sacrifice, that is, within the enclosure, according to al-Shfi`; the sacrifice is then made with the intention of releasing oneself from the state of pilgrimage inviolability, and is divided among the needy, after which the head is shaved and the release is effected. If any of you is sick, or has an ailment of the head, such as lice or severe pains, and has thus shaved his head while in a state of pilgrimage inviolability, then, incumbent upon him is, a redemption by fast, for three days, or a voluntary almsgiving, consisting of three cubic measures of the principal food of the town for six needy persons, or a ritual sacrifice, that is, the slaughter of a sheep (aw, `or', denotes freedom of choice). To this [last] has been added the [case of the] one who shaves his head without excuse because the requirement of redemption is most obvious in his case; but also [it is required in the case of] one that enjoys, without shaving, such things as scents, attire, or oils, be it with an excuse or without. When you are secure, knowing that the enemy has gone or is not present, then whoever enjoys the Visitation, having completed it and observed its ritual prohibitions, until the Pilgrimage, until he enters its ritual inviolability in the relevant months; let his offering be such as is feasible, for him, such as a sheep that he sacrifices after entering into the state of pilgrimage inviolability, ideally, on the Day of Sacrifice; or if he finds none, because there are none available, or because he does not have sufficient funds, then, incumbent upon him is, a fast of three days in the Pilgrimage, that is to say, in a state of pilgrimage inviolability. In such a case, he should enter into the state of pilgrimage inviolability before the seventh of Dh'l-Hijja, but ideally before the sixth, because one is discouraged from fasting on the Day of `Arafa. Moreover, he should not fast during these the days of tashrq, according to the sounder of two opinions attributed to al-Shfi`. And of seven when you return, to your domicile, [be it] Mecca or any other; or when you have completed the rites of the Pilgrimage' (there is a shift from the third [to the second] person); that is a full ten (this sentence reaffirms what has just been said); that, mentioned stipulation regarding the incumbency of the offering or the fast upon the person that has enjoyed [the Visitation], is for him whose family are not present at the Sacred Mosque, so that they are not within 50 miles of the Sacred Enclosure, according to al-Shfi`. If they are [present however], then no blood [sacrifice] or fast is obligatory in his case, even if he has enjoyed [the Visitation]. The mention of `family' is intended as a notification of the proviso in the case of being `domiciled' [in the vicinity of the Sacred Mosque]. If one were to take up [temporary] residence, but not be domiciled, before the months of the Pilgrimage and enjoy the Visitation, then that [fast or sacrifice] will be incumbent upon him; this is one of two opinions of al-Shfi`, the other being that it is not [incumbent]. The term ahl, `family', is said to denote `oneself'. In the Sunna, in addition to the one that enjoys the Visitation, as mentioned, there is also the one that enters into the state of pilgrimage inviolability for both the Visitation and the Pilgrimage together [sc. qrin, `one who combines'] or in the case where the Pilgrimage encroaches upon [a Visitation], but before circumambulation [has been performed]. And fear God, in what He commands you and prohibits you; and know that God is severe in retribution, against whoever opposes Him.

Tafseer Ibn Kathir

The Command to complete Hajj and Umrah

Allah says;

وَأَتِمُّواْ الْحَجَّ وَالْعُمْرَةَ لِلّهِ

And complete Hajj and Umrah for Allah.

After Allah mentioned the rulings for fasting and Jihad, he explained the rituals by commanding the Muslims to complete Hajj and Umrah,

meaning, to finish the rituals of Hajj and Umrah after one starts them.

This is why Allah said afterwards;

فَإِنْ أُحْصِرْتُمْ

But if you are prevented,

meaning, if your way to the House is obstructed, and you are prevented from finishing it.

This is why the scholars agree that starting the acts of Hajj and Umrah requires one to finish them.

As for Makhul, he said,

"Complete, means to start them from the Miqat (areas the Prophet designated to assume Ihram from)."

