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yastaftūnaka
يَسْتَفْتُونَكَ
They seek your ruling.
quli
قُلِ
Say,
l-lahu
ٱللَّهُ
"Allah
yuf'tīkum
يُفْتِيكُمْ
gives you a ruling
فِى
concerning
l-kalālati
ٱلْكَلَٰلَةِۚ
the Kalala
ini
إِنِ
if
im'ru-on
ٱمْرُؤٌا۟
a man
halaka
هَلَكَ
died
laysa
لَيْسَ
(and) not
lahu
لَهُۥ
he has
waladun
وَلَدٌ
a child
walahu
وَلَهُۥٓ
and he has
ukh'tun
أُخْتٌ
a sister,
falahā
فَلَهَا
then for her
niṣ'fu
نِصْفُ
(is) a half
مَا
(of) what
taraka
تَرَكَۚ
he left.
wahuwa
وَهُوَ
And he
yarithuhā
يَرِثُهَآ
will inherit from her
in
إِن
if
lam
لَّمْ
not
yakun
يَكُن
is
lahā
لَّهَا
for her
waladun
وَلَدٌۚ
a child.
fa-in
فَإِن
But if
kānatā
كَانَتَا
there were
ith'natayni
ٱثْنَتَيْنِ
two females
falahumā
فَلَهُمَا
then for them
l-thuluthāni
ٱلثُّلُثَانِ
two thirds
mimmā
مِمَّا
of what
taraka
تَرَكَۚ
he left.
wa-in
وَإِن
But if
kānū
كَانُوٓا۟
they were
ikh'watan
إِخْوَةً
brothers and sisters
rijālan
رِّجَالًا
men
wanisāan
وَنِسَآءً
and women,
falildhakari
فَلِلذَّكَرِ
then the male will have
mith'lu
مِثْلُ
like
ḥaẓẓi
حَظِّ
share
l-unthayayni
ٱلْأُنثَيَيْنِۗ
(of) the two females.
yubayyinu
يُبَيِّنُ
makes clear
l-lahu
ٱللَّهُ
Allah
lakum
لَكُمْ
to you
an
أَن
lest
taḍillū
تَضِلُّوا۟ۗ
you go astray.
wal-lahu
وَٱللَّهُ
And Allah
bikulli
بِكُلِّ
of every
shayin
شَىْءٍ
thing
ʿalīmun
عَلِيمٌۢ
(is) All-Knower.

Yastaftoonaka qulillaahu yafteekum fil kalaalah; inimru'un halaka laisa lahoo waladunw wa lahoo ukhtun falahaa nisfu maa tarak; wa huwa yarisuhaaa il lam yakkul lahaa walad; fa in kaanatas nataini falahumas sulusaani mimmmaa tarak; wa in kaanooo ikhwatar rijaalanw wa nisaaa'an faliz zakari mislu hazzil unsayayn; yubaiyinullaahu lakum an tadilloo; wallaahu bikulli shai'in Aleem

Sahih International:

They request from you a [legal] ruling. Say, "Allah gives you a ruling concerning one having neither descendants nor ascendants [as heirs]." If a man dies, leaving no child but [only] a sister, she will have half of what he left. And he inherits from her if she [dies and] has no child. But if there are two sisters [or more], they will have two-thirds of what he left. If there are both brothers and sisters, the male will have the share of two females. Allah makes clear to you [His law], lest you go astray. And Allah is Knowing of all things.

1 A. J. Arberry

They will ask thee for a pronouncement. Say: 'God pronounces to you concerning the indirect heirs. If a man perishes having no children, but he has a sister, she shall receive a half of what he leaves, and he is her heir if she has no children. If there be two sisters, they shall receive two-thirds of what he leaves; if there be brothers and sisters, the male shall receive the portion of two females. God makes clear to you, lest you go astray; God has knowledge of everything.

2 Abdul Haleem

They ask you [Prophet] for a ruling. Say, ‘God gives you a ruling about inheritance from someone who dies childless with no surviving parents. If a man leaves a sister, she is entitled to half of the inheritance; if she has no child her brother is her sole heir; if there are two sisters, they are entitled to two-thirds of the inheritance between them, but if there are surviving brothers and sisters, the male is entitled to twice the share of the female. God makes this clear to you so that you do not make mistakes: He has full knowledge of everything.’

