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ARBNDEENIDTRUR
ثُمَّ
Then
قَسَتْ
hardened
قُلُوبُكُم
your hearts
مِّنۢ
from
بَعْدِ
after
ذَٰلِكَ
that
فَهِىَ
so they
كَٱلْحِجَارَةِ
(became) like [the] stones
أَوْ
or
أَشَدُّ
stronger
قَسْوَةًۚ
(in) hardness.
وَإِنَّ
And indeed,
مِنَ
from
ٱلْحِجَارَةِ
the stones
لَمَا
certainly (there are some) which
يَتَفَجَّرُ
gush forth
مِنْهُ
from it
ٱلْأَنْهَٰرُۚ
[the] rivers,
وَإِنَّ
And indeed,
مِنْهَا
from them
لَمَا
certainly (there are some) which
يَشَّقَّقُ
split,
فَيَخْرُجُ
so comes out
مِنْهُ
from it
ٱلْمَآءُۚ
[the] water,
وَإِنَّ
And indeed,
مِنْهَا
from them
لَمَا
certainly (there are some) which
يَهْبِطُ
fall down
مِنْ
from
خَشْيَةِ
fear
ٱللَّهِۗ
(of) Allah.
وَمَا
And not
ٱللَّهُ
(is) Allah
بِغَٰفِلٍ
unaware
عَمَّا
of what
تَعْمَلُونَ
you do.

Summa qasat quloobukum mim ba'di zaalika fahiya kalhijaarati aw-ashaadu qaswah; wa inna minal hijaarati lamaa yatafajjaru minhul anhaar; wa inna minhaa lamaa yash shaqqaqu fayakhruju minhul maaa'; wa inna minhaa lamaa yahbitu min khashyatil laa; wa mal laahu bighaafilin 'ammaa ta'maloon

Sahih International:

Then your hearts became hardened after that, being like stones or even harder. For indeed, there are stones from which rivers burst forth, and there are some of them that split open and water comes out, and there are some of them that fall down for fear of Allah. And Allah is not unaware of what you do.

Ahmed Ali

Yet, in spite of this, your hearts only hardened like rocks or even harder, but among rocks are those from which rivers flow; and there are also those which split open and water gushes forth; as well as those that roll down for fear of God. And God is not negligent of all that you do.

Ahmed Raza Khan

Then after it, your hearts hardened – so they are like rocks, or even harder; for there are some rocks that rivers gush forth from them; and some that water flows from them when they split asunder; and there are rocks that fall down for the fear of Allah; and Allah is not unaware of your deeds.

Ali Ünal

Then, a while after that, your hearts became hardened; they were like rocks, or even harder, for there are rocks from which rivers come gushing; there are some that split and water issues from them; and there are still others that roll down for fear and awe of God. (Whereas your hearts are harder than rocks, and) God is not unaware and unmindful of what you do.

Amatul Rahman Omar

Then your hearts hardened after that, so that they were (hard) like rocks or harder still; for there are rocks out of which streams come gushing, and there are some others out of which (some) water comes forth when they split asunder. And indeed there are some (hearts) that humble themselves for awe of Allâh. And Allâh is not at all unmindful as to what you do.

A. J. Arberry

Then your hearts became hardened thereafter and are like stones, or even yet harder; for there are stones from which rivers come gushing, and others split, so that water issues from them, and others crash down in the fear of God. And God is not heedless of the things you do.

Abdul Majid Daryabadi

Then your hearts hardened thereafter, so they are as stones or stronger in hardness: and verily of stones there are some from which gush forth rivers, and verily there are of them some that cleave asunder and water issueth therefrom, and verily there are of them some that fall down in awe of Allah: and Allah is not neglectful of that which ye work.

Faridul Haque

Then after it, your hearts hardened - so they are like rocks, or even harder; for there are some rocks that rivers gush forth from them; and some that water flows from them when they split asunder; and there are rocks that fall down for the fear of Allah; and Allah is not unaware of your deeds.

Hamid S. Aziz

Yet were your heart hardened even after that, till they were as rocks or harder still, for verily, there are some rocks from which streams burst forth, and others burst asunder and water issues out, and others there are that sink down for fear of Allah; but Allah is never careless of what you do.