Abdur-Razzaq said that Az-Zuhri said;

"We were told that Umar commented on;
وَأَتِمُّواْ الْحَجَّ وَالْعُمْرَةَ لِلّهِ
(And complete Hajj and Umrah for Allah),

"Complete Hajj and Umrah means performing each of them separately, and to perform Umrah outside of the months of Hajj, for Allah the Exalted says;
الْحَجُّ أَشْهُرٌ مَّعْلُومَاتٌ
(The Hajj (pilgrimage) is (in) the well-known (lunar year) months)," (2;197).

As-Suddi said,
وَأَتِمُّواْ الْحَجَّ وَالْعُمْرَةَ لِلّهِ
(And complete Hajj and Umrah for Allah) means,

"Maintain the performance of Hajj and Umrah."

Ibn Abbas was reported to have said,

"Hajj is Arafat, while Umrah is Tawaf."

Al-Amash related that Ibrahim said that Alqamah commented on Allah's statement;
وَأَتِمُّواْ الْحَجَّ وَالْعُمْرَةَ لِلّهِ
(And complete Hajj and Umrah for Allah),

"Abdullah (Ibn Mas`ud) recited it this way;

`Complete Hajj and Umrah to the House, so that one does not exceed the area of the House during the Umrah'."

Ibrahim then said, "I mentioned this statement to Sa`id bin Jubayr and he said;

`Ibn Abbas also said that."'

Sufyan reported that Ibrahim said that Alqamah said regarding the Ayah,

"Perform the Hajj and Umrah to the House."

Ath-Thawri reported that Ibrahim read (the Ayah),

"Perform the Hajj and Umrah to the House."
If One is prevented while in Route, He slaughters the Sacrifice, shaves his Head and ends Ihram

Allah's statement;

فَإِنْ أُحْصِرْتُمْ فَمَا اسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ الْهَدْيِ


But if you are prevented, sacrifice a Hady (animals for sacrifice) such as you can afford,

was revealed in the sixth year of Hijrah, the year of the treaty of Al-Hudaybiyyah when the polytheists prevented Allah's Messenger from reaching the House.

Allah revealed Surah Al-Fath then, and allowed the Muslims to slaughter any Hady (animals for sacrifice) they had. They had seventy camels with them for that purpose.

They were also permitted to shave their heads and end their Ihram.

When the Prophet commanded them to shave their heads and end the state of Ihram, they did not obey him, as they were awaiting that order to be abrogated. When they saw that the Prophet went out after shaving his head, they imitated him. Some of them did not shave, but only shortened their hair. This is why the Prophet said;

رَحِمَ اللهُ الْمُحَلِّقِين

May Allah award His mercy to those who shaved.

They said, "What about those who shortened the hair?"

He said in the third time, "And to those who shortened."

Every seven among them shared one camel for their sacrifice. They were one thousand and four hundred Companions and were camping in the area of Al-Hudaybiyyah, outside the Sacred Area. It was also reported that they were within the boundaries of the Sacred Area. Allah knows best.

Being prevented from the House (Hasr) includes more than just being sick, fearing an enemy or getting lost on the way to Makkah.

Imam Ahmad reported that Al-Hajjaj bin Amr Al-Ansari said that he heard Allah's Messenger saying;

مَنْ كُسِرَ أَوْ عَرِجَ فَقَدْ حَلَّ وَعَلَيْهِ حَجَّةٌ أُخْرَى

Whoever suffered a broken bone or a limb, will have ended his Ihram and has to perform Hajj again.

He said, "I mentioned that to Ibn Abbas and Abu Hurayrah and they both said, `He (Al-Hajjaj) has said the truth'."

This Hadith is also reported in the Four Collections.

In the version of Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah, the Prophet said,

"Whoever limped, had a broken bone or became ill..."

Ibn Abu Hatim also recorded it and said,

"It was reported that Ibn Mas`ud, Ibn Az-Zubayr, Alqamah, Sa`id bin Musayyib, Urwah bin Az-Zubayr, Mujahid, An-Nakhai, Ata and Muqatil bin Hayyan said that;

being prevented (Hasr) entails an enemy, an illness or a fracture."

