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waqul
وَقُل
And say
lil'mu'mināti
لِّلْمُؤْمِنَٰتِ
to the believing women
yaghḍuḍ'na
يَغْضُضْنَ
(that) they should lower
min
مِنْ
[of]
abṣārihinna
أَبْصَٰرِهِنَّ
their gaze
wayaḥfaẓna
وَيَحْفَظْنَ
and they should guard
furūjahunna
فُرُوجَهُنَّ
their chastity,
walā
وَلَا
and not
yub'dīna
يُبْدِينَ
(to) display
zīnatahunna
زِينَتَهُنَّ
their adornment
illā
إِلَّا
except
مَا
what
ẓahara
ظَهَرَ
is apparent
min'hā
مِنْهَاۖ
of it.
walyaḍrib'na
وَلْيَضْرِبْنَ
And let them draw
bikhumurihinna
بِخُمُرِهِنَّ
their head covers
ʿalā
عَلَىٰ
over
juyūbihinna
جُيُوبِهِنَّۖ
their bosoms,
walā
وَلَا
and not
yub'dīna
يُبْدِينَ
(to) display
zīnatahunna
زِينَتَهُنَّ
their adornment
illā
إِلَّا
except
libuʿūlatihinna
لِبُعُولَتِهِنَّ
to their husbands,
aw
أَوْ
or
ābāihinna
ءَابَآئِهِنَّ
their fathers
aw
أَوْ
or
ābāi
ءَابَآءِ
fathers
buʿūlatihinna
بُعُولَتِهِنَّ
(of) their husbands
aw
أَوْ
or
abnāihinna
أَبْنَآئِهِنَّ
their sons
aw
أَوْ
or
abnāi
أَبْنَآءِ
sons
buʿūlatihinna
بُعُولَتِهِنَّ
(of) their husbands
aw
أَوْ
or
ikh'wānihinna
إِخْوَٰنِهِنَّ
their brothers
aw
أَوْ
or
banī
بَنِىٓ
sons
ikh'wānihinna
إِخْوَٰنِهِنَّ
their brothers
aw
أَوْ
or
banī
بَنِىٓ
sons
akhawātihinna
أَخَوَٰتِهِنَّ
(of) their sisters,
aw
أَوْ
or
nisāihinna
نِسَآئِهِنَّ
their women
aw
أَوْ
or
مَا
what
malakat
مَلَكَتْ
possess
aymānuhunna
أَيْمَٰنُهُنَّ
their right hands
awi
أَوِ
or
l-tābiʿīna
ٱلتَّٰبِعِينَ
the attendants
ghayri
غَيْرِ
having no physical desire
ulī
أُو۟لِى
having no physical desire
l-ir'bati
ٱلْإِرْبَةِ
having no physical desire
mina
مِنَ
among
l-rijāli
ٱلرِّجَالِ
[the] men
awi
أَوِ
or
l-ṭif'li
ٱلطِّفْلِ
[the] children
alladhīna
ٱلَّذِينَ
who
lam
لَمْ
(are) not
yaẓharū
يَظْهَرُوا۟
aware
ʿalā
عَلَىٰ
over
ʿawrāti
عَوْرَٰتِ
private aspects
l-nisāi
ٱلنِّسَآءِۖ
(of) the women.
walā
وَلَا
and not
yaḍrib'na
يَضْرِبْنَ
let them stamp
bi-arjulihinna
بِأَرْجُلِهِنَّ
their feet
liyuʿ'lama
لِيُعْلَمَ
to make known
مَا
what
yukh'fīna
يُخْفِينَ
they conceal
min
مِن
[of]
zīnatihinna
زِينَتِهِنَّۚ
their adornment.
watūbū
وَتُوبُوٓا۟
And turn
ilā
إِلَى
to
l-lahi
ٱللَّهِ
Allah
jamīʿan
جَمِيعًا
altogether
ayyuha
أَيُّهَ
O believers!
l-mu'minūna
ٱلْمُؤْمِنُونَ
O believers!
laʿallakum
لَعَلَّكُمْ
So that you may
tuf'liḥūna
تُفْلِحُونَ
succeed.