3 Abdul Majid Daryabadi

They ask thee for pronouncement. Say thou: Allah pronounceth thus in the matter of one without father or child: if a person perisheth and hath no child, but hath a sister, hers shall be the half of that which he hath left: and he shall be her heir if she hath no child, if there be two sisters, then theirs shall be two-third of that which he hath left; and if there be both brothers and sisters, then male shall have as much as the portion of two females. Allah expoundeth unto you, lest ye err; and Allah is of everything Knower.

4 Abdullah Yusuf Ali

They ask thee for a legal decision. Say; Allah directs (thus) about those who leave no descendants or ascendants as heirs. If it is a man that dies, leaving a sister but no child, she shall have half the inheritance; If (such a deceased was) a woman, who left no child, Her brother takes her inheritance; If there are two sisters, they shall have two-thirds of the inheritance (between them); if there are brothers and sisters, (they share), the male having twice the share of the female. Thus doth Allah make clear to you (His law), lest ye err. And Allah hath knowledge of all things.

5 Abul Ala Maududi

People ask you to pronounce a ruling concerning inheritance from those who have left behind no lineal heirs (kalalah). Say: 'Allah pronounces for you the ruling: should a man die childless but have a sister, she shall have one half of what he has left behind; and should the sister die childless, his brother shall inherit her. And if the heirs are two sisters, they shall have two-thirds of what he has left behind. And if the heirs are sisters and brothers, then the male shall have the share of two females. Allah makes (His commandments) clear to you lest you go astray. Allah has full knowledge of everything.

6 Ahmed Ali

They ask you for judgement about 'Kalalah' (a man who dies childless). Say: "God has given a decision in the matter of inheritance." If a man dies and leaves no child behind but have a sister, she will get a half of what he owned, as he would have done the whole of what she possessed if she had died a childless person. In ease he has two sisters then they will get two-thirds of the heritage. But if he has both brothers and sisters, the male will inherit a share equal to that of two females. God makes this manifest to you lest you wander astray, for God has knowledge of everything.

7 Ahmed Raza Khan

O dear Prophet (Mohammed – peace and blessings be upon him), they ask you for a decree; say, “Allah decrees you concerning the solitary person (without parents or children); if a man dies childless and has a sister, for her is half the inheritance; and the man is his sister’s heir if the sister dies childless; and if there are two sisters, for them is two-thirds of the inheritance; so if there are brothers and sisters, both men and women, the male’s share is equal to that of two females; and Allah explains clearly to you, so that you do not go astray; and Allah knows all things.”

8 Ali Quli Qarai

They ask you for a ruling. Say, ‘Allah gives you a ruling concerning the kalalah: If a man dies and has no children [or parents], but has a sister, for her shall be a half of what he leaves, and he shall inherit from her if she has no children. If there be two sisters, then they shall receive two-thirds of what he leaves. But if there be [several] brothers and sisters, then for the male shall be the like of the share of two females. Allah explains [the laws] for you lest you should go astray, and Allah has knowledge of all things.’

9 Ali Ünal

They ask you (O Messenger) to pronounce a ruling. Say (to them): God pronounces to you the ruling concerning inheritance from those who have left behind no lineal heirs (kalalah): should a man die childless but have a sister, for her is the half of what he has left behind; and the brother will inherit from her if the sister dies childless. If the heirs are two sisters, for them is two-thirds of what he has left behind. And if the heirs are brothers and sisters, then for the male is the equivalent of the portion of two females. God makes (His commandments) clear to you lest you go astray. God has full knowledge of everything.

10 Amatul Rahman Omar

They ask you of your ruling (in the matter of inheritance of a kalâlah). Say, `Allâh gives you His ruling concerning kalâlah (- one who has neither parents left nor a child).´ If a man dies (and) he has no child but leaves (only) a sister (behind), then she shall inherit half of what he leaves. Likewise he (- the brother who is kalâlah) shall inherit her (whole property) if she (- the sister) has no child (and dies). But if there be two sisters (or more) then they shall receive two third of what he (- brother who is kalâlah) leaves. And if they (- the survivors) be brethren, men and women, then for the male is the equal of the portion of two females. Allâh makes (His commandments) clear to you lest you should err. And Allâh knows all things well.