Ath-Thawri also said,

"Being prevented entails everything that harms the person."

It is reported in the Two Sahihs that Aishah said that;

Allah's Messenger went to Dubaah bint Az-Zubayr bin Abdul-Muttalib who said, "O Messenger of Allah! I intend to perform Hajj but I am ill."

He said, "Perform Hajj and make the condition;`My place is where You prevent (or halt) me."

Muslim recorded similarly from Ibn Abbas.

So saying such a condition for Hajj is allowed is based on this Hadith.

Allah's statement;
فَمَا اسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ الْهَدْيِ
(...sacrifice a Hady such as you can afford),

includes a sheep also, as Imam Malik reported that Ali bin Abu Talib used to say.

Ibn Abbas said,

"The Hady includes eight types of animals;

camels,

cows,

goats and

sheep."

Abdur-Razzaq reported that Ibn Abbas said about what Allah said;
فَمَا اسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ الْهَدْيِ
(...sacrifice a Hady such as you can afford),

"As much as one could afford."

Al-Awfi said that Ibn Abbas said,

"If one can afford it, then camels, otherwise cows, or sheep."

Hisham bin Urwah quoted his father;
فَمَا اسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ الْهَدْيِ
(...sacrifice a Hady (animal, i.e., a sheep, a cow, or a camel),

such as you can afford, `Depending on the price.'

The proof that sacrificing only a sheep is allowed in the case of being prevented from continuing the rites, is that Allah has required sacrificing whatever is available as a Hady, and the Hady is any type of cattle; be it camels, cows or sheep. This is the opinion of Ibn Abbas the cousin of Allah's Messenger and the scholar of Tafsir.

It is reported in the Two Sahihs that Aishah, the Mother of the believers, said,

"The Prophet once offered some sheep as Hady."

Allah's statement;

وَلَا تَحْلِقُواْ رُوُوسَكُمْ حَتَّى يَبْلُغَ الْهَدْيُ مَحِلَّهُ
and do not shave your heads until the Hady reaches the place of sacrifice,

is a continuation of His statement;
وَأَتِمُّواْ الْحَجَّ وَالْعُمْرَةَ لِلّهِ
(And complete, the Hajj and Umrah for Allah.) and is not dependent upon;
فَإِنْ أُحْصِرْتُمْ فَمَا اسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ الْهَدْيِ
(But if you are prevented, then sacrifice a Hady) as Ibn Jarir has erroneously claimed.

When the Prophet and his Companions were prevented from entering the Sacred House during the Al-Hudaybiyyah year by the polytheists from Quraysh, they shaved their heads and sacrificed their Hady outside the Haram (Sacred) area.

In normal circumstances, and when one can safely reach the House, he is not allowed to shave his head until;
حَتَّى يَبْلُغَ الْهَدْيُ مَحِلَّهُ
(.. .and do not shave your heads until the Hady reaches the place of sacrifice), and then he ends the rituals of Hajj or Umrah, or both if he had assumed Ihram for both.

It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that Hafsah said,

"O Allah's Messenger! What is wrong with the people, they have finished their Ihram for Umrah but you have not?" The Prophet said,

إنِّي لَبَّدْتُ رَأْسِي وَقَلَّدْتُ هَدْيِي فَلَ أَحِلُّ حَتَّى أَنْحَر

I matted my hair and I have garlanded my Hady (animals for sacrifice), so I will not finish my Ihram till I offer the sacrifice.
Whoever shaved his Head during Ihram, will have to pay the Fidyah

Allah said;

فَمَن كَانَ مِنكُم مَّرِيضاً أَوْ بِهِ أَذًى مِّن رَّأْسِهِ فَفِدْيَةٌ مِّن صِيَامٍ أَوْ صَدَقَةٍ أَوْ نُسُكٍ


And whosoever of you is ill or has an ailment on his scalp (necessitating shaving), he must pay a Fidyah.

Al-Bukhari reported that Abdur-Rahman bin Asbahani said that he heard Abdullah bin Ma`qil saying that;

he sat with Ka`b bin Ujrah in the mosque of Kufah (in Iraq). He then asked him about the Fidyah of the fasting.