Hilali & Khan

Then, after that, your hearts were hardened and became as stones or even worse in hardness. And indeed, there are stones out of which rivers gush forth, and indeed, there are of them (stones) which split asunder so that water flows from them, and indeed, there are of them (stones) which fall down for fear of Allah. And Allah is not unaware of what you do.

Talal Itani

Then after that your hearts hardened. They were as rocks, or even harder. For there are some rocks from which rivers gush out, and others that splinter and water comes out from them, and others that sink in awe of God. God is not unaware of what you do.

English Literal

Then your hearts/minds became cruel/merciless from after that, so it is as the stones or stronger cruelty/mercilessness, and that from the stones (E) what the rivers bursts/flows from it and that from it (E) what splits/cracks so the water comes out of it, and that from it (E) what drops/reduces from God`s fear, andGod (is) not with ignoring/disregarding from what you are doing/making.

Abul Ala Maududi

But even after seeing these Signs your hearts hardened and became as hard as rocks; nay, even harder than rocks. For there are some rocks out of which springs gush forth, and others which split open, and water issues out of them; then there are some which tumble down for fear of Allah. And Allah is not unaware of what you are doing.

Maulana Mohammad Ali

Then your hearts hardened after that, so that they were like rocks, rather worse in hardness. And surely there are some rocks from which streams burst forth; and there are some of them which split asunder so water flows from them; and there are some of them which fall down for the fear of Allah. And Allah is not heedless of what you do.

Safi-ur-Rahman al-Mubarakpuri

Then after that your hearts were hardened and became as stones or even worse in hardness. And indeed, there are stones out of which rivers gush forth, and indeed, there are of them (stones) which split asunder so that water flows from them, and indeed, there are of them (stones) which fall down for fear of Allah. And Allah is not unaware of what you do.

Mohammed Marmaduke William Pickthall

Then, even after that, your hearts were hardened and became as rocks, or worse than rocks, for hardness. For indeed there are rocks from out which rivers gush, and indeed there are rocks which split asunder so that water floweth from them. And indeed there are rocks which fall down for the fear of Allah. Allah is not unaware of what ye do.

Ali Quli Qarai

Then your hearts hardened after that; so they are like stones, or even harder. For there are some stones from which streams gush forth, and there are some of them that split, and water issues from them, and there are some that fall for the fear of Allah. And Allah is not oblivious of what you do.

Qaribullah & Darwish

Yet after that your hearts became as hard as rock or even harder. Indeed among the stones are those from which rivers burst. And others split so that water issues from them; and others crash down through fear of Allah. Allah is not inattentive of what you do.

Muhammad Sarwar

Thereafter, your hearts turned as hard as rocks or even harder for some rocks give way to the streams to flow. Water comes out of some rocks when they are torn apart and others tumble down in awe before God. God does not ignore what you do.

Mohammad Habib Shakir

Then your hearts hardened after that, so that they were like rocks, rather worse in hardness; and surely there are some rocks from which streams burst forth, and surely there are some of them which split asunder so water issues out of them, and surely there are some of them which fall down for fear of Allah, and Allah is not at all heedless of what you do.

Wahiduddin Khan

Then your hearts became as hard as rock or even harder: for, there are rocks from which streams gush forth; and, there are some that cleave asunder and water flows out from them, while others fall down for fear of God. God is not unaware of what you do.

Abdullah Yusuf Ali

Thenceforth were your hearts hardened; They became like a rock and even worse in hardness. For among rocks there are some from which rivers gush forth; others there are which when split asunder send forth water; and others which sink for fear of Allah. And Allah is not unmindful of what ye do.

Tafsir jalalayn

Then your hearts became hardened, O you Jews, they [your hearts] became stiffened against acceptance of the truth, thereafter, that is, after what is mentioned of the bringing back to life of the slain man and the other signs before this; and they are like stones, in their hardness, or even yet harder, than these; for there are stones from which rivers come gushing, and others split (yashshaqqaq; the initial t' [of the root-form yatashaqqaq] has been assimilated with the shn), so that water issues from them; and others come down, from on high, in fear of God, while your hearts are unmoved, unstirred and not humbled; And God is not heedless of what you do, but instead, He gives you respite until your time comes (ta`malna, `you do'; a variant reading has ya`malna, `they do', indicating a shift to the third person address).

