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ARBNDEENIDTRUR
وَٱلَّذِينَ
And those who
يُتَوَفَّوْنَ
pass away
مِنكُمْ
among you
وَيَذَرُونَ
and leave behind
أَزْوَٰجًا
wives,
يَتَرَبَّصْنَ
(the widows) should wait
بِأَنفُسِهِنَّ
for themselves
أَرْبَعَةَ
(for) four
أَشْهُرٍ
months
وَعَشْرًاۖ
and ten (days).
فَإِذَا
Then when
بَلَغْنَ
they reach
أَجَلَهُنَّ
their (specified) term,
فَلَا
then (there is) no
جُنَاحَ
blame
عَلَيْكُمْ
upon you
فِيمَا
for what
فَعَلْنَ
they do
فِىٓ
concerning
أَنفُسِهِنَّ
themselves
بِٱلْمَعْرُوفِۗ
in a fair manner.
وَٱللَّهُ
And Allah
بِمَا
of what
تَعْمَلُونَ
you do
خَبِيرٌ
(is) All-Aware.

Wallazeena yutawaffawna minkum wa yazaroona azwaajai yatarabbasna bi anfusihinna arba'ata ashhurinw wa 'ashran fa izaa balaghna ajalahunna falaa junaaha 'alaikum feemaa fa'alna feee anfusihinna bilma'roof; wallaahu bimaa ta'maloona Khabeer

Sahih International:

And those who are taken in death among you and leave wives behind - they, [the wives, shall] wait four months and ten [days]. And when they have fulfilled their term, then there is no blame upon you for what they do with themselves in an acceptable manner. And Allah is [fully] Acquainted with what you do.

Ahmed Ali

Wives of men who die among you should wait (after their husbands death) for four months and ten days; and when the term is over there is no sin if they do what they like with themselves honourably, for God is aware of all that you do.

Ahmed Raza Khan

And those among you who die leaving wives behind them, then such widows shall restrain themselves for four months and ten days; so when their term is completed, O guardians of such women, there is no sin on you in what the women may decide for themselves in accordance with Islamic law; and Allah is Well Aware of what you do.

Ali Ünal

Those among you who die, leaving behind their wives: they (the wives) shall keep themselves in waiting for four months and ten days, (during which they should refrain from marrying and from self-adornment with a view to presenting themselves for marriage). When they have reached the end of the waiting term, then there is no blame on you for what they may do by themselves within (the bounds of) decency. God is fully aware of all that you do.

Amatul Rahman Omar

Those of you who die and leave wives behind, these (wives) should keep themselves in waiting for four months and ten days (as `Iddat). So when they reach the end of their (prescribed) term (of waiting) then there is no blame on you for what they do with regard to themselves (about their remarriage) in an equitable manner. And Allâh is fully Aware of what you do.

A. J. Arberry

And those of you who die, leaving wives, they shall wait by themselves for four months and ten nights; when they have reached their term then it is no fault in you what they may do with themselves honourably. God is aware of the things you do.

Abdul Majid Daryabadi

And as for those of you who die and leave wives behind, they Shall keep them selves in waiting for four months and ten days. Then when they have attained their period, no blame there is on you for that which they do with them selves reputably. And of that which ye work Allah is aware.

Faridul Haque

And those among you who die leaving wives behind them, then such widows shall restrain themselves for four months and ten days; so when their term is completed, O guardians of such women, there is no sin on you in what the women may decide for themselves in accordance with Islamic law; and Allah is Well Aware of what you do.

Hamid S. Aziz

Those of you who die and leave wives behind, let these wait by themselves for four months and ten days; and when they have reached their prescribed time, there is no crime in them for what they do with themselves in reason; for Allah is well informed of what you do.

Hilali & Khan

And those of you who die and leave wives behind them, they (the wives) shall wait (as regards their marriage) for four months and ten days, then when they have fulfilled their term, there is no sin on you if they (the wives) dispose of themselves in a just and honourable manner (i.e. they can marry). And Allah is Well-Acquainted with what you do.