Wa qul lilmu'minaati yaghdudna min absaarihinna wa yahfazna furoojahunna wa laa yubdeena zeenatahunna illaa maa zahara minhaa walyadribna bikhumurihinna 'alaa juyoobihinna wa laa yubdeena zeenatahunna illaa libu'oolatihinna aw aabaaa'i hinna aw aabaaa'i bu'oolati hinna aw abnaaa'ihinaa aw abnaaa'i bu'oolatihinnna aw ikhwaanihinnna aw baneee ikhwaanihinna aw banee akhawaatihinna aw nisaaa'i hinna aw maa malakat aimaanuhunna awit taabi'eena ghairi ilil irbati minar rijaali awit tiflillazeena lam yazharoo 'alaa 'awraatin nisaaa'i wala yadribnna bi arjulihinna min zeenatihinn; wa toobooo ilallaahi jammee'an aiyuhal mu'minoona la'allakum tuflihoon

Sahih International:

And tell the believing women to reduce [some] of their vision and guard their private parts and not expose their adornment except that which [necessarily] appears thereof and to wrap [a portion of] their headcovers over their chests and not expose their adornment except to their husbands, their fathers, their husbands' fathers, their sons, their husbands' sons, their brothers, their brothers' sons, their sisters' sons, their women, that which their right hands possess, or those male attendants having no physical desire, or children who are not yet aware of the private aspects of women. And let them not stamp their feet to make known what they conceal of their adornment. And turn to Allah in repentance, all of you, O believers, that you might succeed.

1 A. J. Arberry

And say to the believing women, that they cast down their eyes' and guard their private parts, and reveal not their adornment save such as is outward; and let them cast their veils over their bosoms, and not reveal their adornment save to their husbands, or their fathers, or their husbands' fathers, or their sons, or their husbands' sons, or their brothers, or their brothers' sons, or their sisters' sons, or their women, or what their right hands own, or such men as attend them, not having sexual desire, or children who have not yet attained knowledge of women's private parts; nor let them stamp their feet, so that their hidden ornament may be known. And turn all together to God, O you believers; haply so you will prosper.

2 Abdul Haleem

And tell believing women that they should lower their glances, guard their private parts, and not display their charms beyond what [it is acceptable] to reveal; they should let their headscarves fall to cover their necklines and not reveal their charms except to their husbands, their fathers, their husbands’ fathers, their sons, their husbands’ sons, their brothers, their brothers’ sons, their sisters’ sons, their womenfolk, their slaves, such men as attend them who have no sexual desire, or children who are not yet aware of women’s nakedness; they should not stamp their feet so as to draw attention to any hidden charms. Believers, all of you, turn to God so that you may prosper.

3 Abdul Majid Daryabadi

And say thou unto the believing women that they shall lower their sights and guard their private parts and shall not disclose their adornment except that which appeareth thereof; and they shall draw their scarves over their bosoms; and shall not disclose their adornment except unto their husbands or their fathers or their husbands fathers or their sons or their husbands sons or their brothers or their brothers sons or their sisters sons or their Women or those whom their right hands own or male followers wanting in sex desire or children not acquainted with the privy parts of women; and they Shall not strike their feet so that there be known that which they hide of their adornment. And turn penitently unto Allah ye all, O ye believers, haply ye may thrive!

4 Abdullah Yusuf Ali

And say to the believing women that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty; that they should not display their beauty and ornaments except what (must ordinarily) appear thereof; that they should draw their veils over their bosoms and not display their beauty except to their husbands, their fathers, their husband's fathers, their sons, their husbands' sons, their brothers or their brothers' sons, or their sisters' sons, or their women, or the slaves whom their right hands possess, or male servants free of physical needs, or small children who have no sense of the shame of sex; and that they should not strike their feet in order to draw attention to their hidden ornaments. And O ye Believers! turn ye all together towards Allah, that ye may attain Bliss.