Ka`b said, "This was revealed concerning my case especially, but it is also for you in general.

I was carried to Allah's Messenger and the lice were falling in great numbers on my face. The Prophet said;

مَا كُنْتُ أُرَى أَنَّ الْجَهْدَ بلَغَ بكَ هذَا أمَا تَجِدُ شَاة

I never thought that your ailment (or struggle) had reached to such an extent as I see. Can you afford a sheep (for sacrifice)?'

I replied in the negative.

He then said;

صُمْ ثَلَثَةَ أَيَّامٍ أَوْ أَطْعِمْ سِتَّةَ مَسَاكِينَ لِكُلِّ مِسْكِينٍ نِصْفُ صَاعٍ مِنْ طَعَامٍ وَاحْلِقْ رَأْسَك

Fast for three days or feed six poor persons, each with half a Sa` of food (1 Sa` = 3 kilograms approx) and shave your head.

So this is a general judgment derived from a specific case.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Ka`b bin Ujrah said,

"Allah's Messenger came by while I was igniting the fire under a pot and while the lice were falling down my head or my eyelids. He said;

يُوْذِيكَ هَوَامُّ رَأْسِك

Do these lice in your head bother you?

I said, `Yes.'

He said;

فَاحْلِقْهُ وَصُمْ ثَلَاثَةَ أَيَّامٍ أَوْ أَطْعِمْ سِتَّةَ مَسَاكِينَ أَوِ انْسُكْ نَسِيكَة

Shave it, then fast three days, or feed six poor people, or sacrifice an animal.

Ayub (one of the narrators of the Hadith) commented,

"I do not know which alternative was stated first."

The wording of the Qur'an begins with the easiest then the more difficult options;

"Pay a Fidyah of fasting (three days), feeding (six poor persons) or sacrificing (an animal)."

Meanwhile, the Prophet advised Ka`b with the more rewarding option first, that is, sacrificing a sheep, then feeding six poor persons, then fasting three days.

Each Text is suitable in its place and context, all the thanks and praises are due to Allah.
Tamattu During Hajj

Allah said;

فَإِذَا أَمِنتُمْ فَمَن تَمَتَّعَ بِالْعُمْرَةِ إِلَى الْحَجِّ فَمَا اسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ الْهَدْيِ

Then if you are in safety and whosoever performs the Umrah (in the months of Hajj), before (performing) the Hajj, he must slaughter a Hady such as he can afford,

That is, when you are able to complete the rites, so whoever among you connects his Umrah with Hajj having the same Ihram for both, or,

first assuming Ihram for Umrah, and then assuming Ihram for Hajj when finished the Umrah, this is the more specific type of Tamattu which is well-known among the discussion of the scholars whereas in general there are two types of Tamattu, as the authentic Hadiths prove, since among the narrators are those who said, "Allah's Messenger performed Tamattu, and others who said, "Qarin" but there is no difference between them over the Hady.

So Allah said,
فَإِذَا أَمِنتُمْ فَمَن تَمَتَّعَ بِالْعُمْرَةِ إِلَى الْحَجِّ فَمَا اسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ الْهَدْيِ
(Then if you are in safety and whosoever performs the Umrah (in the months of Hajj), before (performing) the Hajj (i.e., Hajj At-Tamattu and Al-Qiran, he must slaughter a Hady such as he can afford),

means let him sacrifice whatever Hady is available to him, the least of which is a sheep. One is also allowed to sacrifice a cow because the Prophet slaughtered cows on behalf of his wives.

Al-Awzai reported that Abu Hurayrah narrated that Allah's Messenger slaughtered cows on behalf of his wives when they were performing Tamattu.

This was reported by Abu Bakr bin Marduwyah.

This last Hadith proves that Tamattu is legislated.

It is reported in the Two Sahihs that Imran bin Husayn said,

"We performed Hajj At-Tamattu in the lifetime of Allah's Messenger and then the Qur'an was revealed (regarding Hajj At-Tamattu). Nothing was revealed to forbid it, nor did he (the Prophet) forbid it until he died. And somebody said what he wished (regarding Hajj At-Tamattu) according to his own opinion."

