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illā
إِلَّا
Except
alladhīna
ٱلَّذِينَ
those who
yaṣilūna
يَصِلُونَ
join
ilā
إِلَىٰ
[to]
qawmin
قَوْمٍۭ
a group
baynakum
بَيْنَكُمْ
between you
wabaynahum
وَبَيْنَهُم
and between them
mīthāqun
مِّيثَٰقٌ
(is) a treaty
aw
أَوْ
or
jāūkum
جَآءُوكُمْ
those who come to you
ḥaṣirat
حَصِرَتْ
restraining
ṣudūruhum
صُدُورُهُمْ
their hearts
an
أَن
that
yuqātilūkum
يُقَٰتِلُوكُمْ
they fight you
aw
أَوْ
or
yuqātilū
يُقَٰتِلُوا۟
they fight
qawmahum
قَوْمَهُمْۚ
their people.
walaw
وَلَوْ
And if
shāa
شَآءَ
(had) willed,
l-lahu
ٱللَّهُ
Allah,
lasallaṭahum
لَسَلَّطَهُمْ
surely He (would have) given them power
ʿalaykum
عَلَيْكُمْ
over you,
falaqātalūkum
فَلَقَٰتَلُوكُمْۚ
and surely they (would have) fought you.
fa-ini
فَإِنِ
So if
iʿ'tazalūkum
ٱعْتَزَلُوكُمْ
they withdraw from you
falam
فَلَمْ
and (do) not
yuqātilūkum
يُقَٰتِلُوكُمْ
they fight you
wa-alqaw
وَأَلْقَوْا۟
and offer
ilaykumu
إِلَيْكُمُ
to you
l-salama
ٱلسَّلَمَ
[the] peace
famā
فَمَا
then not
jaʿala
جَعَلَ
(has) made
l-lahu
ٱللَّهُ
Allah
lakum
لَكُمْ
for you
ʿalayhim
عَلَيْهِمْ
against them
sabīlan
سَبِيلًا
a way.

Illal lazeena yasiloona ilaa qawmim binakum wa bainahum meesaaqun aw jaaa'ookum hasirat sudooruhum ai yuqaatilookum aw yuqaatiloo qawmahum, wa law shaaa'al laahu lasallatahum 'alaikum falaqaatalookum; fa ini' tazalookum falam yuqaatilookum wa alqaw ilaikumus salama famaa ja'alal laahu lakum 'alaihim sabeelaa

Sahih International:

Except for those who take refuge with a people between yourselves and whom is a treaty or those who come to you, their hearts strained at [the prospect of] fighting you or fighting their own people. And if Allah had willed, He could have given them power over you, and they would have fought you. So if they remove themselves from you and do not fight you and offer you peace, then Allah has not made for you a cause [for fighting] against them.

1 A. J. Arberry

except those that betake themselves to a people who are joined with you by a compact, or come to you with breasts constricted from fighting with you or fighting their people. Had God willed, He would have given them authority over you, and then certainly they would have fought you. If they withdraw from you, and do not fight you, and offer you peace, then God assigns not any way to you against them.

2 Abdul Haleem

But as for those who seek refuge with people with whom you have a treaty, or who come over to you because their hearts shrink from fighting against you or against their own people, God could have given them power over you, and they would have fought you. So if they withdraw and do not fight you, and offer you peace, then God gives you no way against them.

3 Abdul Majid Daryabadi

Excepting those who join a people between whom and you there is a bond or who come to you with their breasts straitened that they should fight you or fight their own people. And had Allah so willed, He would have surely set them upon you. If then they withdraw from you, and fight not against you and offer you peace, then Allah openoth not for you against them a way.

4 Abdullah Yusuf Ali

Except those who join a group between whom and you there is a treaty (of peace), or those who approach you with hearts restraining them from fighting you as well as fighting their own people. If Allah had pleased, He could have given them power over you, and they would have fought you; Therefore if they withdraw from you but fight you not, and (instead) send you (Guarantees of) peace, then Allah Hath opened no way for you (to war against them).

5 Abul Ala Maududi

unless it be such of them who seek refuge with a people who are joined with you by a covenant, or those who come to you because their hearts shrink from fighting either against you or against their own people. Had Allah so willed, He would certainly have given them power over you and they would have fought against you. If they leave you alone and do not fight against you and offer you peace,, then Allah does not permit you to harm them.

6 Ahmed Ali

Except those who take refuge with a people allied to you, or those who, weary of fighting you or their people, come over to you. If God had so willed He would surely have given them power over you, and they would have fought you. If they keep aloof and do not fight, and offer peace, God has left you no reason to fight them.

