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ARBNDEENIDTRUR
وَٱلْوَٰلِدَٰتُ
And the mothers
يُرْضِعْنَ
shall suckle
أَوْلَٰدَهُنَّ
their children
حَوْلَيْنِ
(for) two years
كَامِلَيْنِۖ
complete,
لِمَنْ
for whoever
أَرَادَ
wishes
أَن
to
يُتِمَّ
complete
ٱلرَّضَاعَةَۚ
the suckling.
وَعَلَى
And upon
ٱلْمَوْلُودِ
the father
لَهُۥ
(on) him
رِزْقُهُنَّ
(is) their provision
وَكِسْوَتُهُنَّ
and their clothing
بِٱلْمَعْرُوفِۚ
in a fair manner.
لَا
Not
تُكَلَّفُ
is burdened
نَفْسٌ
any soul
إِلَّا
except
وُسْعَهَاۚ
its capacity
لَا
Not
تُضَآرَّ
made to suffer
وَٰلِدَةٌۢ
(the) mother
بِوَلَدِهَا
because of her child
وَلَا
and not
مَوْلُودٌ
(the) father
لَّهُۥ
(on) him
بِوَلَدِهِۦۚ
because of his child.
وَعَلَى
And upon
ٱلْوَارِثِ
the (father's) heir
مِثْلُ
(is a duty) like
ذَٰلِكَۗ
that (of the father).
فَإِنْ
Then if
أَرَادَا
they both desire
فِصَالًا
weaning
عَن
through
تَرَاضٍ
mutual consent
مِّنْهُمَا
of both of them
وَتَشَاوُرٍ
and consultation,
فَلَا
then no
جُنَاحَ
blame
عَلَيْهِمَاۗ
on both of them.
وَإِنْ
And if
أَرَدتُّمْ
you want
أَن
to
تَسْتَرْضِعُوٓا۟
ask another women to suckle
أَوْلَٰدَكُمْ
your child
فَلَا
then no
جُنَاحَ
blame
عَلَيْكُمْ
on you,
إِذَا
when
سَلَّمْتُم
you pay
مَّآ
what
ءَاتَيْتُم
you give
بِٱلْمَعْرُوفِۗ
in a fair manner.
وَٱتَّقُوا۟
And fear
ٱللَّهَ
Allah
وَٱعْلَمُوٓا۟
and know
أَنَّ
that
ٱللَّهَ
Allah
بِمَا
of what
تَعْمَلُونَ
you do
بَصِيرٌ
(is) All-Seer.

Walwaa lidaatu yurdi'na awlaada hunna hawlaini kaamilaini liman araada ai yutimmar radaa'ah; wa 'alalmawloodi lahoo rizuhunna wa kiswatuhunna bilma'roof; laatukallafu nafsun illaa wus'ahaa; laa tudaaarra waalidatum biwaladihaa wa laa mawloodul lahoo biwaladih; wa 'alal waarisi mislu zaalik; fa in araadaa Fisaalan 'an taraadim minhumaa wa tashaawurin falaa junaaha 'alaimaa; wa in arattum an tastardi'ooo awlaadakum falaa junaaha 'alaikum izaa sallamtum maaa aataitum bilma'roof; wattaqul laaha wa'lamooo annal laaha bimaa ta'maloona baseer

Sahih International:

Mothers may breastfeed their children two complete years for whoever wishes to complete the nursing [period]. Upon the father is the mothers' provision and their clothing according to what is acceptable. No person is charged with more than his capacity. No mother should be harmed through her child, and no father through his child. And upon the [father's] heir is [a duty] like that [of the father]. And if they both desire weaning through mutual consent from both of them and consultation, there is no blame upon either of them. And if you wish to have your children nursed by a substitute, there is no blame upon you as long as you give payment according to what is acceptable. And fear Allah and know that Allah is Seeing of what you do.