5 Abul Ala Maududi

O Prophet, enjoin the Believing women to restrain their gaze and guard their private parts. and not to display their adornment except that which is displayed of itself, and to draw their veils over their bosoms and not to display their adornment except before their husbands, their fathers, the fathers of their husbands, their sons and the sons of their husbands (from other wives), their brothers, their brothers' sons, their sisters' sons, their female associates and those in their possession and male attendants incapable of sex desire and those boys who have not yet attained knowledge of sex matters concerning women; also forbid them to stamp their feet on the ground lest their hidden ornaments should be displayed. O Believers, turn all together towards Allah: it is expected that you will attain true success.

6 Ahmed Ali

Tell the believing women to lower their eyes, guard their private parts, and not display their charms except what is apparent outwardly, and cover their bosoms with their veils and not to show their finery except to their husbands or their fathers or fathers-in-law, their sons or step-sons, brothers, or their brothers' and sisters' sons, or their women attendants or captives, or male attendants who do not have any need (for women), or boys not yet aware of sex. They should not walk stamping their feet lest they make known what they hide of their Ornaments. O believers, turn to God, every one of you, so that you may be successful.

7 Ahmed Raza Khan

And command the Muslim women to keep their gaze low and to protect their chastity, and not to reveal their adornment except what is apparent, and to keep the cover wrapped over their bosoms; and not to reveal their adornment except to their own husbands or fathers or husbands’ fathers, or their sons or their husbands’ sons, or their brothers or their brothers’ sons or sisters’ sons, or women of their religion, or the bondwomen they possess, or male servants provided they do not have manliness, or such children who do not know of women’s nakedness, and not to stamp their feet on the ground in order that their hidden adornment be known; and O Muslims, all of you turn in repentance together towards Allah, in the hope of attaining success. (It is incumbent upon women to cover themselves properly.)

8 Ali Quli Qarai

And tell the faithful women to cast down their looks and to guard their private parts, and not to display their charms, beyond what is [acceptably] visible, and let them draw their scarfs over their bosoms, and not display their charms except to their husbands, or their fathers, or their husband’s fathers, or their sons, or their husband’s sons, or their brothers, or their brothers’ sons, or their sisters’ sons, or their women, or their slave girls, or male dependants lacking [sexual] desire, or children who are not yet conscious of female sexuality. And let them not thump their feet to make known their hidden ornaments. Rally to Allah in repentance, O faithful, so that you may be felicitous.

9 Ali Ünal

And tell the believing women that they (also) should restrain their gaze (from looking at the men whom it is lawful for them to marry, and from others’ private parts), and guard their private parts, and that they should not display their charms except that which is revealed of itself; and let them draw their veils over their bosoms, and (tell them) not to display their charms to any save their husbands, or their fathers (and grandfathers and both paternal and maternal uncles), or the fathers of their husbands, or their sons, or the sons of their husbands (both their own and step-sons and grandsons), or their brothers (and foster- and step-brothers), or the sons of their brothers, or the sons of their sisters, or the Muslim women and the women of good conduct with whom they associate, or those (slave-girls) their right hands possess, or the male attendants in their service free of sexual desire, or children that are as yet unaware of femininity. Nor should they stamp their feet (i.e. act in such a manner as to) draw attention to their charms (and arouse the passion of men). And O believers, turn to God all together in repentance that you may attain true prosperity.

10 Amatul Rahman Omar

And tell the believing women to restrain their looks (also in the presence of men who are not near of kin and so lawful for marriage) and guard their chastity and not to disclose their (natural and make-up) beauty except such as cannot be helped (and is apparent) and draw their head coverings over their bosoms, and they should not display their beauty save to their husbands or to their fathers or to their fathers- in-law or to their own sons or to the sons of their husbands or to their own brothers, or to the sons of their brothers or to the sons of their sisters or their women (who are their decent companions) or to their bondsmen or to such of their male attendants as have no sexual appetite or to such young children as have yet no knowledge of the frailties of women. And let them not strike (the ground with) their feet so that which they (must) hide of their beauty or adornment) may become known. And (O believers!) turn to Allâh; one and all, that you may attain (true happiness and) your ultimate goal.