Tafseer Ibn Kathir

The Harshness of the Jews

Allah criticized the Children of Israel because they witnessed the tremendous signs and the Ayat of Allah, including bringing the dead back to life, yet,

ثُمَّ قَسَتْ قُلُوبُكُم مِّن بَعْدِ ذَلِكَ

Then after that your hearts were hardened.

So their hearts were like stones that never become soft.

This is why Allah forbade the believers from imitating the Jews when He said,

أَلَمْ يَأْنِ لِلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ أَن تَخْشَعَ قُلُوبُهُمْ لِذِكْرِ اللَّهِ وَمَا نَزَلَ مِنَ الْحَقِّ وَلَا يَكُونُواْ كَالَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْكِتَـبَ مِن قَبْلُ فَطَالَ عَلَيْهِمُ الاٌّمَدُ فَقَسَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَكَثِيرٌ مِّنْهُمْ فَـسِقُونَ

Has not the time come for the hearts of those who believe (in the Oneness of Allah ـ Islamic Monotheism) to be affected by Allah's Reminder (this Qur'an), and that which has been revealed of the truth, lest they become as those who received the Scripture (the Tawrah) and the Injil (Gospel)) before (i.e. Jews and Christians), and the term was prolonged for them and so their hearts were hardened! And many of them were Fasiqun (the rebellious, the disobedient to Allah). (57;16)

In his Tafsir, Al-Awfi said that Ibn Abbas said,

"When the dead man was struck with a part of the cow, he stood up and became more alive than he ever was. He was asked, `Who killed you' He said, `My nephews killed me.' He then died again. His nephews said, after Allah took his life away, `By Allah! We did not kill him' and denied the truth while they knew it.

Allah said,

فَهِيَ كَالْحِجَارَةِ أَوْ أَشَدُّ قَسْوَةً

And became as stones or even worse in hardness."

And by the passage of time, the hearts of the Children of Israel were unlikely to accept any admonishment, even after the miracles and signs they withnessed. Their hearts became harder than stones, with no hope of ever softening. Sometimes, springs and rivers burst out of stones, some stones split and water comes out of them, even if there are no springs or rivers around them, sometimes stones fall down from mountaintops out of their fear of Allah.

وَإِنَّ مِنَ الْحِجَارَةِ لَمَا يَتَفَجَّرُ مِنْهُ الَانْهَارُ وَإِنَّ مِنْهَا لَمَا يَشَّقَّقُ فَيَخْرُجُ مِنْهُ الْمَاء وَإِنَّ مِنْهَا لَمَا يَهْبِطُ مِنْ خَشْيَةِ اللّهِ

And indeed, there are stones out of which rivers gush forth, and indeed, there are of them (stones) which split asunder so that water flows from them, and indeed, there are of them (stones) which fall down for fear of Allah,

Muhammad bin Ishaq narrated that Ibn `Abbas said that the Ayah means,

"Some stones are softer than your hearts, they acknowledge the truth that you are being called to,

وَمَا اللّهُ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ

And Allah is not unaware of what you do."
Solid Inanimate Objects possess a certain Degree of Awareness

Some claimed that the Ayat mentioned the stones being humble as a metaphor. However, Ar-Razi, Al-Qurtubi and other Imams said that there is no need for this explanation, because Allah creates this characteristic - humbleness - in stones.

For instance, Allah said,

إِنَّا عَرَضْنَا الاٌّمَانَةَ عَلَى السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ وَالْجِبَالِ فَأبَيْنَ أَن يَحْمِلْنَهَا وَأَشْفَقْنَ مِنْهَا

Truly, We did offer Al-Amanah (the trust) to the heavens and the earth, and the mountains, but they declined to bear it and were afraid of it (i.e. afraid of Allah's torment). (33;72)

تُسَبِّحُ لَهُ السَّمَـوَتُ السَّبْعُ وَالاٌّرْضُ وَمَن فِيهِنَّ

The seven heavens and the earth and all that is therein, glorify Him. (17;44)

وَالنَّجْمُ وَالشَّجَرُ يَسْجُدَانِ

And the stars and the trees both prostrate themselves (to Allah). (55;6)

أَوَ لَمْيَرَوْاْ إِلَىخَلَقَ اللَّهُ مِن شَىْءٍ يَتَفَيَّأُ

Have they not observed things that Allah has created;(how) their shadows incline. (16;48)