Ahmed Ali

The mothers should suckle their babies for a period of two years for those (fathers) who wish that they should complete the suckling, in which case they should feed them and clothe them in a befitting way; but no soul should be compelled beyond capacity, neither the mother made to suffer for the child nor the father for his offspring. The same holds good for the heir of the father (if he dies). If they wish to wean the child by mutual consent there is no harm. And if you wish to engage a wet nurse you may do so if you pay her an agreed amount as is customary. But fear God, and remember that God sees all that you do.

Ahmed Raza Khan

And mothers shall breast-feed their children for two full years – for those who wish to complete the term of milk feeding; and the father of the child must provide for food and clothing of the mother in accordance with custom; no one will be burdened except with what he can bear; a mother should not be harmed because of her child, nor he to whom the child is born be harmed because of his child (or a mother should not harm the child nor he to whom the child is born should harm the child); and the same is incumbent on the guardian in place of the father; then if the parents desire to wean the child by mutual consent and consultation, it is no sin for them; and if you wish to give your children out to a (milk feeding) nurse, it is no sin for you, provided you pay to them what is agreed, with kindness; and keep fearing Allah, and know well that Allah is seeing what you do.

Ali Ünal

Mothers (whether married or divorced) are to suckle their children for two complete years, if the fathers wish that the period be completed. It is incumbent upon him who fathered the child to provide the mothers (during this period) with sustenance and clothing according to customary good and religiously approvable practice. But no soul is charged save to its capacity; a mother should not be made to suffer because of her child, nor the one who fathered the child because of his child. The same duty (toward the suckling mother) rests upon the heir (of a father who has died). If the couple desire by mutual consent and consultation to wean the child (before the completion of the two years’ period), then there is no blame on them. And if you desire to seek nursing for your children, there is no blame on you, provided you pay what is due from you according to customary good and religiously approvable practice. Keep from disobedience to God and try to act within the bounds of piety, and know that whatever you do, surely God sees it well.

Amatul Rahman Omar

The mothers shall give suck to their children for two full years, (this instruction is) for him who desires to complete the (period of) suckling. And it is incumbent on the man to whom the child is born (- the father) to provide them (- the mothers) the usual maintenance and their clothing (for this period) equitably and according to usage. No soul is charged with a duty except to its capacity. Neither shall a mother be made to suffer on account of her (love for her) child, nor shall he to whom the child is born (be made to suffer) on account of his child. The (father´s) heir has a like duty. However if (mother and father) both desire weaning, by mutual consent and consultation, then there is no blame on (either of) them. And if you desire to provide a wet-nurse for your children there is no blame on you, provided you hand over what you have agreed to pay equitably (and in accordance with popular usage). And keep your duty to Allâh and know that Allâh is Seer of what you do.

A. J. Arberry

Mothers shall suckle their children two years completely, for such as desire to fulfil the suckling. It is for the father to provide them and clothe them honourably. No soul is charged save to its capacity; a mother shall not be pressed for her child, neither a father for his child. The heir has a like duty. But if the couple desire by mutual consent and consultation to wean, then it is no fault in them. And if you desire to seek nursing for your children, it is no fault in you provide you hand over what you have given honourably; and fear God, and know that God sees the things you do.

Abdul Majid Daryabadi

And mothers shall suckle their children two whole years: this is for him who intendeth that he shall complete the suckling; and on him to whom the child is born, is their provision and clothing reputably; not a soul is tasked except according to its capacity. Neither shall a mother be hurt because of her child, nor shall he to whom the child is born because of his Child; and on the heir shall devolve the like thereof. Then if the twain desire weaning by agreement between them and mutual counsel, on the twain is no blame. And if ye desire to give your children out for suckling, On you is no blame when ye hand over that which ye had agreed to give her reputably. And fear Allah, and know that of that which ye work Allah is the Beholder.