11 English Literal

They ask your opinion/clarification , say: "God decrees/decides in the man or woman without a son/father , if (a) man/human died, not for him (without) a child, and for him (is) a sister, so for her half (of) what he left, and he inherits her if (there) was not for her a child, and if they (B) were two (F), so to them (B/F) the two thirds from what he left, and if they were brothers (siblings) men and women, so to the male equal/alike (the) share (of) the two females, God clarifies for you that (E) you (not) be misguided, and God is with every thing knowledgeable.65

12 Faridul Haque

O dear Prophet (Mohammed - peace and blessings be upon him), they ask you for a decree; say, "Allah decrees you concerning the solitary person (without parents or children); if a man dies childless and has a sister, for her is half the inheritance; and the man is his sister’s heir if the sister dies childless; and if there are two sisters, for them is two-thirds of the inheritance; so if there are brothers and sisters, both men and women, the male’s share is equal to that of two females; and Allah explains clearly to you, so that you do not go astray; and Allah knows all things."

13 Hamid S. Aziz

O you who believe! Fulfil all your undertakings (and obligations). Lawful for you are beasts, save what is here announced. Forbidden you is the chase while you are on pilgrimage. Verily, Allah ordains according to His Will and Plan.

14 Hilali & Khan

They ask you for a legal verdict. Say: "Allah directs (thus) about Al-Kalalah (those who leave neither descendants nor ascendants as heirs). If it is a man that dies, leaving a sister, but no child, she shall have half the inheritance. If (such a deceased was) a woman, who left no child, her brother takes her inheritance. If there are two sisters, they shall have two-thirds of the inheritance; if there are brothers and sisters, the male will have twice the share of the female. (Thus) does Allah makes clear to you (His Law) lest you go astray. And Allah is the All-Knower of everything."

15 Maulana Mohammad Ali

Then as for those who believe in Allah and hold fast by Him, He will admit them to His mercy and grace, and guide them to Himself on a right path.

16 Mohammad Habib Shakir

They ask you for a decision of the law. Say: Allah gives you a decision concerning the person who has neither parents nor offspring; if a man dies (and) he has no son and he has a sister, she shall have half of what he leaves, and he shall be her heir she has no son; but if there be two (sisters), they shall have two-thirds of what he leaves; and if there are brethren, men and women, then the male shall have the like of the portion of two females; Allah makes clear to you, lest you err; and Allah knows all things.

17 Mohammed Marmaduke William Pickthall

They ask thee for a pronouncement. Say: Allah hath pronounced for you concerning distant kindred. If a man die childless and he have a sister, hers is half the heritage, and he would have inherited from her had she died childless. And if there be two sisters, then theirs are two-thirds of the heritage, and if they be brethren, men and women, unto the male is the equivalent of the share of two females. Allah expoundeth unto you, so that ye err not. Allah is Knower of all things.

18 Muhammad Sarwar

(Muhammad), they seek your verdict. Tell them, "God commands this concerning your kindred: If a man dies childless but has a sister, she will receive half of the legacy. If a woman dies childless, her brother will receive the whole legacy. If a childless man leaves only two sisters, both will receive two-thirds of the legacy. If the heirs are both sisters and brothers, the share of a male will be twice as much as the share of the female. God explains His Laws to you so that you will not go astray. God knows all things.

19 Qaribullah & Darwish

They will ask you for a verdict. Say: 'Allah rules for you concerning the indirect heir (alkalalah which is), if a person dies, having no children, but he has a sister, she shall receive half of what he leaves, and he is her heir if she has no children. If there are two sisters, they shall receive twothirds of what he leaves, if there are siblings, men and women, for a male like the share of two females. Allah clarifies to you, lest you go astray, Allah is Knowledgeable of everything.