Talal Itani

As for those among you who die and leave widows behind, their widows shall wait by themselves for four months and ten days. When they have reached their term, there is no blame on you regarding what they might honorably do with themselves. God is fully acquainted with what you do.

English Literal

And those who are made to die from you, and they leave spouses/wives, they (the wives) wait (F) with themselves four months, and ten (days), so if they (F) reached their time/term , so no offense/guilt/sin on you in what they (F) made/did in (with) themselves with the kindness/generosity , and God (is) with what youmake/do expert/experienced.

Abul Ala Maududi

If those of you, who die, leave wives behind, they should abstain (from marriage) for four months and ten days. Then when their waiting term expires, they are free to do whatever they choose for themselves, provided that it is decent; you shall not be answerable for this; Allah is fully aware of what you do.

Maulana Mohammad Ali

And (as for) those of you who die and leave wives behind, such women should keep themselves in waiting for four months and ten days; when they reach their term, there is no blame on you for what they do for themselves in a lawful manner. And Allah is Aware of what you do.

Safi-ur-Rahman al-Mubarakpuri

And those of you who die and leave wives behind them, they (the wives) shall wait (as regards their marriage) for four months and ten days, then when they have fulfilled their term, there is no sin on you if they (the wives) dispose of themselves in a (just and) honorable manner (i.e., they can marry). And Allah is well-acquainted with what you do.

Mohammed Marmaduke William Pickthall

Such of you as die and leave behind them wives, they (the wives) shall wait, keeping themselves apart, four months and ten days. And when they reach the term (prescribed for them) then there is no sin for you in aught that they may do with themselves in decency. Allah is informed of what ye do.

Ali Quli Qarai

As for those of you who die leaving wives, they shall wait by themselves four months and ten days, and when they complete their term, there will be no sin upon you in respect of what they may do with themselves in accordance with honourable norms. And Allah is well aware of what you do.

Qaribullah & Darwish

And those of you who die and leave wives behind such wives shall wait by themselves for four months and ten (nights). When they have reached the end of their waiting period, there shall be no offense for you in whatever they choose for themselves kindly. Allah is Aware of what you do.

Muhammad Sarwar

The wives of those of you who die have to wait for a period of four months and ten days. After this appointed time, it is no sin for the relatives of the deceased to let the widows do what is reasonable. God knows well what you do.

Mohammad Habib Shakir

And (as for) those of you who die and leave wives behind, they should keep themselves in waiting for four months and ten days; then when they have fully attained their term, there is no blame on you for what they do for themselves in a lawful manner; and Allah is aware of what you do.

Wahiduddin Khan

If any of you die and leave widows, the widows should wait for four months and ten days. When they have reached the end of their waiting period you will not be blamed for what they may reasonably choose to do with themselves: God is aware of what you do.

Abdullah Yusuf Ali

If any of you die and leave widows behind, they shall wait concerning themselves four months and ten days; When they have fulfilled their term, there is no blame on you if they dispose of themselves in a just and reasonable manner. And Allah is well acquainted with what ye do.

Tafsir jalalayn

And those of you who pass away, die, leaving, behind, wives, they shall wait by themselves, after their death, refraining from marriage, for four months and ten, nights; this applies to women who are not pregnant. The waiting period in the case of pregnant women is for them to give birth -- as stated by a verse in srat al-Talq [Q. 65;4]. The slavegirl must wait for half this period [of four months] according to the Sunna; when they have reached, completed, their term, of waiting, then you would not be at fault, O guardians, regarding what they may do with themselves, in the way of adorning themselves and offering themselves before suitors, honourably, in accordance with the Law; God is aware of what you do, both secretly and openly.