Faridul Haque

And mothers shall breast-feed their children for two full years - for those who wish to complete the term of milk feeding; and the father of the child must provide for food and clothing of the mother in accordance with custom; no one will be burdened except with what he can bear; a mother should not be harmed because of her child, nor he to whom the child is born be harmed because of his child (or a mother should not harm the child nor he to whom the child is born should harm the child); and the same is incumbent on the guardian in place of the father; then if the parents desire to wean the child by mutual consent and consultation, it is no sin for them; and if you wish to give your children out to a (milk feeding) nurse, it is no sin for you, provided you pay to them what is agreed, with kindness; and keep fearing Allah, and know well that Allah is seeing what you do.

Hamid S. Aziz

Mothers shall suckle their children two whole years for those who wish to complete the time of suckling; the duty for feeding and clothing nursing mothers in adequate manner is upon the father of the child; but no soul shall be obliged beyond its capacity. A mother shall not be made to suffer because of her child; nor should he to whom the child is born (the father). And the same (is incumbent) on the heir (of the father). But if both parties wish to wean, by mutual consent and counsel, then it is no crime in them. And if you wish to provide a wet-nurse for your children, it is no crime in you provided you pay what you have promised her, in reason. Fear Allah, and know that Allah is Seer of what you do.

Hilali & Khan

The mothers shall give suck to their children for two whole years, (that is) for those (parents) who desire to complete the term of suckling, but the father of the child shall bear the cost of the mother's food and clothing on a reasonable basis. No person shall have a burden laid on him greater than he can bear. No mother shall be treated unfairly on account of her child, nor father on account of his child. And on the (father's) heir is incumbent the like of that (which was incumbent on the father). If they both decide on weaning, by mutual consent, and after due consultation, there is no sin on them. And if you decide on a foster suckling-mother for your children, there is no sin on you, provided you pay (the mother) what you agreed (to give her) on reasonable basis. And fear Allah and know that Allah is All-Seer of what you do.

Talal Itani

Mothers may nurse their infants for two whole years, for those who desire to complete the nursing-period. It is the duty of the father to provide for them and clothe them in a proper manner. No soul shall be burdened beyond its capacity. No mother shall be harmed on account of her child, and no father shall be harmed on account of his child. The same duty rests upon the heir. If the couple desire weaning, by mutual consent and consultation, they commit no error by doing so. You commit no error by hiring nursing-mothers, as long as you pay them fairly. And be wary of God, and know that God is Seeing of what you do.

English Literal

And the mothers breast feed their children two years complete, to who wanted/intended that (to) complete the lactation/breast feeding period, and on the born to him/father, (is the responsibility of) their provision (F) and their dressing/clothing (F) with the kindness/generosity , (that) no self be burdened/imposed upon except its endurance/capacity , no mother (is) to be harmed with her child, and nor a born to him/father (be harmed) with his child. And on the heir/inharitant similar/equal (to) that, so if they (B) wanted separation (weaning) on acceptance/approval from them (B), and discussion/consultation , so no offense/guilt/sin on them (B), and if you willed/wanted that to seek a wet nurse/breast feeder (for) your children, so no offense/guilt/sin on you if you handed/delivered over what you gave with the kindness/generosity , and fear and obey God, and know that God (is) with what you make/do seeing/knowing/understanding.

Abul Ala Maududi

The (divorced) mothers shall suckle their children for two whole years, if the fathers desire the suckling to be completed. In that case the father of the child shall, in the fair known way, be responsible for their food and clothing. But none should be burdened with more than one can bear: neither the mother should be pressed unjustly (to accept unfair terms) just because she is the mother nor should the father be burdened just because he is the father. And the same responsibility for the maintenance of the mother devolves upon the father of the child and his heir. There is no harm if they wean the child by mutual consent and consultation. Moreover, there is no harm if you choose to give your children a suckle by a wet nurse, provided that you pay her fairly. Fear Allah and know it well that whatever you do is in the sight of Allah.