11 English Literal

And say to the believers they (F) lower/humble from their eye sights, and they (F) protect/safe keep from their genital parts between their legs, and they do not show their decoration/beauty except what appeared/is visible from it, and they hold in place/sew (E) with their head covers/covers on their collar opening in clothes/chests , and they do not show their decoration/beauty except to their husbands, or their fathers, or their husband`s fathers (fathers in-law), or their sons, or their husband`s sons (step- sons), or their brothers, or their brother`s sons (nephews), or their sisters` sons (nephews), or their women, or what their right (hands) owned/possessed (i.e. care-giers under contract), or the followers/servants (those) not (owners) of need/desire/intelligence and resourcefulness (without a sexual drive) from the men or the child/children (the very old or very young), those who did not see and know of on the women`s shameful genital parts , and they (F) do not beat/strike with their (F) feet to be known what they (F) hide from their decoration/beauty , and repent to God all together , oh you the believers, maybe/perhaps you succeed/win.

12 Faridul Haque

And command the Muslim women to keep their gaze low and to protect their chastity, and not to reveal their adornment except what is apparent, and to keep the cover wrapped over their bosoms; and not to reveal their adornment except to their own husbands or fathers or husbands’ fathers, or their sons or their husbands’ sons, or their brothers or their brothers’ sons or sisters’ sons, or women of their religion, or the bondwomen they possess, or male servants provided they do not have manliness, or such children who do not know of women’s nakedness, and not to stamp their feet on the ground in order that their hidden adornment be known; and O Muslims, all of you turn in repentance together towards Allah, in the hope of attaining success. (It is incumbent upon women to cover themselves properly.)

13 Hamid S. Aziz

Say to the believing men that they cast down their looks and guard their modesty; that is purer for them; verily, Allah is well aware of what they do.

14 Hilali & Khan

And tell the believing women to lower their gaze (from looking at forbidden things), and protect their private parts (from illegal sexual acts, etc.) and not to show off their adornment except only that which is apparent (like palms of hands or one eye or both eyes for necessity to see the way, or outer dress like veil, gloves, head-cover, apron, etc.), and to draw their veils all over Juyubihinna (i.e. their bodies, faces, necks and bosoms, etc.) and not to reveal their adornment except to their husbands, their fathers, their husband's fathers, their sons, their husband's sons, their brothers or their brother's sons, or their sister's sons, or their (Muslim) women (i.e. their sisters in Islam), or the (female) slaves whom their right hands possess, or old male servants who lack vigour, or small children who have no sense of the shame of sex. And let them not stamp their feet so as to reveal what they hide of their adornment. And all of you beg Allah to forgive you all, O believers, that you may be successful.

15 Maulana Mohammad Ali

Say to the believing men that they lower their gaze and restrain their sexual passions. That is purer for them. Surely Allah is Aware of what they do.

16 Mohammad Habib Shakir

And say to the believing women that they cast down their looks and guard their private parts and do not display their ornaments except what appears thereof, and let them wear their head-coverings over their bosoms, and not display their ornaments except to their husbands or their fathers, or the fathers of their husbands, or their sons, or the sons of their husbands, or their brothers, or their brothers' sons, or their sisters' sons, or their women, or those whom their right hands possess, or the male servants not having need (of women), or the children who have not attained knowledge of what is hidden of women; and let them not strike their feet so that what they hide of their ornaments may be known; and turn to Allah all of you, O believers! so that you may be successful.

17 Mohammed Marmaduke William Pickthall

And tell the believing women to lower their gaze and be modest, and to display of their adornment only that which is apparent, and to draw their veils over their bosoms, and not to reveal their adornment save to their own husbands or fathers or husbands' fathers, or their sons or their husbands' sons, or their brothers or their brothers' sons or sisters' sons, or their women, or their slaves, or male attendants who lack vigour, or children who know naught of women's nakedness. And let them not stamp their feet so as to reveal what they hide of their adornment. And turn unto Allah together, O believers, in order that ye may succeed.