Tafseer Ibn Kathir

The Iddah (Waiting Period) of the Widow

Allah says;

وَالَّذِينَ يُتَوَفَّوْنَ مِنكُمْ وَيَذَرُونَ أَزْوَاجًا يَتَرَبَّصْنَ بِأَنفُسِهِنَّ أَرْبَعَةَ أَشْهُرٍ وَعَشْرًا
And those of you who die and leave wives behind them, they (the wives) shall wait (as regards their marriage) for four months and ten days,

This Ayah contains a command from Allah to the wives whose husbands die, that they should observe a period of Iddah of four months and ten nights, including the cases where the marriage was consummated or otherwise, according to the consensus (of the scholars).
The proof that this ruling includes the case where the marriage was not consummated is included in the general meaning of the Ayah.
In a narration recorded by Imam Ahmad and the compilers of the Sunan, which At-Tirmidhi graded Sahih,
Ibn Mas`ud was asked about a man who married a woman, but he died before consummating the marriage. He also did not appoint a Mahr (dowry) for her. They kept asking Ibn Mas`ud about this subject until he said,
"I shall give you my own opinion, and if it is correct then it is from Allah, while if it is wrong it is because of my error and because of (the evil efforts of) Satan. In this case, Allah and His Messenger are innocent of my opinion. She has her full Mahr."
In another narration, Ibn Mas`ud said,

"She has a similar Mahr to that of the women of her status, without stinginess or extravagance."
He then continued, "She has to spend the Iddah and has a right to the inheritance."

Ma`qil bin Yasar Ashja`i then stood up and said, "I heard Allah's Messenger issue a similar judgment for the benefit of Barwa` bint Washiq."

Abdullah bin Mas`ud became very delighted upon hearing this statement.
In another narration, several men from Ashja (tribe) stood up and said, "We testify that Allah's Messenger issued a similar ruling for the benefit of Barwa bint Washiq."
As for the case of the widow whose husband dies while she is pregnant, her term of Iddah ends when she gives birth, even if it occurs an instant (after her husband dies). This ruling is taken from Allah's statement;

وَأُوْلَـتُ الاٌّحْمَالِ أَجَلُهُنَّ أَن يَضَعْنَ حَمْلَهُنَّ
And for those who are pregnant, their Iddah is until they lay down their burden. (65;4)

There is also a Hadith from Subay`ah Al-Aslamiyah in the Two Sahihs, through various chains of narration.
Her husband, Sa`d bin Khawlah, died while she was pregnant and she gave birth only a few nights after his death. When she finished her Nifas (postnatal period), she beautified herself for those who might seek to engage her (for marriage).

Then, Abu Sanabil bin Ba`kak came to her and said, "Why do I see you beautified yourself, do you wish to marry? By Allah! You will not marry until the four months and ten nights have passed."

Subay`ah said, "When he said that to me, I collected my garments when night fell and went to Allah's Messenger and asked him about this matter.
He said that my Iddah had finished when I gave birth and allowed me to get married if I wished."
The Wisdom behind legislating the Iddah

Sa`id bin Musayyib and Abu Al-Aliyah stated that;
the wisdom behind making the Iddah of the widow four months and ten nights is that the womb might contain a fetus. When the woman waits for this period, it will become evident if she is pregnant.

Similarly, there is a Hadith in the Two Sahihs narrated by Ibn Mas`ud stating;

إنَّ خَلْقَ أَحَدِكُمْ يُجْمَعُ فِي بَطْنِ أُمِّهِ أَرْبَعِينَ يَوْمًا نُطْفَةً ثُمَّ يَكُونُ عَلَقَةً مِثْلَ ذلِكَ ثُمَّ يَكُونُ مُضْغَةً مِثْلَ ذلِكَ ثُمَّ يُبْعَثُ إِلَيْهِ الْمَلَكُ فَيَنْفُخُ فِيهِ الرُّوح

(The creation of) a human being is put together in the womb of his mother in forty days in the form of a seed, and next he becomes a clot of thick blood for a similar period, and next a morsel of flesh for a similar period. Then, Allah sends an angel who is ordered to breathe life unto the fetus.
So, these are four months and ten more days to be sure, as some months are less (than thirty days), and the fetus will then start to show signs of life after the soul has been breathed into it.