20 Safi-ur-Rahman al-Mubarakpuri

They ask you for a legal verdict. Say: "Allah directs (thus) about Al-Kalalah. If it is a man that dies leaving a sister, but no child, she shall have half the inheritance, and [in her case] he will be her heir if she has no children. If there are two sisters, they shall have two-thirds of the inheritance; if there are brothers and sisters, the male will have twice the share of the female. (Thus) does Allah make clear to you (His Law) lest you go astray. And Allah is the All-Knower of everything."

21 Wahiduddin Khan

They ask you for instruction. Say, "God instructs you concerning the indirect heirs. If a person dies childless but has a sister, she receives half of what he leaves, and he is her heir if she dies childless. If there are two sisters, they receive two-thirds of what he leaves. If there are brothers and sisters, the share of each male shall be that of two females. God makes things clear to you, so that you will not go astray. God has knowledge of all things."

22 Talal Itani

They ask you for a ruling. Say, “God gives you a ruling concerning the person who has neither parents nor children.” If a man dies, and leaves no children, and he had a sister, she receives one-half of what he leaves. And he inherits from her if she leaves no children. But if there are two sisters, they receive two-thirds of what he leaves. If the siblings are men and women, the male receives the share of two females.” God makes things clear for you, lest you err. God is Aware of everything.

23 Tafsir jalalayn

They will ask you for a pronouncement, concerning indirect heirs. Say; `God pronounces to you concerning indirect heirs. If a man (in imru'un is in the nominative because of the verb [halaka, `perishes'] that explains it) perishes, dies, having no children, and no parent, and this is the one referred to as an indirect heir (kalla), but he has a sister, from both parents or from one, hers is half of what he leaves, and he, a brother, similarly, is her heir, in all that she leaves, if she has no children; but if she has a son, then he [the maternal uncle] receives nothing, and if a daughter, then whatever is left after her share; if the brother and sister be from the same mother, then the one receives a sixth, as was stipulated at the beginning of the sra [Q. 4;11]. If there be two sisters, or more -- for this was revealed regarding Jbir [b. `Abd Allh], who died and was survived by sisters --, theirs are two-thirds of what he, the brother, leaves; if there be, among the inheritors, siblings, men and women, then the male, among them, shall receive the equivalent of the portion of two females. God makes clear to you, the stipulations of your religion, lest you go astray; and God has knowledge of all things', including [matters of] inheritance; it is reported by the two Shaykhs [Bukhr and Muslim] that al-Bar' [b. `zib] said that this was the last of the `duty' verses to be revealed. Medinese; [consisting of] 120 verses, revealed after [srat] al-Fath.

24 Tafseer Ibn Kathir

This is the Last Ayah Ever Revealed, the Ruling on Al-Kalalah

Al-Bukhari recorded that;

Al-Bara' said that the last Surah to be revealed was Surah Bara'ah (Surah 9) and the last Ayah to be revealed was,
يَسْتَفْتُونَكَ
(They ask you for a legal verdict...).

Imam Ahmad recorded that Jabir bin Abdullah said,

"The Messenger of Allah came visiting me when I was so ill that I fell unconscious. He performed ablution and poured the remaining water on me, or had it poured on me. When I regained consciousness, I said, `I will only leave inheritance through Kalalah, so what about the inheritance that I leave behind.'

Allah later revealed the Ayah about Fara'id (inheritance (4;11)."'

The Two Sahihs and also the Group recorded it.

In one of the wordings, Jabir said that the Ayah on inheritance was revealed;

يَسْتَفْتُونَكَ قُلِ اللّهُ يُفْتِيكُمْ فِي الْكَلَلَةِ

They ask you for a legal verdict. Say;"Allah directs (thus) about Al-Kalalah.

The wording of the Ayah indicates that the question was about the Kalalah,
قُلِ اللّهُ يُفْتِيكُمْ
(Say;"Allah directs (thus)...).

We mentioned the meaning of Kalalah before, that it means the crown that surrounds the head from all sides. This is why the scholars stated that;
Kalalah pertains to one who dies and leaves behind neither descendants, nor ascendants.

Some said that;

the Kalalah pertains to one who has no offspring, as the Ayah states.

إِنِ امْرُوٌ هَلَكَ لَيْسَ لَهُ وَلَدٌ
..