18 Muhammad Sarwar

Tell the believing woman to cast down their eyes, guard their chastity, and not to show off their beauty except what is permitted by the law. Let them cover their breasts with their veils. They must not show off their beauty to anyone other than their husbands, father, father-in-laws, sons, step-sons, brothers, sons of brothers and sisters, women of their kind, their slaves, immature male servants, or immature boys. They must not stamp their feet to show off their hidden ornaments. All of you believers, turn to God in repentance so that perhaps you will have everlasting happiness.

19 Qaribullah & Darwish

And say to the believing women, that they lower their gaze cast down their eyes and guard their chastity, and do not reveal their adornment except that which is outward (face and hands); and let them draw their veils over their neck, and not reveal their adornment except to their husbands, or their fathers, or their husbands' fathers, or their sons, or their husbands' sons, or their brothers, or their brothers' sons, or their sisters' sons, or their women, or what their right hands own, or such male attendants having no sexual desire, or children who have not yet attained knowledge of women's private parts; nor let them stamp their feet, so that their hidden ornament is known. And, O believers turn to Allah all together, in order that you prosper.

20 Safi-ur-Rahman al-Mubarakpuri

And tell the believing women to lower their gaze, and protect their private parts and not to show off their adornment except that which is apparent, and to draw their veils all over their Juyub and not to reveal their adornment except to their husbands, or their fathers, or their husband's fathers, or their sons, or their husband's sons, or their brothers or their brother's sons, or their sister's sons, or their women, or their right hand possessions, or the Tabi`in among men who do not have desire, or children who are not aware of the nakedness of women. And let them not stamp their feet so as to reveal what they hide of their adornment. And all of you beg Allah to forgive you all, O believers, that you may be successful.

21 Wahiduddin Khan

Say to believing women that they should lower their gaze and remain chaste and not to reveal their adornments -- save what is normally apparent thereof, and they should fold their shawls over their bosoms. They can only reveal their adornments to their husbands or their fathers or their husbands' fathers, or their sons or their husbands' sons or their brothers or their brothers' sons or their sisters' sons or maidservants or those whom their right hands possess or their male attendants who have no sexual desire or children who still have no carnal knowledge of women. Nor should they swing their legs to draw attention to their hidden ornaments. Believers, turn to God, every one of you, so that you may prosper.

22 Talal Itani

And tell the believing women to restrain their looks, and to guard their privates, and not display their beauty except what is apparent thereof, and to draw their coverings over their breasts, and not expose their beauty except to their husbands, their fathers, their husbands' fathers, their sons, their husbands' sons, their brothers, their brothers' sons, their sisters' sons, their women, what their right hands possess, their male attendants who have no sexual desires, or children who are not yet aware of the nakedness of women. And they should not strike their feet to draw attention to their hidden beauty. And repent to God, all of you believers, so that you may succeed.

23 Tafsir jalalayn

And tell believing women to lower their gaze, away from what is not lawful for them to look at, and to guard their private parts, from what is not lawful for them to do with them, and not to display their adornment except for what is apparent, namely, the face and the hands, which may be seen by a stranger, when there is no danger of [either or both falling into] temptation -- this being one of two opinions. The second [of these] is that [even] this is forbidden because there is a presumption that these [parts] will cause temptation -- and this is the preferred opinion, if one must settle this topic [with a definitive opinion]; and let them draw their veils over their bosoms, that is, let them cover up their heads, necks and chests with veils, and not reveal their, hidden, adornment, namely, all that is other than the face and the hands, except to their husbands (bu`l is the plural form of ba`l, `male spouse') or their fathers, or their husbands' fathers, or their sons, or their husbands' sons, or their brothers, or their brothers' sons, or their sisters' sons, or their women, or what their right hands own, all of whom are permitted to look thereat, except for the part from the navel down to the knees, which is unlawful for any other than their husbands to see; `their women', however, excludes disbelieving women, for it is not permitted for Muslim women to reveal themselves to these; `what their right hands own' comprises slaves; or such men who are dependant, on what food may be left over, not (ghayri, read as an adjective, or read ghayra as an exceptive) possessing any sexual desire, [not] those men who are in [sexual] need of women, so for example those whose male member cannot become erect; or children who are not yet aware of women's private parts, in [the context of] sexual intercourse, and so to these they may reveal themselves except for that part from the navel to the knees. And do not let them thump with their feet to make known their hidden ornaments, as in a rattling anklet [and the like]. And rally to God in repentance, O believers, [repenting] of the occasions on which you may have looked at what is forbidden [to look at] of such [parts] and otherwise, so that you might be prosperous, [so that you might] be saved from such [sinful acts] when your repentance thereof is accepted -- in this verse the prevalent address is to males over females.