Maulana Mohammad Ali

And mothers shall suckle their children for two whole years, for him who desires to complete the time of suckling. And their maintenance and their clothing must be borne by the father according to usage. No soul shall be burdened beyond its capacity. Neither shall a mother be made to suffer harm on account of her child, nor a father on account of his child; and a similar duty (devolves) on the (father´s) heir. But if both desire weaning by mutual consent and counsel, there is not blame on them. And if you wish to engage a wetnurse for your children, there is no blame on you so long as you pay what you promised according to usage. And keep your duty to Allah and know that Allah is Seer of what you do.

Safi-ur-Rahman al-Mubarakpuri

The mothers should suckle their children for two whole years, (that is) for those (parents) who desire to complete the term of suckling, but the father of the child shall bear the cost of the mother's food and clothing on a reasonable basis. No person shall have a burden laid on him greater than he can bear. No mother shall be treated unfairly on account of her child, nor father on account of his child. And on the (father's) heir is incumbent the like of that (which was incumbent on the father). If they both decide on weaning, by mutual consent, and after due consultation, there is no sin on them. And if you decide on a foster suckling-mother for your children, there is no sin on you, provided you pay (the mother) what you agreed (to give her) on a reasonable basis. And fear Allah and know that Allah is All-Seer of what you do.

Mohammed Marmaduke William Pickthall

Mothers shall suckle their children for two whole years; (that is) for those who wish to complete the suckling. The duty of feeding and clothing nursing mothers in a seemly manner is upon the father of the child. No-one should be charged beyond his capacity. A mother should not be made to suffer because of her child, nor should he to whom the child is born (be made to suffer) because of his child. And on the (father's) heir is incumbent the like of that (which was incumbent on the father). If they desire to wean the child by mutual consent and (after) consultation, it is no sin for them; and if ye wish to give your children out to nurse, it is no sin for you, provide that ye pay what is due from you in kindness. Observe your duty to Allah, and know that Allah is Seer of what ye do.

Ali Quli Qarai

Mothers shall suckle their children for two full years—that for such as desire to complete the suckling—and on the father shall be their maintenance and clothing, in accordance with honourable norms. No soul is to be tasked except according to its capacity: neither the mother shall be made to suffer harm on her child’s account, nor the father on account of his child, and on the [father’s] heir devolve [duties and rights] similar to that. And if the couple desire to wean with mutual consent and consultation, there will be no sin upon them. And if you want to have your children wet-nursed, there will be no sin upon you so long as you pay what you give in accordance with honourable norms, and be wary of Allah and know that Allah watches what you do.

Qaribullah & Darwish

Mothers shall suckle their children for two years completely, for whoever desires to fulfill the suckling. It is for the father to provide for them and clothe them with kindness. No soul is charged except to its capacity. A mother shall not be harmed for her child, neither a father for his child. And upon the heir is like that. If both desire to wean by mutual consent and consultation, then no guilt shall be on them. And if you desire a wet nurse for your children, then no guilt shall be on you if you hand over what you have given with kindness. And fear Allah, and know that Allah is the Seer of what you do.

Muhammad Sarwar

Mothers will breast feed their babies for two years if the fathers want them to complete this term. The father has to pay them reasonable expenses. No soul is responsible for what is beyond its ability. None of the parents should suffer any loss from the other because of the baby. The heirs are responsible to look after the children of a deceased. It is no sin for the parents to have a mutual agreement about weaning the baby. There is no sin in hiring a woman to breast feed your children for a reasonable payment. Have fear of God and know that God is well aware of what you do.

Mohammad Habib Shakir

And the mothers should suckle their children for two whole years for him who desires to make complete the time of suckling; and their maintenance and their clothing must be-- borne by the father according to usage; no soul shall have imposed upon it a duty but to the extent of its capacity; neither shall a mother be made to suffer harm on account of her child, nor a father on account of his child, and a similar duty (devolves) on the (father's) heir, but if both desire weaning by mutual consent and counsel, there is no blame on them, and if you wish to engage a wet-nurse for your children, there is no blame on you so long as you pay what you promised for according to usage; and be careful of (your duty to) Allah and know that Allah sees what you do.