Allah knows best.
The Iddah of the Slave Mother whose Master dies
We should state here that;
the Iddah of the slave mother is the same in the case of death, as the Iddah of the free woman.
Imam Ahmad reported that `Amr bin Al-`As said,
"Do not confuse the Sunnah of our Prophet for us. The Iddah of the mother, who is also a servant, when her master dies, is four months and ten nights."
Mourning is required during the Iddah of Death

Allah said;

فَإِذَا بَلَغْنَ أَجَلَهُنَّ فَلَ جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِيمَا فَعَلْنَ فِي أَنفُسِهِنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَاللّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرٌ


then when they have fulfilled their term, there is no sin on you if they (the wives) dispose of themselves in a (just and) honorable manner (i.e., they can marry). And Allah is well-acquainted with what you do.

This Ayah indicates that mourning for the dead husband is required until the Iddah is finished.
It is also reported in the Two Sahihs that Umm Habibah and Zaynab bint Jahsh narrated that Allah's Messenger said;

لَاا يَحِلُّ لاِامْرَأَةٍ تُوْمِنُ بِاللهِ وَالْيَوْم الاخِر أن تُحِدَّ عَلى مَيِتٍ فَوْقَ ثَلَاثٍ إِلاَّ عَلى زَوْجٍ أَرْبَعَةَ أَشْهُرٍ وَعَشْرًا
It is not lawful for a woman who believes in Allah and the Last Day to mourn for more than three days for any dead person except her husband, for whom she mourns for four months and ten days.
It is reported in the Two Sahihs that Umm Salamah said that;
a woman said, "O Messenger of Allah! My daughter's husband died and she is complaining about her eye, should we administer kohl in her eye?"
He said, "No," several times upon repeating this question.
He then said;

إنَّمَا هِيَ أَرْبَعَةُ أَشْهُرٍ وَعَشْرٌ وَقَدْ كَانَتْ إِحْدَاكُنَّ فِي الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ تَمْكُثُ سَنَة
It is four months and ten (nights)! During the Jahiliyyah, one of you would mourn for an entire year.

Zaiynab the daughter of Umm Salamah said (about the pre-Islamic era of ignorance),

"When the woman's husband died, she would go into seclusion and would wear the worst clothes she has. She would refrain from wearing perfume or any adornments until a year passed. She would then come out of seclusion and would be given dung that she would throw. Then an animal would be brought out, a donkey, a sheep, or a bird. Then some blood would be drained from it, usually resulting in its death."
In short, the mourning required from a wife whose husband dies, includes not using beautification aids, such as wearing perfume and the clothes and jewelry that encourage the men to seek marriage from the woman. All widows must observe this period of mourning whether they are young, old, free, servant, Muslim or disbeliever, as the general meaning of the Ayah indicates.

Allah also said;

فَإِذَا بَلَغْنَ أَجَلَهُنَّ
then when they have fulfilled their term,

According to Ad-Dahhak and Ar-Rabi bin Anas,

meaning, when the Iddah finishes.

فَلَ جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ

there is no sin on you,

Az-Zuhri said,

"Meaning her Wali (guardian)."

فِيمَا فَعَلْنَ
if they (the wives) dispose,

meaning, the women whose Iddah has finished.

Al-Awfi said that Ibn Abbas said,
"If the woman is divorced or if her husband dies and then her Iddah term ends, there is no sin that she beautifies herself, so that she becomes ready for marriage proposals. This is the way `that is just and honorable'."
It was reported that Muqatil bin Hayyan gave the same explanation.
Ibn Jurayj related that Mujahid said;
فَلَ جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِيمَا فَعَلْنَ فِي أَنفُسِهِنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ
(...there is no sin on you if they (the wives) dispose of themselves in a just and honorable manner),

"refers to allowed and pure (honorable) marriage."
It was also reported that Al-Hasan, Az-Zuhri and As-Suddi said the same