24 Tafseer Ibn Kathir

The Rulings of Hijab

This is a command from Allah to the believing women, and jealousy on His part over the wives of His believing servants. It is also to distinguish the believing women from the women of the Jahiliyyah and the deeds of the pagan women.

The reason for the revelation of this Ayah was mentioned by Muqatil bin Hayyan, when he said;

"We heard -- and Allah knows best -- that Jabir bin Abdullah Al-Ansari narrated that Asma' bint Murshidah was in a house of hers in Bani Harithah, and the women started coming in to her without lower garments so that the anklets on their feet could be seen, along with their chests and forelocks. Asma' said;`How ugly this is!' Then Allah revealed;
وَقُل لِّلْمُوْمِنَاتِ يَغْضُضْنَ مِنْ أَبْصَارِهِنَّ
(And tell the believing women to lower their gaze...)."

And Allah says;

وَقُل لِّلْمُوْمِنَاتِ يَغْضُضْنَ مِنْ أَبْصَارِهِنَّ

And tell the believing women to lower their gaze,

meaning, from that which Allah has forbidden them to look at, apart from their husbands.

(Some) scholars said that it is permissible for women to look at non-Mahram men without desire, as it was recorded in the Sahih that the Messenger of Allah was watching the Ethiopians playing with spears in the Masjid on the day of `Id, and A'ishah the Mother of the believers was watching them from behind him and he was concealing her from them, until she got bored and went away.

وَيَحْفَظْنَ فُرُوجَهُنَّ

and protect their private parts.

Sa`id bin Jubayr said;

"From immoral actions."

Abu Al-Aliyah said;

"Every Ayah of the Qur'an in which protecting the private parts is mentioned means protecting them from Zina, except for this Ayah --
وَيَحْفَظْنَ فُرُوجَهُنَّ
(and protect their private parts), which means protecting them from being seen by anybody."

وَلَا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ إِلاَّ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا

and not to show off their adornment except that which is apparent,

means, they should not show anything of their adornment to non-Mahram men except for whatever it is impossible to hide.

Ibn Mas`ud said;

"Such as clothes and outer garments,"

Meaning what the Arab women used to wear of the veil which covered their clothes and whatever showed from underneath the outer garment. There is no blame on her for this, because this is something that she cannot conceal. Similar to that is what appears of her lower garment and what she cannot conceal.

Al-Hasan, Ibn Sirin, Abu Al-Jawza', Ibrahim An-Nakha`i and others also had the same view as Ibn Mas`ud.

وَلْيَضْرِبْنَ بِخُمُرِهِنَّ عَلَى جُيُوبِهِنَّ

and to draw their veils all over their Juyub,

means that they should wear the outer garment in such a way as to cover their chests and ribs, so that they will be different from the women of the Jahiliyyah, who did not do that but would pass in front of men with their chests completely uncovered, and with their necks, forelocks, hair and earrings uncovered. So Allah commanded the believing women to cover themselves, as He says;

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ قُل لاَِّزْوَاجِكَ وَبَنَاتِكَ وَنِسَاء الْمُوْمِنِينَ يُدْنِينَ عَلَيْهِنَّ مِن جَلَابِيبِهِنَّ ذَلِكَ أَدْنَى أَن يُعْرَفْنَ فَلَا يُوْذَيْنَ

O Prophet! Tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to draw their cloaks all over their bodies. That will be better, that they should be known, so as not to be annoyed. (33;59)

And in this noble Ayah He said;
وَلْيَضْرِبْنَ بِخُمُرِهِنَّ عَلَى جُيُوبِهِنَّ
(and to draw their (Khumur) veils all over their Juyub.
Khumur (veils) is the plural of Khimar, which means something that covers, and is what is used to cover the head. This is what is known among the people as a veil.