7 Ahmed Raza Khan

Except those who are related to the people between whom and you is a treaty, or who come to you with their hearts no longer having the will to fight you or to fight their own people; had Allah willed, He would certainly have given them power over you so that they would have surely fought you; then if they avoid you and do not wage war against you and make an offer of peace – then Allah has not kept for you a way against them.

8 Ali Quli Qarai

excepting those who join a people between whom and you there is a treaty, or such as come to you with hearts reluctant to fight you, or to fight their own people. Had Allah wished, He would have imposed them upon you, and then they would have surely fought you. So if they keep out of your way and do not fight you, and offer you peace, then Allah does not allow you any course [of action] against them.

9 Ali Ünal

Except those who seek refuge in a people between whom and you there is a treaty (of peace or alliance), or (those who) come to you with hearts shrinking from fighting against you as well as fighting against their own people. Had God willed, He would certainly have given them power over you and they would have fought against you. If they withdraw from you and do not fight against you, and offer you peace, then God allows you no way (to war) against them.

10 Amatul Rahman Omar

Different, however, is the case of those who join a people with whom you have a pact, or of those who come over to you whilst their hearts are constricted from fighting against you or fighting against their (own) people. If Allâh had so willed He would have given them power over you, then they certainly would have fought against you. Hence if they leave you alone and do not fight against you but make you an offer of peace then Allâh allows you no way (of fighting) against them.

11 English Literal

Except those who reach to (a) nation between you and between them (is) a) covenant (treaty), or they came to you, their chests (are) restricted/depressed , that they fight/kill you, or they fight/kill their nation, and if God wanted/willed, He would have empowered them on you, so they would have fought/killed you (P), so if they separated/isolated themselves from you , so they did not fight/kill you, and they threw (offered) to you the peace/surrender , so God did not make for you on them a path/means.

12 Faridul Haque

Except those who are related to the people between whom and you is a treaty, or who come to you with their hearts no longer having the will to fight you or to fight their own people; had Allah willed, He would certainly have given them power over you so that they would have surely fought you; then if they avoid you and do not wage war against you and make an offer of peace - then Allah has not kept for you a way against them.

13 Hamid S. Aziz

It is not for a believer to kill a believer save by mistake; and whoever kills a believer by mistake then let him free a believing slave and compensation must be paid to his people, unless they remit it as charity. But if he be from a tribe hostile to you and yet a believer, then let him free a believing slave. And if he comes from a people betwixt whom and you there is an alliance, then let the compensation be paid to his folk and let him also free a believing slave. But he who cannot find the means, then let him fast for two consecutive months - a penance this from Allah, for Allah is Knower, Wise.

14 Hilali & Khan

Except those who join a group, between you and whom there is a treaty (of peace), or those who approach you with their breasts restraining from fighting you as well as fighting their own people. Had Allah willed, indeed He would have given them power over you, and they would have fought you. So if they withdraw from you, and fight not against you, and offer you peace, then Allah has opened no way for you against them.

15 Maulana Mohammad Ali

They long that you should disbelieve as they have disbelieved so that you might be on the same level; so take not from among them friends until they flee (their homes) in Allah’s way. Then if they turn back (to hostility), seize them and kill them wherever you find them, and take no friend nor helper from among them,

16 Mohammad Habib Shakir

Except those who reach a people between whom and you there is an alliance, or who come to you, their hearts shrinking from fighting you or fighting their own people; and if Allah had pleased, He would have given them power over you, so that they should have certainly fought you; therefore if they withdraw from you and do not fight you and offer you peace, then Allah has not given you a way against them.

17 Mohammed Marmaduke William Pickthall

Except those who seek refuge with a people between whom and you there is a covenant, or (those who) come unto you because their hearts forbid them to make war on you or make war on their own folk. Had Allah willed He could have given them power over you so that assuredly they would have fought you. So, if they hold aloof from you and wage not war against you and offer you peace, Allah alloweth you no way against them.

18 Muhammad Sarwar

except with those who attach themselves to your allies or come to you with no desire to fight you or their own people. God could have given them power to fight you. Thus, if they retreat, stop fighting and come forward expressing faith in Islam God will not allow you to fight them.

19 Qaribullah & Darwish

except those who join to a nation in which there is between you and them a treaty, or they come to you with their chests constricted from fighting you or fighting their nation. Had Allah willed, He would have given them power over you, and then they would have certainly fought you. Therefore, if they keep away from you and do not fight you, offering you peace, then Allah does not make any way for you against them.