Al-Bukhari said that Imran was talking about Umar.

It is reported in an authentic narration that;

Umar used to discourage the people from performing Tamattu.

He used to say, "If we refer to Allah's Book, we should complete it,"

meaning;
فَمَن تَمَتَّعَ بِالْعُمْرَةِ إِلَى الْحَجِّ فَمَا اسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ الْهَدْيِ
(...whosoever performs the Umrah (in the months of Hajj), before (performing) the Hajj, he must slaughter a Hady such as he can afford.

However Umar did not say that Tamattu is unlawful. He only prevented them so that the people would increase their trips to the House for Hajj (during the months of Hajj) and Umrah (throughout the year), as he himself has stated.
Whoever performs Tamattu` should fast Ten Days if He does not have a Hady

Allah said;

فَمَن لَّمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ ثَلثَةِ أَيَّامٍ فِي الْحَجِّ وَسَبْعَةٍ إِذَا رَجَعْتُمْ تِلْكَ عَشَرَةٌ كَامِلَةٌ
but if he cannot (afford it), he should fast three days during the Hajj and seven days after his return (to his home), making ten days in all.

This Ayah means;

"Those who do not find a Hady, let them fast three days during the Hajj season."

Al-Awfi said that Ibn Abbas said,

"If one does not have a Hady, he should fast three days during Hajj, before Arafah day. If the day of Arafah was the third day, then his fast is complete. He should also fast seven days when he gets back home."

Abu Ishaq reported from Wabarah from Ibn Umar who said,

"One fasts one day before the day of Tarwiyah, the day of Tarwiyah (eighth day of Dhul-Hijjah) and then Arafah day (the ninth day of the month of Dhul-Hijjah)."

The same statement was reported by Jafar bin Muhammad from his father from Ali.

If one did not fast these three days or at least some of them before `Id day (the tenth day of Dhul-Hijjah), he is allowed to fast during the Tashriq days (11-12-13th day of Dhul-Hijjah). `

Al-Bukhari has reported that Aishah and Ibn Umar said,

"Fasting the days of Tashriq was only allowed for those who did not find the Hady,"

Sufyan related that Jafar bin Muhammad narrated that his father said that Ali said,

"Whoever did not fast the three days during the Hajj, should fast them during the days of Tashriq."

This is also the position taken by Ubayd bin Umayr Al-Laythi, Ikrimah, Al-Hasan Al-Basri and Urwah bin Az-Zubayr, referring to the general meaning of Allah's statement;
فَصِيَامُ ثَلثَةِ أَيَّامٍ فِي الْحَجِّ
(...fast three days during the Hajj...).

As for what Muslim reported that Qutaybah Al-Hudhali said that Allah's Messenger said;

أَيَّامُ التَّشْرِيقِ أَيَّامُ أَكْلٍ وَشُرْبٍ وَذِكْرِ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَل

The days of Tashriq are days of eating and drinking and remembering Allah the Exalted.

This narration is general in meaning while what Aishah and Ibn Umar narrated is specific.

Allah said;

وَسَبْعَةٍ إِذَا رَجَعْتُمْ
and seven days after his return.

There are two opinions regarding the meaning of this Ayah.

First, it means `when you return to the camping areas'.

The second, upon going back home.

Abdur-Razzaq reported that Salim narrated that he heard Ibn Umar saying;

فَمَن لَّمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ ثَلثَةِ أَيَّامٍ فِي الْحَجِّ وَسَبْعَةٍ إِذَا رَجَعْتُمْ
"(...but if he cannot (afford it), he should fast three days during the Hajj and seven days after his return), means when he goes back to his family."

The same opinion was reported from Sa`id bin Jubayr, Abu Al-Aliyah, Mujahid, Ata, Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Imam Az-Zuhri and Ar-Rabi bin Anas.