Sa`id bin Jubayr said;

وَلْيَضْرِبْنَ
(and to draw), means to pull it around and tie it securely.

بِخُمُرِهِنَّ عَلَى جُيُوبِهِنَّ
(their veils all over their Juyub), means, over their necks and chests so that nothing can be seen of them.

Al-Bukhari recorded that A'ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, said;

"May Allah have mercy on the women of the early emigrants, when Allah revealed the Ayah;
وَلْيَضْرِبْنَ بِخُمُرِهِنَّ عَلَى جُيُوبِهِنَّ
(and to draw their veils all over their Juyub), they tore their aprons and Akhtamar themselves with them."

He also narrated from Safiyyah bint Shaybah that A'ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, used to say;

"When this Ayah;
وَلْيَضْرِبْنَ بِخُمُرِهِنَّ عَلَى جُيُوبِهِنَّ
(and to draw their veils all over their Juyub) was revealed, they took their Izars (waist sheets) and tore them at the edges, and Akhtamar themselves with them."

وَلَا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ إِلاَّ لِبُعُولَتِهِنَّ أَوْ ابَايِهِنَّ أَوْ ابَاء بُعُولَتِهِنَّ أَوْ أَبْنَايِهِنَّ أَوْ أَبْنَاء بُعُولَتِهِنَّ أَوْ إِخْوَانِهِنَّ أَوْ بَنِي إِخْوَانِهِنَّ أَوْ بَنِي أَخَوَاتِهِنَّ

and not to reveal their adornment except to their husbands, or their fathers, or their husband's fathers, or their sons, or their husband's sons, or their brothers or their brother's sons, or their sister's sons,

All of these are a woman's close relatives whom she can never marry (Mahram) and it is permissible for her to show her adornments to them, but without making a wanton display of herself.

Ibn Al-Mundhir recorded that Ikrimah commented on this Ayah,
وَلَا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ إِلاَّ لِبُعُولَتِهِنَّ أَوْ ابَايِهِنَّ أَوْ ابَاء بُعُولَتِهِنَّ
(and not to reveal their adornment except to their husbands, or their fathers, or their husband's fathers...),

"The paternal uncle and maternal uncle are not mentioned here, because they may describe a woman to their sons, so a woman should not remove her Khimar in front of her paternal or maternal uncle."

With regard to the husband, all of this is for his sake, so she should try her best when adorning herself for him, unlike the way she should appear in front of others.

أَوْ نِسَايِهِنَّ

or their women,

this means that she may also wear her adornment in front of other Muslim women, but not in front of the women of Ahl Adh-Dhimmah (Jewish and Christian women), lest they describe her to their husbands.

This is prohibited for all women, but more so in the case of the women of Ahl Adh-Dhimmah, because there is nothing to prevent them from doing that, but Muslim women know that it is unlawful and so, would be deterred from doing it.

The Messenger of Allah said;

لَاا تُبَاشِرِ الْمَرْأَةُ الْمَرْأَةَ فَتَنْعَتَهَا لِزَوْجِهَا كَأَنَّهُ يَنْظُرُ إِلَيْهَا


No woman should describe another woman to her husband so that it is as if he is looking at her.

It was recorded in the Two Sahihs from Ibn Mas`ud.

أَوْ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُهُنَّ

or their right hand possessions.

Ibn Jarir said,

"This means from among the women of the idolators. It is permissible for a Muslim woman to reveal her adornment before such a woman, even if she is an idolatress, because she is her slave-girl."

This was also the view of Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib.

Allah says;

أَوِ التَّابِعِينَ غَيْرِ أُوْلِي الاِْرْبَةِ مِنَ الرِّجَالِ
Tabi`in among men who do not have desire,

such as hired servants and followers who are not at the same level as the woman and are feeble-minded and have no interest in or desire for women.

Ibn Abbas said,

"This is the kind of person who has no desire."

Ikrimah said,

"This is the hermaphrodite, who does not experience erections."

This was also the view of others among the Salaf.