If it is a man that dies, leaving no child,

The meaning and ruling of Kalalah was somewhat confusing to the Leader of the Faithful Umar bin Al-Khattab.

It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that Umar said,

"There are three matters that I wished the Messenger of Allah had explained to us, so that we could abide by his explanation. They are;

(the share in the inheritance of) the grandfather,

the Kalalah and

a certain type of Riba."

Imam Ahmad recorded that Ma`dan bin Abi Talhah said that Umar bin Al-Khattab said,

"There is nothing that I asked the Messenger of Allah about its meaning more than the Kalalah, until he stabbed me with his finger in my chest and said,

يَكْفِيكَ ايَةُ الصَّيْفِ الَّتِي فِي اخِرِ سُورَةِ النِّسَاء

The Ayah that is in the end of Surah An-Nisa' should suffice for you."

Ahmad mentioned this short narration for this Hadith, Muslim recorded a longer form of it.
The Meaning of This Ayah

Allah said,

إِنِ امْرُوٌ هَلَكَ

If it is a man that dies.

Allah said in another Ayah,

كُلُّ شَىْءٍ هَالِكٌ إِلاَّ وَجْهَهُ

Everything will perish save His Face. (28;88)

Therefore, everything and everyone dies and perishes except Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored.

Allah said,

كُلُّ مَنْ عَلَيْهَا فَانٍ

وَيَبْقَى وَجْهُ رَبِّكَ ذُو الْجَلْـلِ وَالاِكْرَامِ

Whatsoever is on it (the earth) will perish. And the Face of your Lord full of majesty and honor will remain forever. (55;26-27)

Allah said here,

لَيْسَ لَهُ وَلَدٌ

leaving no child,

referring to the person who has neither children, nor parents.

What testifies to this, is that Allah said afterwards,

وَلَهُ أُخْتٌ فَلَهَا نِصْفُ مَا تَرَكَ

Leaving a sister, she shall have half the inheritance.

Had there been a surviving ascendant, the sister would not have inherited anything, and there is a consensus on this point.

Therefore, this Ayah is referring to the man who dies leaving behind neither descendants nor ascendants, as is apparent for those who contemplate its meaning. This is because when there is a surviving parent, the sister does not inherit anything, let alone half of the inheritance.

Ibn Jarir and others mentioned that;

Ibn Abbas and Ibn Az-Zubayr used to judge that if a person dies and leaves behind a daughter and a sister, the sister does not inherit anything. They would recite,
إِنِ امْرُوٌ هَلَكَ

لَيْسَ لَهُ وَلَدٌ وَلَهُ أُخْتٌ فَلَهَا نِصْفُ مَا تَرَكَ
(If it is a man that dies, leaving a sister, but no child, she shall have half the inheritance).

They said that;

if one leaves behind a daughter, then he has left behind a child. Therefore the sister does not get anything.

The majority of scholars disagreed with them, saying the daughter gets one half and the sister the other half, relying on other evidence. This Ayah (4;176 above) gives the sister half of the inheritance in the case that it specifies.

As for giving the sister half in other cases, Al-Bukhari recorded that Sulayman said that Ibrahim reported to Al-Aswad that he said,

"During the time of the Messenger of Allah, Mu`adh bin Jabal gave a judgment that the daughter gets one half and the sister the other half."

Al-Bukhari recorded that Huzayl bin Shurahbil said,

"Abu Musa Al-Ash`ari was asked about the case when there was a daughter, grand-daughter and sister to inherit.

He said, `The daughter gets one-half and the sister one-half.'

Go and ask Ibn Mas`ud, although I think he is going to agree with me.'

So Ibn Mas`ud was asked and was told about Abu Musa's answer, and Ibn Mas`ud commented, `I would have deviated then and would not have become among those who are rightly guided. I will give a judgment similar to the judgment given by the Prophet.

The daughter gets one-half, the grand-daughter gets one-sixth, and these two shares will add up to two-thirds. Whatever is left will be for the sister.'

We went back to Abu Musa and conveyed to him Ibn Mas`ud's answer and he said, `Do not ask me (for legal verdicts) as long as this scholar is still among you."'