Wahiduddin Khan

And the [divorced] mothers should nurse their children for two whole years, if they wish to complete the period of nursing; and during that period the father of the child shall be responsible for the maintenance of the mother in a reasonable manner. No soul is charged with more than it can bear. No mother should be made to suffer on account of her child, and no father should be made to suffer on account of his child. The same duties devolve upon the father's heir [in case of the death of the father]. But if, after consultation, they choose by mutual agreement to wean the child, there shall be no blame on them. Nor shall it be any offence for you if you desire to engage a wet-nurse for your children, provided you hand over what you have agreed to pay, in a reasonable manner. Have fear of God and know that God is observant of all your actions.

Abdullah Yusuf Ali

The mothers shall give such to their offspring for two whole years, if the father desires to complete the term. But he shall bear the cost of their food and clothing on equitable terms. No soul shall have a burden laid on it greater than it can bear. No mother shall be Treated unfairly on account of her child. Nor father on account of his child, an heir shall be chargeable in the same way. If they both decide on weaning, by mutual consent, and after due consultation, there is no blame on them. If ye decide on a foster-mother for your offspring, there is no blame on you, provided ye pay (the mother) what ye offered, on equitable terms. But fear Allah and know that Allah sees well what ye do.

Tafsir jalalayn

Mothers, shall, suckle their children for two full years (kmilayn, `two full ones', is an adjective for emphasis); this is, for such as desire to fulfil the suckling, and this is the maximum length of time. It is for the father to provide, food for, them, the mothers, and clothe them, during the suckling if they be divorced, honourably, to the best of his ability. No soul is charged save to its capacity, its ability; a mother shall not be harmed by her child, that is, on account of the child, by being forced to suckle it, if she does not want to; neither, should, a father, be harmed, by his child, that is, on account of it, by being charged with more than he is able to bear. The mention of both parents here in relation to the child is intended to show sympathy [for both]. The heir, the one inheriting from his father, that is, the young man who is the trustee of his [father's] property, has a similar duty, to that of the father in terms of providing sustenance and clothing for the [other] parent. But if the two, parents, desire by mutual consent, agreement, and consultation, so that the child's best interests are clear, to wean, that is, to effect ablactation before the completion of the two- year period, then they would not be at fault, in this matter. And if you (addressing the parents) desire to seek nursing, from other than the mothers, for your children, you would not be at fault, in this respect, provided you hand over, to them, what you have given, what you intend to give them in the way of wages, honourably, in kindness and good nature; and fear God, and know that God sees what you do, and that nothing of it can be hidden from Him.

Tafseer Ibn Kathir

The Suckling Period is only Two Years

Allah says;

وَالْوَالِدَاتُ يُرْضِعْنَ أَوْلَادَهُنَّ حَوْلَيْنِ كَامِلَيْنِ لِمَنْ أَرَادَ أَن يُتِمَّ الرَّضَاعَةَ
The mothers should suckle their children for two whole years, (that is) for those (parents) who desire to complete the term of suckling,

This is a direction from Allah to the mothers to suckle their infants through the complete term of suckling, which is two years. Hence, suckling after two years is not included in this address.

Allah said;
لِمَنْ أَرَادَ أَن يُتِمَّ الرَّضَاعَةَ
(...who desire to complete the term of suckling),

Therefore, the suckling that establishes Tahrim (prohibition, i.e., one cannot marry his mother or sister from suckling) is what occurs before the two years end. If the infant is suckled only after two years of age, then no Tahrim will be established.

At-Tirmidhi under Chapter;`Suckling establishes Tahrim within the first two years,' reported that Umm Salamah narrated that Allah's Messenger said;

لَاا يَحْرُمُ مِنَ الرَّضَاعِ إِلاَّ مَا فَتَقَ الاْاَمْعَاءَ فِي الثَّدْيِ وَكَانَ قَبْلَ الْفِطَام

Suckling establishes Tahrim if it is on the breast and before Fitam (before weaning, i.e., before the end of the first two years).