It was narrated in the Sahih from A'ishah that a hermaphrodite, used to enter upon the family of the Messenger of Allah and they used to consider him as one of those who do not have desire, but then the Messenger of Allah came in when he was describing a woman with four rolls of fat in front and eight behind. The Messenger of Allah said,

أَلَا أَرَى هَذَا يَعْلَمُ مَا هَهُنَا لَا يَدْخُلَنَّ عَلَيْكُمْ

Lo! I think this person knows what is they are; he should never enter upon you.

He expelled him, and he stayed in Al-Bayda' and only came on Fridays to get food.

أَوِ الطِّفْلِ الَّذِينَ لَمْ يَظْهَرُوا عَلَى عَوْرَاتِ النِّسَاء

or children who are not aware of the nakedness of women.

Because they are so young they do not understand anything about women or their `Awrah or their soft speech or their enticing ways of walking and moving.

If a child is small and does not understand that, there is nothing wrong with him entering upon women, but if he is an adolescent or approaching adolescence, so that he knows and understands these things, and can make a distinction between who is beautiful and who is not, then he should not enter upon women.

It was recorded in the Two Sahihs that the Messenger of Allah said;

إِيَّاكُمْ وَالدُّخُولَ عَلَى النِّسَاءِ

Avoid entering upon women.

It was said, "O Messenger of Allah, what do you think about the male in-laws!"

He said;

الْحَمْوُ الْمَوْتُ

The male in-law is death.
The Etiquette of Women walking in the Street

Allah's saying;

وَلَا يَضْرِبْنَ بِأَرْجُلِهِنَّ لِيُعْلَمَ مَا يُخْفِينَ مِن زِينَتِهِنَّ

And let them not stamp their feet...

During Jahiliyyah, when women walked in the street wearing anklets and no one could hear them, they would stamp their feet so that men could hear their anklets ringing. Allah forbade the believing women to do this.

By the same token, if there is any other kind of adornment that is hidden, women are forbidden to make any movements that would reveal what is hidden, because Allah says;

وَلَا يَضْرِبْنَ بِأَرْجُلِهِنَّ لِيُعْلَمَ مَا يُخْفِينَ مِن زِينَتِهِنَّ

And let them not stamp their feet so as to reveal what they hide of their adornment.

From that, women are also prohibited from wearing scent and perfume when they are going outside the home, lest men should smell their perfume.

Abu `Isa At-Tirmidhi recorded that Abu Musa, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Prophet said;

كُلُّ عَيْنٍ زَانِيَةٌ وَالْمَرْأَةُ إِذَا اسْتَعْطَرَتْ فَمَرَّتْ بِالْمَجْلِسِ فَهِيَ كَذَا وَكَذَا

Every eye commits fornication and adultery, and when a woman puts on perfume and passes through a gathering, she is such and such -- (meaning an adulteress).

He said,

"And there is a similar report from Abu Hurayrah, and this is Hasan Sahih."

It was also recorded by Abu Dawud and An-Nasa'i.

By the same token, women are also forbidden to walk in the middle of the street, because of what this involves of wanton display.

Abu Dawud recorded that Abu Usayd Al-Ansari said that he heard the Messenger of Allah, as he was coming out of the Masjid and men and women were mixing in the street, telling the women;

اسْتَأْخِرْنَ فَإِنَّهُ لَيْسَ لَكُنَّ أَنْ تَحْقُقْنَ الطَّرِيقَ عَلَيْكُنَّ بِحَافَّاتِ الطَّرِيقِ

Keep back, for you have no right to walk in the middle of the street. You should keep to the sides of the road.

The women used to cling to the walls so much that their clothes would catch on the walls.

وَتُوبُوا إِلَى اللَّهِ جَمِيعًا أَيُّهَا الْمُوْمِنُونَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ




And all of you beg Allah to forgive you all, O believers, that you may be successful.

means, practice what you are commanded in these beautiful manners and praiseworthy characteristics, and give up the evil ways of the people of Jahiliyyah, for the greatest success is to be found in doing what Allah and His Messenger command and avoiding what He forbids.

And Allah is the source of strength