Al-Bukhari reported that Salim bin Abdullah narrated that Ibn Umar said,

"During the Farewell Hajj of Allah's Messenger, he performed Tamattu with Umrah and Hajj. He drove a Hady along with him from Dhul-Hulayfah. Allah's Messenger started by assuming Ihram for Umrah, and then for Hajj. And the people, too, performed the Umrah and Hajj along with the Prophet.

Some of them brought the Hady and drove it along with them, while the others did not. So, when the Prophet arrived at Makkah, he said to the people;

مَنْ كَانَ مِنْكُم أَهْدَى فَإِنَّهُ لَا يَحِلُّ مِنْ شَيْءٍ حَرُمَ مِنْهُ حَتَّى يَقْضِيَ حَجَّهُ

Whoever among you has driven the Hady, should not finish his Ihram till he completes his Hajj.

وَمَنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ مِنْكُمْ أَهْدَى فَلْيَطُفْ بالْبَيْتِ وبالصَّفَا وَالْمَرْوَةِ وَلْيُقَصِّرْ وَلْيَحْلِلْ ثُمَّ لْيُهِلَّ بِالْحَجِّ

And whoever among you has not (driven) the Hady with him, he should perform Tawaf of the Ka`bah and between As-Safa and Al-Marwah. Then, he should shave or cut his hair short and finish his Ihram, and should later assume Ihram for Hajj; (but he must offer a Hady (sacrifice)).

فَمَنْ لَمْ يجَدْ هَدْيًا فَلْيَصُمْ ثَلَثَةَ أَيَّامٍ فِي الْحَجِّ وَسَبْعةً إِذَا رَجَعَ إِلى أَهْلِه

And if anyone cannot afford a Hady, he should fast for three days during the Hajj and seven days when he returns home.

He then mentioned the rest of the Hadith, which is reported in the Two Sahihs.

Allah said;

تِلْكَ عَشَرَةٌ كَامِلَةٌ
making ten days in all.

to emphasize the ruling we mentioned above.

This method is common in the Arabic language, for they would say, `I have seen with my eyes, heard with my ears and written with my hand,' to emphasize such facts.

Similarly, Allah said;

وَلَا طَايِرٍ يَطِيرُ بِجَنَاحَيْهِ
nor a bird that flies with its two wings. (6;38)

and,

وَلَا تَخُطُّهُ بِيَمِينِكَ
nor did you write any book (whatsoever) with your right hand. (29;48)

and,

وَوَعَدْنَا مُوسَى ثَلَـثِينَ لَيْلَةً وَأَتْمَمْنَاهَا بِعَشْرٍ فَتَمَّ مِيقَـتُ رَبِّهِ أَرْبَعِينَ لَيْلَةً

And We appointed for Musa thirty nights and added (to the period) ten (more), and he completed the term, appointed by his Lord, of forty nights. (7;142)

It was also said that;

the meaning of "ten days in all" emphasizes the order to fast for ten days, not less than that.
The Residents of Makkah do not perform Tamattu"

Allah said;

ذَلِكَ لِمَن لَّمْ يَكُنْ أَهْلُهُ حَاضِرِي الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ

This is for him whose family is not present at Al-Masjid Al-Haram (i.e., non-resident of Makkah).

This Ayah concerns the residents of the area of the Haram, for they do not perform Tamattu.

Abdur-Razzaq reported that Tawus said,

"Tamattu is for the people, those whose families are not residing in the Haram area (Makkah), not for the residents of Makkah. Hence Allah's Statement;
ذَلِكَ لِمَن لَّمْ يَكُنْ أَهْلُهُ حَاضِرِي الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ
(This is for him whose family is not present at Al-Masjid Al-Haram (i.e., non-resident of Makkah).

Abdur-Razzaq then said,

"I was also told that Ibn Abbas said similar to Tawus."

Allah said;

وَاتَّقُواْ اللّهَ
and fear Allah,

meaning, in what He has commanded you and what He prohibited for you.

He then said;

وَاعْلَمُواْ أَنَّ اللّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ


and know that Allah is severe in punishment.

for those who defy His command and commit what He has prohibited