At-Tirmidhi said, "This Hadith is Hasan Sahih.
The majority of the people of knowledge among the Companions of Allah's Messenger and others acted upon this, that is that suckling establishes Tahrim (prohibition in marriage) before the end of the two years and that whatever occurs after that does not establish Tahrim.

At-Tirmidhi is alone in recording this Hadith and the narrators in its chain meet the criteria of the Sahihayn.
The Prophet's statement;إِلَّا مَا كَانَ فِي الثَّدْي (On the breast), refers to the organ of suckling before the two years.
Imam Ahmad reported a Hadith in which Al-Bara bin Azib narrated,

"When Ibrahim, the Prophet's son, died, the Prophet said;

إِنَّ ابْنِي مَاتَ فِي الثَّدْيِ إِنَّ لَهُ مُرْضِعًا فِي الْجَنَّـة
My son has died on the breast and he has someone to suckle him in Paradise.

Furthermore, Ad-Daraqutni related that Ibn Abbas said that Allah's Messenger said;

لَاا يَحْرُمُ مِنَ الرَّضَاعِ إِلاَّ مَا كَانَ فِي الْحَوْلَيْن

Suckling establishes Tahrim only within the (first) two years.

Imam Malik reported this Hadith from Thawr bin Zayd who narrated that Ibn Abbas related it to the Prophet.
Ad-Darawardi reported this Hadith from Thawr who narrated it from Ikrimah who narrated it from Ibn Abbas. In this narration, which is more authentic, he added;

وَمَا كَانَ بَعْدَ الْحَوْلَيْنِ فَليْسَ بِشَيْء

Whatever occurs after the two years is not considered.
Suckling beyond the Two Years
It is reported in the Sahih that;

Aishah thought that if a woman gives her milk to an older person (meaning beyond the age of two years) then this will establish Tahrim.
This is also the opinion of Ata bin Abu Rabah and Layth bin Sa`d.

Hence, Aishah thought that it is permissible to suckle the man whom the woman needs to be allowed in her house. She used as evidence the Hadith of Salim, the freed slave of Abu Hudhayfah, where the Prophet ordered Abu Hudhayfah's wife to give some of her milk to Salim, although he was a man, and ever since then, he used to enter her house freely.

However, the rest of the Prophet's wives did not agree with this opinion and thought that this was only a special case.
This is also the opinion of the majority of the scholars.
Suckling for Monetary Compensation

Allah said;

وَعلَى الْمَوْلُودِ لَهُ رِزْقُهُنَّ وَكِسْوَتُهُنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ
but the father of the child shall bear the cost of the mother's food and clothing on a reasonable basis.

meaning, the father of the baby is obliged to provide for the expenses of the mother and to buy her clothes, in reasonable amounts usually used by similar women in that area, without extravagance or stinginess. The father spends within his means in this case.

Allah said in another Ayah;

لِيُنفِقْ ذُو سَعَةٍ مِّن سَعَتِهِ وَمَن قُدِرَ عَلَيْهِ رِزْقُهُ فَلْيُنفِقْ مِمَّأ ءَاتَاهُ اللَّهُ لَا يُكَلِّفُ اللَّهُ نَفْساً إِلاَّ مَأ ءَاتَاهَا سَيَجْعَلُ اللَّهُ بَعْدَ عُسْرٍ يُسْراً
Let the rich man spend according to his means; and the man whose resources are restricted, let him spend according to what Allah has given him. Allah puts no burden on any person beyond what He has given him. Allah will grant after hardship, ease. (65;7)

Ad-Dahhak commented,
"If the husband divorces his wife, with whom he had a child, and she suckles that child, he is required to provide for the mother's expenses and clothes within reason."