20 Safi-ur-Rahman al-Mubarakpuri

Except those who join a group, between you and whom there is a treaty (of peace), or those who approach you with their breasts restraining from fighting you as well as fighting their own people. Had Allah willed, indeed He would have given them power over you, and they would have fought you. So, if they withdraw from you, and fight not against you, and offer you peace, then Allah has made no way for you against them.

21 Wahiduddin Khan

But make an exception of those who seek refuge with people with whom you have a treaty, or who come over to you because their hearts forbid them to fight against you or against their own people. Had God pleased, He would have given them power over you, so that they would have taken up arms against you. Therefore, if they keep away from you and cease their hostility and propose peace to you, God does not allow you to harm them.

22 Talal Itani

Except those who join people with whom you have a treaty, or those who come to you reluctant to fight you or fight their own people. Had God willed, He would have given them power over you, and they would have fought you. If they withdraw from you, and do not fight you, and offer you peace, then God assigns no excuse for you against them.

23 Tafsir jalalayn

Except those who attach themselves to, [who] seek refuge with, a people between whom and you there is a covenant, a pledge of security for them and for whoever attaches himself to them, in the manner of the Prophet's (s) covenant with Hill b. `Uwaymir al-Aslam; or, those who, come to you with their breasts constricted, dejected, about the prospect of fighting you, [being] on the side of their people, or fighting their people, siding with you, in other words, [those who come to you] refraining from fighting either you or them, then do not interfere with them, neither taking them as captives nor slaying them; this statement and what follows was abrogated by the `sword' verse. Had God willed, to give them sway over you, He would have given them sway over you, by strengthening their hearts, so that assuredly they would have fought you; but God did not will it and so He cast terror into their hearts. And so if they stay away from you and do not fight you, and offer you peace, reconciliation, that is, [if] they submit, then God does not allow you any way against them, [He does not allow you] a means to take them captive or to slay them.

24 Tafseer Ibn Kathir

إِلاَّ الَّذِينَ يَصِلُونَ إِلَىَ قَوْمٍ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَهُم مِّيثَاقٌ



Except those who join a group, between you and whom there is a treaty (of peace),

meaning, except those who join and take refuge with a people with whom you have a pact of peace, or people of Dhimmah, then treat them as you treat the people with whom you have peace.

This is the saying of As-Suddi, Ibn Zayd and Ibn Jarir.

In his Sahih, Al-Bukhari recorded the story of the treaty of Al-Hudaybiyyah, where it was mentioned that;

whoever liked to have peace with Quraysh and conduct a pact with them, then they were allowed. Those who liked to have peace with Muhammad and his Companions and enter a pact with them were allowed.

It was reported that Ibn Abbas said that;

this Ayah was later abrogated by Allah's statement,

فَإِذَا انسَلَخَ الَاشْهُرُ الْحُرُمُ فَاقْتُلُواْ الْمُشْرِكِينَ حَيْثُ وَجَدتُّمُوهُمْ

Then when the Sacred Months have passed, kill the idolators wherever you find them. (9;5)

Allah said,

أَوْ جَأوُوكُمْ حَصِرَتْ صُدُورُهُمْ

or those who approach you with their breasts restraining,

referring to another type of people covered by the exclusion from fighting. They are those who approach the Muslims with hesitation in their hearts because of their aversion to fighting the Muslims.

أَن يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ أَوْ يُقَاتِلُواْ قَوْمَهُمْ

from fighting you as well as fighting their own people.

They do not have the heart to fight with the Muslims against their own people. Therefore, they are neither with nor against Muslims.

وَلَوْ شَاء اللّهُ لَسَلَّطَهُمْ عَلَيْكُمْ فَلَقَاتَلُوكُمْ

Had Allah willed, indeed He would have given them power over you, and they would have fought you.

meaning, it is from Allah's mercy that He has stopped them from fighting you.

فَإِنِ اعْتَزَلُوكُمْ فَلَمْ يُقَاتِلُوكُمْ وَأَلْقَوْاْ إِلَيْكُمُ السَّلَمَ

So, if they withdraw from you, and fight not against you, and offer you peace,

meaning, they revert to peace.

فَمَا جَعَلَ اللّهُ لَكُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ سَبِيلً



then Allah has opened no way for you against them.

you do not have the right to kill them, as long as they take this position.

This was the position of Banu Hashim (the tribe of the Prophet), such as Al-Abbas, who accompanied the idolators in the battle of Badr, for they joined the battle with great hesitation. This is why the Prophet commanded that Al-Abbas not be killed, but only captured.

Allah's statement