قَالَتَأ أَتَيْنَا طَأيِعِينَ

They both said;"We come willingly." (41;11)

لَوْ أَنزَلْنَا هَـذَا الْقُرْءَانَ عَلَى جَبَلٍ

Had We sent down this Qur'an on a mountain. (59;21)

and,

وَقَالُواْ لِجُلُودِهِمْ لِمَ شَهِدتُّمْ عَلَيْنَا قَالُواْ أَنطَقَنَا اللَّهُ

And they will say to their skins, "Why do you testify against us" They will say;"Allah has caused us to speak." (41;21)

It is recorded in the Sahih that the Prophet said,

هذَا جَبَلٌ يُحِبُّنَا وَنُحِبُّه

This (Mount Uhud) is a mount that loves us and that we love.)

Similarly, the compassion of the stump of the palm tree for the Prophet as confirmed in authentic narrations.

In Sahih Muslim it is recorded that the Prophet said,

إِنِّي لَاَعْرِفُ حَجَرًا بِمَكَّةَ كَانَ يُسَلِّمُ عَلَيَّ قَبْلَ أَنْ أُبْعَثَ إِنِّي لَاَعْرِفُهُ الاْن

I know a stone in Makkah that used to greet me with the Salam before I was sent. I recognize this stone now.

He said about the Black Stone that,

إِنَّهُ يَشْهَدُ لِمَنِ اسْتَلَمَ بِحَقَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَة

On the Day of Resurrection it will testify for those who kiss it.

There are several other texts with this meaning.

The scholars of the Arabic language disagreed over the meaning of Allah's statement,
فَهِيَ كَالْحِجَارَةِ أَوْ أَشَدُّ قَسْوَةً
(And became as stones or even worse in hardness) after agreeing that `or' here is not being used to reflect doubt.

Some scholars said that `or' here means, `and'. So the meaning becomes, "As hard as stones, and harder." For instance, Allah said,

وَلَا تُطِعْ مِنْهُمْ ءَاثِماً أَوْ كَفُوراً

And obey not a sinner or a disbeliever among them. (76;24)

and,

عُذْراً أَوْ نُذْراً

To cut off all excuses or to warn. (77;6)

Some other scholars said that `or' here means, `rather'. Hence, the meaning becomes, `As hard as stones. Rather, harder.' For instance, Allah said,

إِذَا فَرِيقٌ مِّنْهُمْ يَخْشَوْنَ النَّاسَ كَخَشْيَةِ اللَّهِ أَوْ أَشَدَّ خَشْيَةً

A section of them fear men as they fear Allah or even more. (4;77)

وَأَرْسَلْنَـهُ إِلَى مِاْيَةِ أَلْفٍ أَوْ يَزِيدُونَ

And We sent him to a hundred thousand (people) or even more. (37;147)

and,

فَكَانَ قَابَ قَوْسَيْنِ أَوْ أَدْنَى

And was at a distance of two bows' length or (even) nearer. (53;9)

Some other scholars said that this Ayah means their hearts are only of two types, as hard as stone or harder than stone.

Further, Ibn Jarir commented that this Tafsir means that some of their hearts are as hard as stone and some hearts are harder than stone.

Ibn Jarir said that he favored this last Tafsir, although the others are plausible.

I - Ibn Kathir - say that the last Tafsir is similar to Allah's statement,

مَثَلُهُمْ كَمَثَلِ الَّذِى اسْتَوْقَدَ نَاراً

Their likeness is as the likeness of one who kindled a fire. (2;17)

and then His statement,

أَوْ كَصَيِّبٍ مِّنَ السَّمَأءِ

Or like a rainstorm from the sky. (2;19)

It is also similar to Allah's statement,

وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ أَعْمَـلُهُمْ كَسَرَابٍ بِقِيعَةٍ

As for those who disbelieved, their deeds are like a mirage in a desert. (24;39)

and then His statement,

أَوْ كَظُلُمَـتٍ فِى بَحْرٍ لُّجِّىٍّ

Or (the state of a disbeliever) is like the darkness in a vast deep sea. (24;40)

This then means that some of them are like the first example, and some others are like the second example.

Allah knows best