لَا تُكَلَّفُ نَفْسٌ إِلاَّ وُسْعَهَا
No person shall have a burden laid on him greater than he can bear.
No Darar (Harm) or Dirar (Revenge)

Allah said;

لَا تُضَأرَّ وَالِدَةٌ بِوَلَدِهَا
No mother shall be treated unfairly on account of her child,

meaning, the mother should not decline to rear her child to harm its father. The mother does not have the right to refrain from suckling the child after giving birth, unless she suckles him/her the milk that is necessary for his/her survival. Later on, she is allowed to give up custody of the child as long as she does not do that intending to harm the father.
In addition, the father is not allowed to take the child from his mother to harm the mother.
This is why Allah said;

وَلَا مَوْلُودٌ لَّهُ بِوَلَدِهِ
nor father on account of his child.

meaning, by taking the child from its mother intending to harm the mother.

This is the Tafsir of Mujahid, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak, Az-Zuhri, As-Suddi, Ath-Thawri and Ibn Zayd, and others on this Ayah.

Allah then said;

وَعَلَى الْوَارِثِ مِثْلُ ذَلِكَ
And on the (father's) heir is incumbent the like of that (which was incumbent on the father).

Mujahid, Ash-Sha`bi and Ad-Dahhak stated,

meaning, by refraining from harming the relative (of the father, i.e., his infant).
It was also reported that;

(the Ayah requires) the inheritor (of the father) to spend on the mother of the child, just as the father was spending, and to preserve her rights and refrain from harming her, according to the Tafsir of the majority of the scholars.
We should state that;
Ibn Jarir has explained this subject in detail in his Tafsir and that he also stated that suckling the child after the second year might harm the child's body and mind.

Sufyan Ath-Thawri narrated that,

Alqamah asked a woman who was suckling her child after the second year ended, not to do that.
Fitam (weaning) occurs by Mutual Consent

Allah said;

فَإِنْ أَرَادَا فِصَالاً عَن تَرَاضٍ مِّنْهُمَا وَتَشَاوُرٍ فَلَ جُنَاحَ عَلَيْهِمَا
If they both decide on weaning, by mutual consent, and after due consultation, there is no sin on them.

This Ayah indicates that if the father and the mother decide on the Fitam (weaning) before the two years (of suckling) end, and for a benefit that they duly discuss and agree upon, then there is no sin in this case.
So, the Ayah indicates that one parent is not allowed to make this kind of decision without duly consulting the other parent, as stated by Ath-Thawri.
The method of mutual consultation protects the child's interests. It is also a mercy from Allah to His servants, for He has legislated the best method for parents to rear their children, and His legislation guides and directs the parents and the children to success.

Similarly, Allah said in Surah At-Talaq,

فَإِنْ أَرْضَعْنَ لَكُمْ فَـَاتُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ وَأْتَمِرُواْ بَيْنَكُمْ بِمَعْرُوفٍ وَإِن تَعَاسَرْتُمْ فَسَتُرْضِعُ لَهُ أُخْرَى

Then if they give suck to the children for you, give them their due payment, and let each of you accept the advice of the other in a just way. But if you make difficulties for one another, then some other woman may give suck for him (the father of the child). (65;6)

Allah then said;

وَإِنْ أَرَدتُّمْ أَن تَسْتَرْضِعُواْ أَوْلَادَكُمْ فَلَ جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذَا سَلَّمْتُم مَّأ اتَيْتُم بِالْمَعْرُوفِ
And if you decide on a foster suckling-mother for your children, there is no sin on you, provided you pay (the mother) what you agreed (to give her) on a reasonable basis.

meaning, if the mother and the father both agree that the father assumes custody of the child due to a circumstance that compels her or allows him to do so, then there is no sin in this case.

Hence, the mother is allowed to give up the child and the father is allowed to assume custody of the child.
The father should kindly give the mother her expenses for the previous period (during which she reared and suckled the child), and he should seek other women to suckle his child for monetary compensation.

Thereafter, Allah said;

وَاتَّقُواْ اللّهَ
And fear Allah,

meaning, in all of your affairs.

وَاعْلَمُواْ أَنَّ اللّهَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ


And know that Allah is All-Seer of what you do.

meaning, none of your affairs or speech escapes His perfect Watch