Allah then said,

وَهُوَ يَرِثُهَأ إِن لَّمْ يَكُن لَّهَا وَلَدٌ
and he will be her heir if she has no children.

This Ayah means, the brother inherits all of that his sister leaves behind if she has no surviving offspring or parents. If she has a surviving parent, her brother would not inherit anything. If there is someone who gets a fixed share in the inheritance, such as a husband or half brother from the mother's side, they take their share and the rest goes to the brother.

It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that Ibn Abbas said that the Messenger of Allah said,

ألْحِقُوا الْفَرَايِضَ بِأَهْلِهَا فَمَا أَبْقَتِ الْفَرايِضُ فَلَِوْلَى رَجُلٍ ذَكَر

Give the Farai'd to its people, and whatever is left is the share of the nearest male relative.

Allah said,

فَإِن كَانَتَا اثْنَتَيْنِ فَلَهُمَا الثُّلُثَانِ مِمَّا تَرَكَ

If there are two sisters, they shall have two-thirds of the inheritance;

meaning, if the person who dies in Kalalah has two sisters, they get two-thirds of the inheritance. More than two sisters share in the two-thirds.

From this Ayah, the scholars took the ruling regarding the two daughters, or more, that they share in the two-thirds, just as the share of the sisters (two or more) was taken from the Ayah about the daughters,
فَإِن كُنَّ نِسَاء فَوْقَ اثْنَتَيْنِ فَلَهُنَّ ثُلُثَا مَا تَرَكَ
(if (there are) only daughters, two or more, their share is two thirds of the inheritance. (4;11)

Allah said,

وَإِن كَانُواْ إِخْوَةً رِّجَالاً وَنِسَاء فَلِلذَّكَرِ مِثْلُ حَظِّ الاُنثَيَيْنِ

if there are brothers and sisters, the male will have twice the share of the female.

This is the share that the male relatives (sons, grandsons, brothers) regularly get, that is, twice as much as the female gets.

Allah said,

يُبَيِّنُ اللّهُ لَكُمْ

(Thus) does Allah make clear to you...,

His Law and set limits, clarifying His legislation,

أَن تَضِلُّواْ

Lest you go astray.

from the truth after this explanation.

وَاللّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ



And Allah is the All-Knower of everything.

Allah has perfect knowledge in the consequences of everything and in the benefit that each matter carries for His servants. He also knows what each of the relatives deserves from the inheritance, according to the degree of relation he or she has with the deceased.

Ibn Jarir recorded that Tariq bin Shihab said that;

Umar gathered the Companions of the Messenger of Allah once and said, "I will give a ruling concerning the Kalalah that even women will talk about it in their bedrooms."

A snake then appeared in the house and the gathering had to disperse.

Umar commented, `Had Allah willed this (Umar's verdict regarding the Kalalah) to happen, it would have happened."

The chain of narration for this story is authentic.

Al-Hakim, Abu Abdullah An-Naysaburi recorded that;

Umar bin Al-Khattab said, `Had I asked the Messenger of Allah regarding three things, it would have been better for me than red camels. They are;

who should be the Khalifah after him;

about a people who said, `We agree to pay Zakah, but not to you (meaning to the Khalifah),' if we are allowed to fight them;

and about the Kalalah."

Al-Hakim said, "Its chain is Sahih according to the Two Sheikhs, and they did not recorded it."

Ibn Jarir also said that it was reported that Umar said,

"I feel shy to change a ruling that Abu Bakr issued. Abu Bakr used to say that the Kalalah is the person who has no descendants or ascendants."

Abu Bakr's saying is what the majority of scholars among the Companions, their followers and the earlier and later Imams agree with. This is also the ruling that the Qur'an indicates. For Allah stated that He has explained and made plain the ruling of the Kalalah, when He said,
يُبَيِّنُ اللّهُ لَكُمْ أَن تَضِلُّواْ وَاللّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ
((Thus) does Allah makes clear to you (His Law) lest you go astray. And Allah is the All-Knower of everything).

And Allah knows best.

This is the end of the Tafsir of Surah Al-Nisa'. Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, is the Guide to the right way.

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